Panwar / Parmar Rajput population According to the 1901 Census of Punjab

The Panwar, sometimes pronounced as Parmar were the third largest Rajput tribe in the Punjab. The eastern Panwar, who numbered around 33,553, or 50% of the total population were like the Chauhans, a tribe of Ranghar pastoralists, concentrated in Haryana. A second group, who numbered 19,689, about 30% of the population were concentrated in south west Punjab, especially in Bahawalpur State, and the neighbouring areas of Multan, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Mianwali and Firuzpur in present East Punjab. These Panwar, many of whom considered themselves to be Jats, were Seraiki speaking farmers. In between these groups were the Sikh Panwars of the Rechna Doaba, Muslims Panwars of Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana, the Mahton Panwars of the same region, and the Panwar Rajputs of the Pabbi Hills in the Jhelum/Gujrat region.

District / States









Bahawalpur State










 5,453  157  69  5,679






Jind State









 11  2,308

Patiala State







 1,451  24 1,475







Lahore 1,212 23 220 1,455
Gurgaon 920 355 1,275
Muzaffargarh 695
62 100 857
Dera Ghazi Khan 849   849
Jhelum 649 649
Chenab Colony 295 29 205 529
Jalandhar 425 18 443
Mianwali 426 426
Dehli 135 272 407
Gujranwala 16  380 396
Sialkot 278 74 352
Ambala 242 57 299
Rawalpindi 157 157
Dujana State 104 40 144
Shahpur 48  83 131
Gurdaspur 127 127
Gujrat 111 111
Hoshiarpur 108 108

Other Districts










Chauhan Rajput Population According to the 1901 Census of Punjab

In this post, I look at the distribution of the second largest Rajput tribe in Punjab. Most of the Punjab Chauhans were Ranghars, living in Haryana. The Ranghars were Rajput groups who had converted to Islam. The majority were found in Ambala, Karnal, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hissar regions, about 101,380 about 63% of the total Chauhan population. The Rewari Ranghars, in what was then Gurgaon District, and were entirely Chauhan gave great trouble to the British. Outside Haryana, the Chauhans, also largely Muslim were found throughout Punjab. The Haryana Chauhans are often known as Raos, which is really a title and not clan name. In central Punjab, especially in the Majha, most Chauhan considered themselves as Jats. After Partition, almost all the Chauhan Ranghars migrated to Pakistan.

District / States








 53 33,725











 4,439  6,218 10,657






Patiala State









Kapurthala State













Firuzpur  2,499  588 100 3,187 
Rawalpindi 3,029  18  14 3,061
Nabha State 949 2,039 2,988 
Lahore  1,393 644 303 2,349
Chenab Colony 1,426 66  781 2,273
Kalsia State  782  1,229  16 2,027
Jind State  963  1,003 1,966
Shahpur  1,463  315  52 1,830
Amritsar 1,307  260 1,567
Ludhiana  1,349  143  58 1,550
Pataudi State  431  1,081 1,512
Jalandhar  1,028  326  74 1,428
Montgomery  1,206  195 1,401
Muzaffargarh  564 16 585 1,165
Gujranwala  221 834  84 1,139
Gurdaspur  916  113  15 1,044
Hoshiarpur  699  217 916
Sialkot  710  42 752
Jhang 506 39  79 624
Kangra  58  485 543
Dera Ghazi Khan  453  21 474
Mianwali 197 197
Gujrat 79     43 122

Other Districts










Khanzada of Mewat

In this post, I will look at the Khanzada, a grouping of Muslim Rajputs traditionally found in the Mewat region, which is much larger then the current district of Mewat. It covered a considerable part of the princely states of Bharatpur and Alwar, and the southern portion the British Punjab district of Gurgaon. I also wish to point out that the Khanzada of Mewat have no connection with the Khanzada of Awadh.


According to the British colonial ethnographer William Crooke, there two etymologies for the name of ”Khanzada”. He favours that of “descendants of the Khan” but notes the “probably less correct explanation ‘descendants of a slave'”. While another colonial ethnographer Denzil Ibbetson notes that the Khanzadas self-identified as being of the Jadubansi gotra in the 1881 Punjab census and he speculated that their communal name could be translated as “the son of a Khan ” and is the Muslim equivalent to the Hindu word ”Rajput” (“son of a Raja”). From this he concluded that

there can be little doubt that the Khanzadas are to the Meos what the Rajputs are to the Jats.

