Harral, Marral, Wagha and Waseer tribes

In this post, I shall look at tribes that have their historic home in South Punjab. All are or were speakers of Seraiki, although the Wagha and Waseer, surrounded as they are by Punjabi settlers, now speak Punjabi. All also have traditions of migration from India, with the Harral claiming Panwar, Marral claiming a Chauhan origin, and Wagha and Waseer also claiming to be Panwar. I would ask the reader to make reference to my earlier postings on the Chadhars to get a background on the Bar nomads.

Harral

The Harals, or sometimes spelt Harral, are fairly substantial tribe, found in a block of settlements along the Chenab in Chiniot and Sargodha districts. They were at one point entirely pastoral, with groups nomadizing the Kirana and Sandal Bar. Like all Bar nomads, they were settled forcefully by the British colonial authorities in the late 19th Century.

There have a number of traditions as to their origin. According to one such tradition, the Haral are descended from Rai Bhupa, a Panwar Rajput, who incidently also appears in the origin myths of the Kharals, who were the neighbours of the Harrals in the Sandal Bar. Rai Bhupa is said to have left Jaisalmeer in Rajasthan with his kinsmen, and arrived in Uch Sharif, and accepted Islam at hands Makhdum Jahanian. There original settlement was in Kamalia near Multan, from where they spread with the flocks to the valley of the Chenab. Another tradition makes them a clan of Ahirs, who left Rewari near Gurgaon, a stronghold of the Ahir tribe, and settled in the Sandal Bar. This would connect them with their neighbours, the Gilotars, who also have traditions of being an Ahir clan. Finally, in Sahiwal, there are also traditions that the Haral are a branch of the Bhutta Jats.

In 1931 census, conducted during British rule, the male population was recorded as 5,000, and they were found in the Sahiwal District, Jhang and the now defunct Shahpur districts.They are now considered as Jat, and intermarry with the Kharal, Lak and other Jats of the Bar.

In 1857, the Harral played a key role in the rebellion against British rule in the Punjab, for which they were punished severely. There land was seized from them, and opened to settlement of other tribes. Most now no longer speak the Jhangochi dialect of Punjabi, and have shifted to standard Punjabi. As far as I know, the Harral are entirely Muslim, I can found no record of Hindu or Sikh Harrals.

In the core Harral region, which now forms part of Jhang and Faisalabad district, there villages in the former include Bhaderiwala, Chund and Masuwala, Muradwala and Sarwala, while in the latter their villages include Muloani Harallan, Lakarwala, Mudoana Harallan and Khanuana Harallan. In Bhalwal Tehsil of Sargodha District, their villages include Chabba Purana, Chak 6 ML , Chowal and Moazamabad, in Kot Momin Tehsil they are found in Naseepur Khurd.In Bhakkar District, they are found in Chak 69 TDA Behal. Further north in Khushab District, they are found in Rahdari. While in neighbouring Mandi Bahauddin district, their villages include Bherowal, Kadher Gharbi, Lakhia and Mailu Kohna.

 

Harral of Chakwal and Jhelum

Outside their core aread, Harrals are also found in Bhakkar, Chakwal and Jhelum districts. These Harrals are left to have left Sahiwal about two hundred years ago and now reside in the villages of Bajwala, Jaitipur, Jalalpur Sharif, Kotal Kund, Khalaspur, Nakka Kalan and Nakka Khurd and Wagh, all in Jhelum District. While in neighbouring Chakwal District, they are found in Bhulay Ballay, Dhab Kalan, Dhok Hayat, Kaal near Panjdhera, Ladwa and Ratwal villages.

 

 

Marral / Maral

 

The Marral or Maral are large found mainly in south Punjab. They are considered to be of Jat status. According to their traditions, the tribe claims descent from a Marral. This Marral was a Chauhan Rajput who migrated from Delhi and settled in Sindh. He had three sons, but all his descendants are called Marrals. The etymology of the name according to some traditions is that a certain Chauhan was told by his astrologers that a boy would be born in a Chauhan family who would destroy his kingdom, so he ordered that all the children born to Chuahan families should be killed, but Maral’s mother concealed him in a drum, and so he was named Maral ( from the Sindhi marhna to muffle). In Jhang, the Marrals were at one time a substantial power, but there power was extinguished by the Chadhars. According some other traditions, they are a group of Chauhans that migrated from Panipat, in what is now Haryana in India to the banks of the Jhelum. But both traditions seem to suggest that there first place of settlement was Jhang, where after their overthrow, led to groups migrating to further south to Multan and Mizaffargarh.

 

As I refer at the start of this post, the Marral are found in south Punjab, mainly in Rajanpur, Rahim Yar Khan, Multan, Muzaffargarh and Jhang districts.Their villages in Rajanpur District include Jindo Marral and Phagan Marral. In Chiniot District, Marralwala, and Multan District, Khanpur Marral, Inyatpur Marral and Qasba Maral.

In Sindh, they are found in Kashmore and Ghotki districts. Rais Ahmed Bux Maral, Gaji Maral, Haji Alim Maral and Nihal Maral are important Marral villages in Sindh.

 

Wagha

The Wagha are also of Jat status. According to their traditions, they are of Panwar Rajput descent. They used to graze their cattle in the central Sandal Bar, under the Kharals. Unable to deal with the tributes to the Kharal, they moved into what is now Nankana Sahib District,and clashed with the Bhatti and Virk of the area. With the assistance of the Kharal of Chak Jhumra, they ejected the Bhattis, and became the main tribe of the northern portion of the Sandal Bar. Like other pastoral Jat tribes of the Bar, they lost most to the grazing land to the canal colony scheme begun by the British coloinial authorities.

 

They are now a settled agriculture clan found in Nankana Sahib District.

Waseer

 

Like the Wagha, the Waseer also claim to be of Panwar origin. The Waseer were a nomadic tribe found in the Sandal Bar region of Punjab, and according to their traditions, are of Panwar Rajput ancestry. They claim descent from Wasir, who was converted to Islam at the hands of the Sufi saint Hazrat Shah Chawali Mashaikh. The Wasir are said to be have immigrated to the Sandal Bar in the 18th Century, and pushed out the Bhattis and Sipras. Essentially pastoralist, they occupied territory that now forms part of Faisalabad city.

 

They are now found mainly in Faisalabad, Sahiwal, Okara, Multan and Vehari districts.

Waseer Villages:

Faisalabad District

Arkana Waseeraan,

Ameen Ke Waseer,

Chak 374 G.B

Chamyana Waseeran

Gujranwala District

Hardo Saharan

Gondalwala,

Nankana Sahib District

Waseer Pur

Pakka Dalla Waseeran, ,

Malianwali Waseeraan, Chak No 537 G.B

Kheppan Wala,

Kalliber,

Sheikhupura District

Chak No 538 G.B,

Jatri Waseer,

Okara District

Moza Qila Dewa Singh,

Moza Mancherian,

Moza Dharma Wala,

Moza Bhai Rao Khan

Moza Chorasta Mian Khan,

Moza Pasail,

Havaili Lakha,

Mouza Waseero Wala,

Toba Tek Singh District

Chak 442 JB Waryamwala

Chak Number: 715 G.B

Vehari District

Basti Chaker Waseer,

Basti Wali Khan Waseer,

Chak Number 96

Moza Mari Waseeran,

Karampur Waseeran,

Malpur Waseeran.

Sharaf Waseeran,

 

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Gujjral, Matyal, Nagyal and Thathaal tribes

In this post, I shall look at four tribes, who are generally of Jat status in Jhelum and Mirpur districts, but are considered Rajput in Rawalpindi. They are all aals, or clans of larger tribal groupings. The Gujjral are Bhattis, the Matyal are Thakkars, Nagyals are Minhas and Thathaals are Suryavanshi. Unlike the Bar tribes in my last post, they have no recent tradition of pastoralism. In fact, these Chibhalis are in essence mountain farmers, but in Jhelum, both the Chibhalis and Bar groups have intermarried, producing a distinct Jhelumi Jat culture. This is especially true in the Pind Dadan Khan plains, where the Chibhali groups like the Nagyal and Thathaal are found in close proximity to Gondal, Tarar and Ranjha who are all Bar nomads.