This may be the case, but the Khanzada deny any connections with the Meo community, historically intermarrying with groups like the Rewari Ranghars and Qayamkhani, both claiming Chauhan ancestry, and Rajput status. The Khanzada were also rulers of the Mewat state from 1372 till 1527, until a branch of Kachwaha Rajputs conquered the region.

British Colonial Writers and the Khanzada

Alexander Cunningham, noted that ”khanzada” and ”khanazada” are different words, and that descendants of people who took the name of Khan upon conversion to Islam would indeed be referred to as ”khanzada”. He uses the historic writings in Babur’s autobiography, Tarikh-i-Salatin Afaghana and Abu Fazl’s ‘Ain-i-Akbari to demonstrate that the corruption of meaning was a relatively recent occurrence. Powlett, author of the Alwar State Gazetteer in the late 19th Century records a distinction in Mewat between the Khanzadas and the more numerous Meos. He says that, although both groups were Muslim, the former term referred to the ruling group of Mewat and the latter to a group of lower social standing. Although the two communities would combine on occasion in raids and battles, there was as a rule no love lost between them. He thought that the Khanzadas were probably the group being referred to by Persian historians when they wrote of the “Mewatti chiefs. Crooke, who recognises the noble status, says nonetheless that “I have a suspicion that they are more intimately connected than they acknowledge with the Meos.


Origin Myths


The Khanzadas themselves claim to be Yaduvanshi Rajputs, with a genealogy going back Krishna. There is a community tradition that their origins can be traced to the Jadaun Rajput, Lakhan Pala and to the area of Karauli. This raja was in turn a descendant of Adhan Pala and therefore of Tahan Pala, who founded Tahangarh near to Bayana in the eleventh century AD, and of Bijah Pala, the founder of Bijai Garh. Bijah Pala was the 88th generation sprung from Krishna, and therefore Lakhan Pala was the 94th generation. According to these traditions, which Powlett regards as being of extremely dubious authenticity, Lakhan Pala became a Muslim in the time of Firoz Shah and established himself at Kotila. From there he controlled Mewat and other areas. Cunningham is of the opinion that Lakhan Pala’s two sons, Sambhar and Sopar, took the names Bahadur Khan and Chajju Khan, respectively, upon their conversion to Islam. He also says that Lakhan Pala’s four brothers went on to establish the Jadaun branches of the [[Meo]]s. Lakhan Pala’s two sons, Sambhar and Sopar, took the names Bahadur Khan and Chajju Khan, respectively, upon their conversion to Islam. He also says that Lakhan Pala’s four brothers went on to establish the Jadaun branches of the Meos.


Khanzada Leaders and the Mewat State

The Khanzada were affective rulers of the Mewat, and in this section, I give a brief historical sketch.

Bahadur Khan

Bahadur Khan (also known as Bahadur Nahar), is said to have received the title of ”Nahar” (”Tiger”), from Firoz Shah, an emperor of Delhi, in recognition of him having killed a tiger single-handed. Powlett, who relies heavily on the accounts of Persian historians such as Ferishta records that Bahadur Khan was a Jadaun Rajput by birth and “the reputed founder of the Khanzada race”, who had his stronghold at Kotila. Powlett believes that either Bahadur Khan or his father probably converted to Islam in order to please Firoz Shah and thereby obtain power, since it appears that they were members of a family that had previously held royal powers but had lost them. Cunningham, who conducted archaeological surveys of India, believes that Bahadur Khan and his brother were the converts, and that in return for doing so Firoz Shah granted them Tijara and Jhirka. In recognition of the grant, the name of the latter was changed to Firozpur-Jhirka.