 

Gujjral


I shall start off by looking at the Gujjral, a clan of Jat status found in Jhelum and Gujrat districts. Just to clarify, these Gujjral Jats, as far as I know have no connection with a Khatri clan, also called Gujjral, which incidentally was historically also found in the same region. In my earlier postings, I made reference to the fact that the various tribes in Pothohar and the Jhelum valey have name often ends in al, which is patronymic, for example, the sons of Kals, are the Kalyal and so on, very similar to the Arabic Bin or Slavic ovich or ov. So the Gujjral are the descendents of Gujjar, which itself opens a number of questions. For the Gujjar is a well known tribe found through out Punjab, with a large presence in the Jhelum valley, who do not and are not considered as Jat. So how did these sons of Gujjar evolve in the a Jat tribe. The answer lies in the traditions of the tribe, which states their ancestor was a Bhatti Rajput, who was suckled by a Gujar foster mother, and given the name Gujar. Despite this close relationship with the Gujjars, the Gujjral intermarry with clans such as the Gondal and Lilla, who are of Jat status, and not with groups that fall within the Gujjar category. Outside Chakwal, they are found in the village of Dhok Gujral near the town of Dina in Jhelum District, Mohra Heeran near Choa Khalsa in Rawalpindi District and the village of Pind Jattan in Bhimber District (Azad Kashmir) is an important tribal settlement.

Matyal

I next look at the Matyal, sometimes pronounced as Mathyal, a tribe largely found in Jhelum and Rawalpindi districts. Like other tribes of the Pothohar region, the Matyal have a good many traditions as to their origin, often these being quite contradictory. According to one of there traditions, the Matyal get their name from the Hindu goddess mata, the Matyal being the devotees of Mata. The goddess mata is popular incarnation of Devi and one of the main forms of the Goddess Shakti, a deity closely associated with kshatriya groups in North India. These devotees of mata were members of Thakhar caste, a group of quasi-Rajputs found in the Jammu hills. This would mean that like the Kanyal, and Nagyal, the Matyal are immigrants from the country known as the Chibhal. However, another tradition makes the Matyal a clan of the Tanolis, a tribe of Barlas Mughal origin found in the hills of the Hazara division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Tanolis have two divisions, the Hindwal and Pallal, of which the Pallal are further divided in twelve clans, these being Bhujal, Rains, Ansal, Tekral, Baigal, Judhal, Sadhal, Dairal, Bainkaryal, Matyal and Lanhya. According to this tradition, the Matyals left their Hazara home in the thirteenth century, and settled in Malot There is still a hamlet or dhoke near the town of Malot called Dhoke Matyal or hamlet of the Matyal. Most of the Jat Matyal add suffix Chaudhry to their names, but some Matyal in the Pothohar region ( Sohawa and Gujar Khan) prefer to add Raja to their names.

In terms of distribution, the Matyal are found mainly in Chakwal, Jhelum and Rawalpindi districts of Punjab, as well as the adjoining Mirpur and Bhimber Districts of Azad Kashmir. They are also found in the capital of Pakistan, Islamabad. According to the census of India 1911, they numbered 1,147 in Jhelum District.

Villages in Punjab

In Punjab, important Matial villages include Aheer, Budhial, Dhok Matyal near Sasral, Lilla, Mohra Kaley Khan, Matial, Sasral, Sukho, Pothi and Punjgran Kalan in Gujar Khan tehsil of Rawalpindi District, Matial, Ranja Mattial, Bhondna, Pandori, Chak Balian and Maira Matial (Ranjha Maira) in Jhelum District, Pinwal in Chakwal District and Matyal in Attock District.

Villages in Islamabad Territory

In the Islamabad Capital Territory, the center of Matyals is the village of Gagri situated on the Soan River.

Villages in Azad Kashmir

Their villages include Matyal near Gangesar, Matyal in Kotli District, Ghura Matyal and Nar Matyal in Bhimbar District and Jatlan and Mohra Matyal in Mirpur District.