However, Cunningham does also note that “Some say that it was their father Lakhan Pal who first embraced Islam”. The first known reference to Bahadur Khan relates to his capture of Firozabad in 1389This action was in support of Abubakar, a grandson of Firoz Shah, who was contesting Muhammad Shah (also called Nasiruddin) for the throne of Delhi following the death of Firoz Shah in 1388. The support met with only temporary success as Muhammad Shah, who was an uncle of Abubakar, soon overturned his nephew and imprisoned him for life. Bahadur Khan, however, was allowed to flee. Two years later, Bahadur Khan took advantage of Muhammad Shah’s ill health in order to launch an attack on Delhi. Although he came close to the gates, he was rebuffed and a counter-attack on Kotila by Muhammad Shah caused him to depart for Firozpur-Jhirka.


Muhammad Shah died in 1392. Bahadur Khan, together with Ikbal Khan, then held the balance between two rival claimants of the throne, Mahmud Shah and Nusrat Shah. They would not allow either claimant to gain an advantage over the other and so for three years there were two emperors of Delhi. Timur had occupied Delhi by 1398 and Bahadur Khan watched the confusion of unfolding events from the distance of Kotila. Eventually, he and others paid homage to the conqueror: Timur arranged to meet Bahadur Khan and was much pleased to receive a present of two white parrots from the Khanzada leader. Cunningham reports a traditional account that in 1400 Bahadur Khan was murdered on the instructions of his father-in-law, the Hindu Rana Jamuwas, who disapproved of his Islamic conversion. In revenge for this act, Malik Alauddin, who is called the head of the family, killed Rana Jamuwas. A tomb at Tijara, from whence Malik Alauddin came, is reputed to be that of Bahadur Khan’s son, variously named as Alauddin Khanzada or Alauddin Firoz, although this is not certain.


The tomb of Bahadur Khan himself is located in Kotila. An inscription on its gateway suggests that it was constructed between 1392–1400 AD, having been started by Bahadur Khan and completed by his successor.


Jallu Khan


Bahadur Khan had at least two sons, the elder being Kalnash and a younger one called Mubarak. Mubarak allied himself with Ikbal Khan, the power behind the weak kingship of Mahmud Shah, but was then killed by his ally, who had become suspicious of his intentions. There appears to be little record of Kalnash, although he had travelled with his father for the audience with Timur. At some point after the death of Bahadur Khan, power appears to have passed to Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar

Khizr Khan had ingratiated himself with Timur and by that means had obtained virtual control of North India. He had invaded Mewat as early as 1411, did so again in 1413, and then, having become king of Delhi, he razed Kotila in 1421, forcing Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar into the surrounding hills. Khizar Khan was succeeded by Syed Mubarak (also known as Mubarak Shah) in the same year. Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar probably died a year later.

Jallu (or Jalal) Khan and Kaddu, both grandsons of Bahadur Khan, found themselves having to adopt scorched earth tactics subsequent to the death of Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar. Syed Mubarak had taken up the challenge of subduing the rebellious people of Mewat in 1424 and the attempt failed as the Mewatis laid waste their own territories before retreating to the hills. Similar tactics were adopted by Jallu and Kaddu in 1425 when Syed Mubarak renewed his attempt to quell resistance. He had more success on this occasion: the Mewatis had first retreated to Indor but he succeeded in forcing them from there to the hills, and destroyed the town in the process. Nonetheless, the subsequent surrender was a short-lived affair, and further incursions into Mewat proved to be necessary.

Kaddu had been killed by 1427, when another attempt to crush the rebellious Mewatis met with such resistance from Jallu – and from Ahmad Khan and Malik Fakaruddin, who were probably also of the same family – that it failed. They had again adopted a scorched earth policy, and retreated this time to the fort at Alwar. There was more success in the following year, when the Mewatis were forced to pay tribute to the ruler of Hindustan, but Rewari at least appears to have remained under Mewati control


Jallu is claimed to have captured Amber, the stronghold of the [[Kachwaha]] rajas, and removed one of its gates to Indor. The fort at Indor, which lay about 6km to the north of Kotila and south of Delhi, was a Khanzada stronghold much favoured by Jallu. He died around 1441, and Cunningham notes that he “is the great hero of the Khanzadas, who are never tired of relating his gallant deeds”.