Nagyal

We now look at the Nagyal, or Nagial sometimes pronounced Nangyal, with n sound hardly stressed, a tribe of Jat and Rajput status. Unlike the tribes already made reference who tend to localised, being concentrated along the Jhelum River, the Nagyal are very widespread in the Pothohar and neighbouring Chibhal region. In customs and traditions, they have more in common with the tribes referred to in my earlier posts such as Bangyal and Dhamial. They are distinct from Nagrial and Nagrawal, who are clans of the Bhatti Rajputs, with whom the Nagyal are often confused with.

So who are the Nagyals, and short answer is that they are a clan of the Minhas tribe of Jammu. They claim descent from a Nag Singh, a Jamwal Minhas, who is said to left his homeland migrated to Akhnur. But it quite possible the Nagyal have some connection with a ancient people called the Nagas. The Nagas were mentioned as an snake-worshipping tribe of ancient India, and Puranic legends have constructed the genealogy of the Nagavanshis as a sub-clan of the Suryavansha. Interestingly, the snake was used as a tribal totem among the peoples of Himalayas. Like Matyals mentioned in my earlier post, who are said to be worshipers of Mata, we may conjecture that the Nagyals were somehow connected with the snake cult.

According to their own tribal traditions, the tribe came to be called Nagyal due to an event that took place. The mother of the ancestor of the tribe left her son in a cradle asleep. She had gone out to visit someone, and shortly she came back and saw that her son was awake and happily playing with a cobra. She was shocked to see that the wild venomous snake had not bitten the child but, in fact, was trying to protect. .From there onwards she and her family vowed not to kill snakes, and hence the child and its descendents were referred to as Nagyals. This legend itself indicates that at one point in their history, the Nagyal were followers of the cult of the Nag.

Like other Chibhalis groups referred to such as the Kanyal, once the Nagyal lefts the hills of the Chibhal and arrived in the Pothohar plateau, a process of conversion to Islam occurs. Different Nagyal groups have different tradition is to their history of settlement. The Ghik, a clan of the Nagyal, now settled in Gujar Khan Tehsil, have a tradition that they descend from four brothers that came to settle in this region during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. One of the brothers settled at Ghik Badhal, from whom descend the Ghik Rajputs, second brother settled in Dhok Nagyal, from whom descend the Nagyals of that village, third brother settled in Bagwal and fourth brother settled at Qutbal. So it seems small groups of Nagyal left the hills and settled land that must have been lightly settled.

Presently, the Nagyal are found in Jhelum, Mirpur and Rawalpindi districts, with those of Rawalpindi generally being acknowledged to be of Rajput status, while those of Jhelum and Mirpur considering themselves as Jats. Starting off with the Islamabad Capital Territory, the Nagyal are found in Mohra Nagyal village. In neighbouring Rawalpindi District, they all found in all the tehsils bar Murree.

In Kahuta Tehsil the villages of Hardogher and Nagyal, and in Rawalpindi Tehsil, their villages are Banda Nagyal, Mohra Nagyal and Maira Nagyal, while in Kallar Syedan they are found in Basanta, Bhalla, Dhamali (Chak Mirza), Doberan Kalan (in Dhok Allah Rakha), Jocha Mamdot and Nala Musalmanan. There is a whole clusters of villages in Gujar Khan Tehsil that entirely inhabited by the Nagyal, or they form an important element, and these include Bajwal, Bhatta, Begwal, Dhok Baba Kali Shaheed, Dhok Badhal, Nagial Umer, Dera Syedan, Dhok Nagyal (near Gharmala), Katyam (near Ratala), Karyali, Nata Mohra, Mohra Nagyal, Ghick Badhal, Chak Bagwal, Qutbal, Gharmala, Hoshang, Sasral, Bhai Khan, Nagial Sohal, Saib, Gagian, Mohra Jundi, Dhok Nagyal in Bewal and Nagial Pahlwan. In Jhelum District, Chautala, Dhok Kanyal, Dhok Masyal, Dhok Nagyal, Gora Nagyal, Nagyal, Sohan and Wagh (near Pind Dadan Khan) are important villages, while in the neighbouring Chakwal District, their villages include Ghazial, Mohri, and Potha. In Azad Kashmir, they are found mainly in Mirpur District, an important Nagyal settlement is the village of Nagial.

Thathaal

We now look at the Thathaal, sometimes spelt and pronounced referred to as Thothal and even Thathiyal. They are a clan of a Rajput and Jat status found in the area between Salt Range, Gujrat, Rawalpindi, Sialkot, Narowal , and in Azad Kashmir. There also a community of Sikh Thathaals found in Hoshiarpur and Himachal Pradesh. Prior to partition, there were several Muslim Thathaal villages in Gurdaspur District, all of whom moved to Pakistan.

 

According to their clan traditions they are said to be the descendants of a king named Raja Karan. The Rajah comes in tribal history of several Chibhal tribes such as the Narma, but whose identity is unclear. It could refer to Karan, the figure from the Mahabharat. The tribe claims to belong to the Suryavanshi branch of Rajput, claiming descent from Raja Karan through his son Raja Thathu whose other son Naru is said to have founded the Narma clan. However, as we have already said, the Narma are Agnikul and not Suryavanshi. But the two tribes live in close proximity, so it is possible one group adopted the other traditions. According to some tribal traditions, Raja Thathu was the first member of the tribe to convert to Islam. Due to the many dialects of the Punjabi language, the pronunciation of Thathal differs according to locality. In Potowar/Pahari it is pronounced Thothal. In Gujrat district it is written Thathal or Thathiyal. Other variations of the name in Pakistan and India include Thathar, Tharar and Thorar.

Some of the Kharian Tehsil Thathaals have a family tree that show that the name of their ancestor as Thuthir. This sound more like an Indian name than “Thutho” or “Thotho”, and is possibly a version of Sudhir. There is a strong possibility that “Thotho” or “Thutho” could be a shortened version of the original name. The next question is who was this Rajah Karan. Some Thathaals make reference to Karan being the ruler of Kashmir. It could be that the reference could be to Karan of the Mahabharata, who gave away his kavacha ( chest shield) and kundala (ear rings) to Lord ndra, who was disguised as a beggar. This generosity is to have cost Karan very dearly and he was killed by his brother Arjuna in the battle of Kurukshetra. Or could it be that there was indeed a Karan that lived much latter. Thathaal tradition refers to Karan being a contemporary of the Mughal Emperor Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( lived between 1542–1605), and it was not Karan but his son Thatho who was first convert to Islam. This would tally with the fact that there are still Thathaals who follow the Hindu or Sikh faith in eastern Punjab.

In terms of villages, in Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, we have the villages of Chaphar, Khambi Kaleechpur, Sahan Kalan, Kotla Arab Ali Khan and Mehmand Chak. In neighbouring Mirpur District, they are found in Panyam, and Dheri Thothaal. In Rawalpindi District, they are found in Bhair Allu, Chak Mirza near Jocha Mamdot, Haji Borgi near Qazian, Jatli and Mohra Thathaal in Gujarkhan Tehsil, while in Islamabad, they are found in the town of Tarlai Kalan. In Jhelum District, they are found in Dhok Thathaal, Potha and Shepur (near Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil). While in Attock District, they are found in Khabba Barala in Fatehjang Tehsil.

Gondal, Tarar, Ranjha and Wariach tribes

In this post I shall look mainly at the tribes that are found in the uplands located between the Chenab and Jhelum rivers, all of whom consider themselves to be Jats. This region roughly covers the districts of Gujrat, Mandi Bahauddin and Sargodha. In this post, I hope to look at the Gondal, Tarar, Ranjha and Wariach tribes. The Gondal also have a substantial presence in Jhelum and Chakwal, across the Jhelum river, while the Tarar are spread across the Chenab, and are found in several villages in Hafizabad.  Finally, the Wariach are found both in Chenab Ravi and Jhelum Chenab region, and are the largest Punjabi Jat tribes in numbers.