A brother of Jallu, Ahmad, succeeded him and lived in relative peace until perhaps 1466, although he had to give up Tijara and pay tribute to [[Bahlol Lodi]] in order to achieve this.

Adil Khan

Cunningham refers to Adil Khan as the successor to Ahmad Khan. He considers it most likely that this person was a son of Ahmad. There was at least one other son, Alawal Khan, whom Cunningham notes Powlett describing as the destroyer, in 1482, of the power of the Nikumbha Rajputs, a Suryavanshi community who had established most of the forts then in existence in Alwar and in northern Jaipur, including probably those at Indore and at Alwar itself.


Hasan Khan Mewati

Perhaps the most famous Khanzada leader is Hasan Khan Mewati. Cunningham believes him to have been the son of Adil and a nephew of Alawal

The back-and-forth quest for control continued for much of the fifteenth century. However, 1526 saw the arrival of a new force in the form of Babur. This warrior, who claimed to be a representative of Timur, desired to surpass that man’s achievements by establishing an empire in the region rather than merely raiding it. Babur had won the Battle of Panipat (1526) in order to gain possession of Delhi and Agra, at which point Powlett describes that

“Then it was that the Rajputs made their last great struggle for independence. They were led by Rana Sankha, a chief of Mewar, who invited the Mewatti chief, Hasan Khan, to aid the nation from which he had sprung in resisting the new horde of Musalmans (Muslims) from the north.”

Babur was frustrated by Hasan Khan, with whom he had attempted to curry favour in order to obtain support against the Hindus. Hasan Khan had refused to co-operate and, according to Babur, was “the prime mover in all the confusions and insurrections of the period. The position taken by Hasan Khan was probably with an eye to regaining possession of Tijara, whose possessor at that time had allied with Babur. Babur’s difficulty was removed around the time of his victory over the Rajputs and Mewatis at the Battle of Khanwa, near to Fatehpur Sikri on 16 March 1527: Hasan Khan either died in that conflict, as Babur claimed, or was assassinated soon after at the behest of members of his family


Hasan Khan’s tomb is thought to be at Bhartari, near to Tijara, although the structure carries no indicative markings.

Mughal period

Nahar Khan, the son of Hasan Khan, sued for peace with Babur subsequent to the Battle of Khanwa and thereafter it appears that the Khanzadas lived in relative obscurity. By now, their seats of power at Tijara and at Alwar were both under the control of others. Powlett, writing in 1878, says that


The political power of the Khanzada chiefs of Mewat was now permanently broken, and they do not again appear, like Bahadur Khan and Hasan Khan, as the powerful opponents or principal allies of emperors.;… [They] still retained local importance, which did not quite disappear until the present century.

A part of that local importance was signified by the marriage of Babur’s successor, Humayun, and also of Humayun’s powerful aide, Bairam Khan, with great-nieces of Hasan Khan.  Additionally, according to Powlett, Khanzadas were

 “distinguished soldiers” in the armies of the Mughal empire. There was one brief flaring, during the rule of[Aurungzeb, when Ikram Khan Khanzada succeeded in gaining the War flags of the Governor of Tijara, but the once fractious Mewat region was generally peaceful under Mughal rule.

The Rise of the Alwar State

Pratap Singh, Thakur of Macheri, a Kachwaha Rajput of the Naruka branch, became a distinguished soldier of fortune in the Jaipur State Forces, who eventually entered the Imperial (Mughal) service. He gained many victories against the Jats, receiving Imperial recognition of dominion over some of the territories he conquered. He established an independent Alwar state in 1770, and assumed the title of Maharao Raja of Alwar after successfully conquering the famous fort of that city. Alwar State remained a semi-independent princely state until the Partition of India. The Khanzadas were reduced to the status of zamindars, although many continued to serve in State Forces. However, the Chaudharis of Tijara and Nawabs of Shahabad remained important Khanzada estates within the Alwar Kingdom.

British Period

Percy Powlett notes in 1878 that what ever local importance the Khanzadas may have once had, it disappeared during the nineteenth century. He says that they were by this time

y were by this time they are not numerically insignificant and cannot now be reckoned among the aristocracy. In social rank they are far above the Meos, and though probably of more recent Hindu extraction, they are better Musalmans.