Gondal

I shall start by looking at the Gondal, who in numbers are the largest Jat clan in the region between the rivers Chenab and Jhelum which now forms Gujrat, Mandi Bahauddin and Sargodha districts, a region known as the Gondal Bar. The tribe in the Gondal Bar identifies itself as Jat, while the scattered settlements in Rawalpindi consider themselves Rajputs.   Like almost all Punjabi tribes, there are a number of traditions as to their tribal origins. According to one theory, Gondal their ancestor, a Chauhan Rajput by caste, accepted Islam on the inducement of famous Sufi poet Baba Farid (lived 1173-1266 or 1188-1280) and he and his clansmen were instructed by the Sufi to stay in the area between the Chenab River and Jhelum Rivers. Hathiwind near Bhalwal, was their first settlement, which they occupied after expelling the Gujars, who were the original inhabitants.

Branches

There are other traditions which refer to the first convert being Ghanon, ninth in line from Prithvi Raj Chauhan, the last Hindu Rajput of ruler of north India, and accepted Islam at the hands of Baba Fareed. Ghanon had four sons Raja, Dhir, Badher and Budha. The principal Gondal clans, the Boosal and Chimmu are descended from the sons of Badher. In addition to the Boosal and Chimmu, the Jaspal, Ghugh, Tulla and Sandrana are all branches of the Gondal tribe.

 

The Gondal proper, and branches like the Bosal now ranks with Jats, and intermarry freely with other Jat tribes of the region, such as Ranjhas, Harrals and Laks. Formerly before the building of the Jhelum Canal, they were pastoral people subsisting almost entirely on the produce of their large herds of cattle. Gondal territory has now extensively been settled, with large number of immigrant Jats such as the Cheema and Sandhu now found in villages.

Story of Saidoo and Dhiloo

The tribe is connected with the story of the brothers Saidoo and Dhilloo, which has become part of the folk myth of Punjab .It is said that when Nadir Shah (AD 1736), the Persian ruler, invaded India, and as he was moving through Punjab on his way to Delhi, he faced resistance from the various Punjabi tribes. At the Indus-Jhelum doab, the Khattars, Ghebas and Gakkhars fought against him but lost. After he crossed Jhelum, the Gondal Jatts took him on, under the leadership of the brothers Saidoo and Dhioo. The brothers are said to have fought bravely against the Shah, although they lost, the Shah forgave them as he was impressed by the bravery of the Gondals.

Distribution:

 

Villages in the Gondal Bar

 

In the Bar, now divided between Sargodha and Mandi Bahaudin, Gondal settlements are found near Bhalwal and Kot Momin in Sargodha and Miana Gondal in Mandi Bahaudin. In Mandi Bahaudin district, the historic Gondal Bar now forms part of Malakwal Tehsil, and is home to many Gondal villages. The larger Gondal villages in Malakwal include Ajjowal, Badshahpur, Balhar, Barmusa, Bosaal, Bukkan, Chak No 33 Khasa, Chak No. 32 (Nathu-Kot),Chak Raib, Chot Dheeran, Faqairan, Gohar Sharif, Haria, KattowalKhai, Khizar, Kolowal Kotehra, Majhi, Miana Gondal, Pind Makko, Rukkan , Sahana , Sanda, Shumhari and Wasuwal.  In Mandi Bahauddin Tehsil, they found in the villages of Aaki, Ahla, Aidal, Ajjowal, Beerpindi Jharana, Bhikhi Sharif, Bohat, Chak Fateh Shah, Chimmon (Bagga Pind), Charound, Dalowal, Hassan, Jhulana, Kakuwal, Khandhanwala, Kot Baloch, Lakhnewala, Majhi, Mohabatpur, Pind Alhani, Pindi Bahauddin, Rattowal Sahana, Shaheedanwali, Sohawa, Tibi Daryane, Warah Baliyan and Wasu. While in Phalia Tehsil, they are found in the villages of Adda Pahrianwali, Bhekhey Waal, Bhinder Kalan, Bhoa Hassan, Bumbi,Chakori, Charound, Dharekan Kalan, Dhola Khurd, Dhoul Bala, Dhoul Zairen, Dhunni Khurd, Dugall, Ghanian, Ghoghanwali, Haigerwala, Kadher, Kailu, Kala Shadian, Kamonke, Kot Multanianwala, Kot Rehm Shah, Lalapindi, Madhary, Mattoo, Pipli, Rajoa, Ransekay, Ratoo, Rerka Bala, Thatti Bawa and Thatti Shah Muhammad

 

Further south in Sargodha District, their original settlement was Hathiwind near Bhalwal, and now the district is home to several Gondal villages. Starting off with Bhalwal Tehsil, important villages include Abdal, Chak 10 ML, Chak 13 S.B, Chak 10 N.B, Chak 1 NB, Chakian, Chowal, Dhori (known as Chak 2 Dhori), Gukyani, Kamalpura, Jiwanwal, Kot Momin, Khan Mohammad Wala, Phullarwan, Ratto Kala, Rukkun, Salam, Sher Mohammad Wala and Thathi Noor.