Despite their Muslim faith, they did in the 19th Century still use the services of Brahmins during their marriage ceremonies, and also followed some other Hindu customs for that purpose. There were 26 Khanzada villages in Alwar and the population was economically weak, in part because their productivity in agriculture was hampered by the non-involvement of women. Some had migrated from the Mewat region and others were employed by both the British and the state armies, but agriculture was the primary occupation. According to the 1901 Census, the total Khanzada population was 13,925, of which 3,971 lived in Punjab, almost all in Gurgaon, and  9,954 in Rajputana, mainly in Alwar and Bharatpur.

Partition and Settlement in Sindh

At the time of Partition in 1947, the entire Khanzada population had leave the states of Bharatpur and Alwar and Gurgaon. Most Khanzada have settled in Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas and Badin in Sindh.


Baloch Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

In this post, I will look at the distribution of the Baloch community in Punjab. as should expected, the majority occupied territory that bordered Baluchistan, such as Dera Ghazi Khan and Baloch Trans-Frontier.


District / State Population
Dera Ghazi Khan 168,322
Muzaffargarh 76,586
Bahawalpur State 64,832
Multan 24,488
Baloch Trans-Frontier 22,369
Chenab Colony 17,433
Shahpur 12,995
Montgomery 12,024
Lahore 5,288
Firuzpur 3,388
Gujranwala 3,274
Jhelum 2,338
Rohtak 2,314
Gurgaon 2,241
Patiala State 1,382
Delhi 1,240
Hissar 1,151
Karnal 1,094
Rawalpindi 915
Gujrat 906
Faridkot 517
Other Districts
Total Population 263,897

Pathan population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

This is my eleventh post looking at the distribution of communities designated as agriculture. Of all the communities looked at, the Pathans were the most diverse in terms of language, culture and traditions. Other then the Makhad Pathans, who spoke Pashto, the Pathan groups difered little from the population of the region they were settled in. These colonies of Pathans were accounted for by Sir Densil Ibbetson in the following manner:

During the Lodi and Suri dynasties many Pathans migrated to India especially during the reign of Bahlol Lodhi and Sher Shah Suri. These naturally belonged to the Ghilzai section from which those kings sprung.[3]
— Sir Densil Ibbetson

Large numbers of Pathans accompanied the armies of Mahmud of Ghazni, Muhammad of Ghor and Babur, and many of them obtained grants of land in the Punjab plains and founded Pathan colonies which still exist. Many Pathans have also been driven out of Afghanistan due to devastated invading forces such as Genghis Khan and his Mongol armies, including internal feuds or famine, and have taken refuge in the plains east of the Indus River where the Mongols marked the line of their aggression. The tribes most commonly to be found in the Punjab region are the Yusufzai, Mandanr, Lodhi, Kakar, Sherwani, Orakzai, Tanoli, Karlanri and the Zamand Pathans. Of these the most widely distributed are the Yusufzai, of whom a body of 12,000 accompanied the Mughal Emperor Babur in the final invasion of India, and settled in the plains of India and the Punjab. But as a rule the Pathans who have settled away from the frontier have lost all memory of their tribal divisions, and indeed almost all their national characteristics.

In terms of distribution, most of the Pathan population was found in four distinct areas, about 20% in Mianwali, similar percentage in the Chhach, 20% in the region around Delhi, about 20% in East Punjab especially in Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Ambala, and Gurdaspur, 5% were the Multani Pathans, found in southern Punjab, the remainder distributed in Lahore and other parts of Punjab.

The Mianwali Pathans

The District with largest Pathan population was Mianwali, where they numbered 46,818, almost 20% of the total. There are four different tribes of Pathans in the district, the Niazais, Khattaks, the Biluchch Pathans, and the Multanis, and spoke a dialect of Punjabi close to Seraiki. The Khattaks of Isa Khel Tehsil, known as  Bhangish or Bhangi Khels from the region they occup in the Isa Khel Tahsil, and one village opposite their own
country across the Indus in the Mianwali Tehsil. The other section of Khattaks, called the Guddi Khels, hold the villages on the  skirts of the Maidani range. Both these Khattaks are unique in that they still Pashto.