Gondal Villages in Chakwal, Jhelum and Rawalpindi

 

Across the Jhelum, there are several Gondal villages in the Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum such as Dhingwal, Ghowra, Jalalpur Sharif, Jattipur, Jatana, Kanianwala, Kot Hast, Rawal, Sagharpur, Saroba and Toba. While in Chakwal, they are found in the villages of Alawal (largely Jhammat Jats but several Gondal families present), Badshahan, Bhagwal, Bhalla, Chawali, Dheedwal, Dhok Dabri, Dhok Gondal, Dhok Qaddo, Dhok Pari, Dhudial, Fim Kassar, Gah, Harrar, Kot Chaurian, Kaal near Panjdhera, Mohra Allo, Mureed, Parhal, Patalian, Pirwal, Roopwal, Ranjha, Sarkal Mair, Shahpur and Saigolabad. They are the largest Jat tribe in the Jhelum/Chakwal region. Katha Saghral (mainly Janjua and Kalyal although several Gondals) and Mohibpur in Khushab District are also part of this cluster of Gondal villages.

 

The Gondal are found in Gujarkhan tehsil, these Gondals consider themselves to be Rajputs, and intermarry with the tribes of Rajput status such as the Bangyal and Dhamial. Important villages include Faryal, Karnali, Jandi and Sandal Bangyal.

Distribution of Gondal by District According to 1911 Census of India

 

District Jat Rajput
Shapur (Sargodha)  28,623
 Gujrat  23,355
 Jhelum  6,549  7
 Lahore  1,080
Lyalpur (Faisalabad 997
 Jhang  900
Rawalpindi 816
Total Population  62,320  7

 

Tarar

 

The next tribe I will look at are the Tarar. Like others in this post, the Tarar consider themselves and are considered Jat by others. So who exactly are these Tarars? According to their tribal traditions, their ancestor was Tarar, a Rajput originally from Bikaner in Rajasthan, took service with Mahmud of Ghazna, and converted to Islam. He then settled in what is now Gujrat district. A descendent of Tarar, Amrah left Gujrat and settled in what is now Hafizabad district, founding the village of Amrah. In Hafizabad, they are now found in sixty two villages, all whom claim descent from Amrah. This origin myth does seem to suggest that the Tarars are certainly one of the oldest of the settled Jat tribes. Most of their villages are found near the banks of the Chenab river, which does suggest a pastoral background. With the breakdown of Mughal Empire, Sultan Muhammad a Tarar chieftain created a mini state that was destroyed by Ranjit Singh in the late 18th Century.

 

In Hafizabad District, Tarar villages include Beri Wala, Vanike Tarar, Kolo Tarar, Sindhowan Tarar, Rasoolpur Tarar, and Muzaffar Tarar While in Mandi Bahauddin district, most Tarar villages are found in Mandi Bahauddin and Phali tehsils. In Phalia Tehsil there villages include Adda Pahrianwali, Agroya, Bahri, Bhagat, Bhekho, Bherowal, Bhoa Hassan, Bumbi, Burj Ghanian, Chak Abdulla, Chak Kamal, Chak Mitha, Charound, Chayto, Dhaboola, Dhal, Dharekan Kalan, Dhola Khurd, Dhunni Kalan, Dhunni Khurd, Ghanian, Ghoghanwali, Gujjan, Haigerwala, Jago Kalan, Jokalian, Haigerwala, Kot Hamid Shah, Kot Sattar Sharqi, Kuthiala Sheikhan, Ladher, Lakhia, Mailu Kohna, Mangat, Mano Chak, Melu, Mureed, Pejo Kot, Pindi Kaloo, Raike, Randiyali, Saida Sharif, Sainthal, Sarang, Sohawa Dilowana, Sulaiman, Tariqabad, Thatha Alia, Thathi Mureed, and Thatti Shah Muhammad. In Mandi Bauddin Tehsil and include Balhar, Chak Basawa, Chak Shabaz, Chak Mano, Barri Tarar, Kala Shadian, Kot Pundiwala, Lak, Ghanian, Rattowal, , Shaheedanwali, Takhat Mal Tarar and Wasu.   Outside the core Tarar area, there are also several Tarar villages in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District such as Dhudhi Thal, Kot Umer and Sherpur. In Chakwal District they are found in Dhok Virk.