The Makhad and Chach Pathans

Most of the 44,244 Pathans living in Rawalpindi District came from the Chhachh region. In 1902, this region became part of the seperate Attock District. These Attock Pathans are found in two parts of the tehsil, those of Sarwala, and those of Chhachh.The Chhachh Pathans have very little in common with the Sagri, as they are separated by the Kala Chita mountains. The Chhachh are a Hindko and speaking community, and have much in common with the Pashtun tribes settled in the neighbouring Hazara Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

The largest clan are the Alizai, who include the Tahirkheli, one of three mains septs of the Alizai. The Tahirkheli inhabit villages along the Haro river. The other tribe along the Haro are the Saddozai, and both they and the Alizai, are branches of the Utmanzai tribe. Together with the Manduri and Barahzai, who are also found in numbers in the district, they are all sections of the great Yousafzai tribe. By far the greater proportion of the Attock Pathans are Yousafzai, allied to the Yousafzai of Swabi and Mardan districts. In addition to these, there are also a small number of Kakar, Wardag, Khattaks, Akakhel, Bangash, and Jadoon. They are largely Hindko speaking.

The Delhi and Haryana Pathans

Almost 43,420 Pathans, about 20% of the total population lived in territory that forms the modern states of Delhi and Haryana.  The Delhi Pathans lived largely in the city, and spoke Urdu, while the colonies in Gurgaon, Rohtak, Hisar, Karnal and Dujana were largely farmers and Haryanwi speaking. The princely states of Dujana, and Pataudi were ruled by Pathan rulers, and in Dujana town, the Pathans formed the largest single community. Almost the entire community were forced to leave at the time of Partition.

Multani Pathans

The descendants of Zamand very early migrated in large numbers to Multan, to which province they furnished rulers, till the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, when a number of the Abdali tribe under the leadership of Shah Husain were driven from Kandahar by tribal feuds, took refuge in Multan, and being early supplemented by other of their kinsmen who were expelled by Mir Wais, the great Ghilzai chief, conquered Multan and founded the tribe well known in the Punjab as Multani Pathans.

Zahid Khan Abdali was appointed Governor of Multan with the title of Nawab, at the time of Nadir Shah’s invasion. Multan was Governed by different members of this family, until in 1818 the city was captured by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh, after a heroic defence in which the Nawab and five of his sons were slain.

Their main clans were the Alizai, Badozai, Bamzai and Saddozai, all clans of the Durrani tribe. Other tribal communities include the Babar, Khakwani, Tareen and Yousafzai.[8] In Muzaffargarh District, the Pathans of the district are related to the Multani Pathans. They settled in Muzaffargarh in the 18th century, as small groups of Multani Pathan expended their control from the city of Multan. There distribution is as follows; the Alizai Durrani are found at Lalpur, and the Popalzai are found in Docharkha, while the Babars are based in Khangarh and Tareen in Kuhawar are other important tribes.

District / State Population
Mianwali  46,818
Rawalpindi  44,244
Delhi 17,763
Dera Ghazi Khan
Gurdaspur 11,214
Bahawalpur State
 Lahore 8,920
 Multan 8,251
 Patiala State
 Karnal 7,460
 Ambala 6,804
 Hoshiarpur 6,802
 Rohtak 5,712
 Gurgaon 5,497
Jalandhar 5,364
Hisar 4,870
Amritsar 4,676
Chenab Colony 4,531
Firuzpur 4,455
Muzaffargarh 4,019
Sialkot 3,983
Shahpur 3,562
Ludhiana 3,401
Gujrat 3,283
Jhelum 3,194
Montgomery 2,460
Nabha State 2,254
Shimla 1,312
Jhang 1,306
Malerkotla 1,282
Gujranwala 1,175
Kapurthala 1,155
Dujana 1,131
Jind 1,128
Kangra 987
Mandi 614
Kalsia 614
Keonthal 591
Chamba 550
Other Districts 1,089
Total Population 263,897


Ahir / Aheer (Yadav) Population of Punjab according to the 1901 Census

This is another of my series of posts looking at the distributions of castes gazetted as agricultural by the Land Alienation of Punjab. This time I am looking at Ahir, who increasingly self-identify as Yadav. The Ahir were found largely in what is now the state of Haryana, and were almost entirely Hindu. Muslim Ahirs were only found in the western most districts of Punjab, in Jhelum valley from Khushab to the city of Multan. I would ask the reader to at my post on the Muslim Aheer to get some background on the community.


District / State














































Pataudi 3,839     3,839
Karnal 1,697
 14  64 1,775
Ambala 1,323
 13 1,336
Firuzpur 1,236
14 1,250
Shahpur 71
1,017 1,088
Lahore 820
46 846
Mianwali   843 843
Rawalpindi 577
 15   592
Multan 261
234 495
Chenab Colony 40
13 398
Amritsar 342
Sialkot 259 32   291
Loharu 248 248
Gujrat 198
Faridkot 181
Jalandhar  170  170
Ludhiana  168  168
Jhang    167  167

Other Districts










Labana Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

In this 9th Post, I will be looking at the Labana, one of the tribes gazetted as agriculture under 1901 Land Alienation Act. The majority of the Labanas were found in line of districts along the Himalayas, from Gujrat in the west to Ambala in the east. A second group were found in centre of the province, with Gujranwala to the west and Patiala State in the east. Like other agriculturist castes, the Labana were found in all three religions. The Muslim Labana often refer to themselves as Rahmani. The Muslim Labana were found mainly along the Sutlej river, in what was then Bahawalpur State and British District of Firuzpur. In 1901 a slight majority of Labana were Hindu, but by the middle of the 20th Century, the Labana had become largely Sikh.







4,544 6,331 114 10,989
Gujrat 2,618 5,403 8,021
Sialkot 3,913 3,763 39 7,715
Gurdaspur 4,546 1,510 6,056
Hoshiarpur 2,944 481 41 3,466
Kapurthala State 1,237 876 2,113
Firuzpur 2,069 2,069
Gujranwala 1,464  508 1,972
Kangra 1,712 1,712
Ambala 1,311  223 1,534
Bahawalpur State 161 276 795 1,232
Muzaffargarh 10 1,166  13 1,189
Ambala 1,311 223 1,534
Bahawalpur State 161 276 795 1,232
Ludhiana 437 567 1,004
Jalandhar 946 54 1,000
Patiala State 979 13 992
Mandi State 945 945
Mianwali 106 552  268 926
Amritsar 196 260 456
Nahan State 440 440
Chenab Colony 263 113 376
Nalagarh State 329 329
Bilaspur State 284 284
Rawalpindi  31  227 258
 Jhang  252 252
Multan  179  42 221
Dera Ghazi Khan 77 106 183










Mahtam Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census


In this, my seventh post on the distribution of tribes gazetted as agriculturalist, according to the 1901 Census of India will look at the Mahtam. The Mahtam were found mainly along the banks of the Sutlej and Ravi, in districts such as Firuzpur, Montgomery and princely state of Bahawalpur. Like many communities in the Punjab, they were found in all three religions. The Sikh Mahtam now prefer the self-designation Rai Sikh.







10,067 2,326 1,335 13,728
Montgomery 6,793 4,628 757 12,178
Lahore 3,279 2,184 4,422 9,885
Bahawalpur State 6,943 1,478 1,419 9,840
Hoshiarpur 6,500 3,013 14 9,527
Chenab Colony 3,774 2,701 12 6,487
Multan 1,869 3,256 5,125
Muzaffargarh 4,139 353 4,492
Kapurthala 1,365 1,066 1,172 3,603
Dera Ghazi Khan 1,281 1,981 3,262
Jalandhar 765 1,326 141 2,232
Amritsar 1,603 142 1,745
Sialkot 259 94 353
Faridkot  218 218
Ludhiana  110 110

Other Districts











Meo and Khanzada Population According to 1901 Census of Punjab, Rajputana and the United Provinces

This is seventh post looking at the distribution of communities, namely the Khanzada and Meo, that were gazetted as agriculturalist in census of 1901 in the Punjab province. In this post, I will also look at the distribution of both communities in Rajputana and the United Provinces as well. Both groups were entirely Muslim. The Meo and Khanzada were concentrated in the Mewat region, in what is now south east Haryana and north east Rajasthan and claimed a Rajput status. Both groups claimed a similar origin from the Jadaun clan of Rajputs. The Meo and Khanzada were also found in Alwar and Bharatpur states in what was then the Rajputana Agency. In UP, the Meo were found largely in two regions, Rohilkhand, and the Doab region of western UP. Most of the Meo in UP were called themselves Mewati. The total Meo population in 1901 was 374,923, of which 147,198 (39%) were found in Punjab, 168,596 (45%) were found Rajputana (modern Rajasthan) and the remainder 59,129 (16%) were found in UP. I would also ask the leader to look at my post on the Khanzadas to get some background information on the tribe.


Meo of Punjab

Most of the Meo population was concentrated as I have said in the introduction in the Mewat region, roughly the eastern portion of Gurgaon, and southern bits of Delhi. Outside these areas in Hissar and Karnal, there were a few isolated villages of the Meo.


The Meo of Dera Ghazi Khan

The Meo of Dera Ghazi Khan had separated from the main body of the Meo through a migration in the 16th Century. Most of the Meo of this region considered themselves as Jat, and were Seraiki speaking. They had lost all contact with the main body of the Meo.


Meo Population of Punjab


District Population
Gurgaon 128,760
Firuzpur 4,378
Jalandhar 1,385
Dera Ghazi Khan 880
Karnal 813
Ambala 580
Hissar 543
Other Districts 1,591
Total Population 147,198

Meo Population of Rajputana


District Population
 Alwar State  113,154
Bharatpur State
 Kotah State  1,072
Marwar (Jodhpur State) 1,000
 Jaipur State 654
 Mewar (Udaipur State)  559
 Tonk  State  208
 Jhalawar 125
 Other States and Agencies 278
Total Population 168,596

Meo Population of the United Provinces

District Population
Bulandshahr 9,840
Bareilly 9,374
Rampur State 7,356
Aligarh 6,557
Meerut 5,184
Mathura 3,813
Pilibhit 3,262
Moradabad 2,513
Nainital 2,106
Etah 1,793
Lakhimpur Kheri 1,217
Badaun 1,081
Agra 873
Muzaffarnagar 779
Etawah 603
Shahjahanpur 534
Lucknow 418
Bijnor 365
Rae Bareli 355
Unao 253
Barabanki 220
Farrukhabad 216
Sahanranpur 210
Sultanpur 207
Total Population 59,129


Khanzada Population of Punjab

Almost all the Khanzada were found in Gurgaon, where in 1901, they owned nine villages near town of Nuh and to the north of Firozpur.

District Population
Gurgaon  3,901
Other Districts  70
Total Population  3,971

Khanzada Population of Rajputana


District Population
Alwar State  8,503
Bharatpur State 814
Jaipur State 97
Other States and Agencies 540
Total Population  9,954

Saini population of Punjab According to 1901 Census of India

This is my sixth post looking at the population of tribes gazetted as agriculture by the Punjab Land Alienation Act. This one will focus on the Saini community. Like the Mali looked in the previous post, the Saini were traditionally associated with marker gardening. In fact the boundary between the two castes is often blurred. The Saini in 1901 were found largely found in the sub-Himalyan regions such as Hoshiarpur and Ambala.

District Hindu Sikh Total


6,585 45,285


2,213 25,648

 12,745  2,799 15,544

 Patiala State  6,321  2,734  9,055
 Chenab Colony 2,017 489 2,506
Kapurthala State 2,180  70 2,250
  Delhi   2,213     2,213
 Nalagarh State  2,044    2,044
 Kalsia State  1,378  45  1,423
 Ludhiana  1,299  131  1,430
Kangra  1,030  1,030
 Sialkot  867  867
 Nahan State 758
 Firuzpur 115
 Amritsar 147 26
 Lahore 138
Other Districts
Total Population  106,006 20,665 126,671