Distribution of Tarar by District According to 1911 Census of India

District Population
Gujrat 14,365
Gujranwala 4,841
Shahpur (Sargodha) 1,716
Jhelum 745
Lyalpur (Faisalabad) 514
Lahore 170
Total Population 22,351

 

Ranjha

 

I next look at the perhaps the most famous of the Jat tribes, that of the Ranjha. They are famous on account of the fact that Deedo Ranjha, the hero of the famous Punjabi legend of Heer Ranjha belonged to this tribe. Despite being refered to as Ranjha, the actual name of this folk hero was Deedo, with Ranjha being the name of the tribe. So who exactly are these Ranjhas. The answer is far from simple, with several traditions. Early British writers on Punjab ethnography such Sir Denzil Ibbetson classified them as Bhatti Rajputs. Howver, others such Horace Arthur Rose did note claims to Arab or even Qureshi ancestry. According to this tradition, the Ranjha are descended from Abu Jahl, uncle of the Prophet Mohammed, as such are of Qureshi ancestry. A descendent of Abu Jahl settled in Ghazni, in Afghanistan, and accompanied Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna to the Kirana Bar. There he settled, and by marrying other Jat clans, the Ranjha became Jat. By the early 20th Century, traditions of descent from Abu Jahl were dropped in favour of emphasising his son Ikrama bin Abi Jahl. Ranjha writters began to refer to a Sultan Mohammad, who was said to be a commander in the army Muhammad Bin Qasim, the Arab conqueror of Sindh. While Mohammad Bin Qasim recalled back to Damascus, Sultan Mohammad stayed on in Sindh, marrying a local girl. The only problem with this legend is that Ranjha are seen by others as Jats, and indeed intermarry with other Jat tribes such as the Gondal and Tarrars, their neighbours. While groups claiming Qureshi descent very rarely marry Jats.

 

In addition to the Ramjha proper, the Gudgor and Khamb are branches of the Ranjhas, that have now evolved into distinct clans. However, as I say earlier in this post, the Khamb also have separate origin myths. The Ranjha are found in the eastern uplands of Sargodha, Mandi Bahauddin and Gujrat districts, with a smaller number are also found in Jhelum and Gujranwala districts

 

Villages Kirana Bar Mandi Bahaudin District

 

In Mandi Bahauddin District, the Ranjha are found in the villages of Bhindar Kalan, Bohat, Bosaal, Chak Fateh Shah, Dhok Jori Madhre, Ratowal, Khamb Khurd, Mianwal, Pandowal, Kotali Mastani, Nain Ranjha, Ghang, Sajan, Sahbowal, Bhojuwal, Khairewal, Burg Agar, Bhukh, Ghanni Ghanna, Chak Mian,Kot Sher Muhammad, Musa Kalan, Kot Hast Khan, Musa Kurd, Hamber, Walayt wala, Ghut Kurd, Chut Kalan, Noorpur Kehna, Khamb Alam, Ghar Lakhan, Chak chut, Burg Hassan, Burg Ghanian, Raan, Bherowal, Takhar Miana, Fatehwala, Wariyaam and Wasu. Thatha Hust, and Thatha Ameer. In Malakwal Tehsil, Ranjha are found in Ajjowal, Khai, Kot Pindiwala and Makkewal. While in Phalia Tehsil, they are found in Agroya, Anhay Sharif, Bhinder Kalan, Chayto, Dhal. Dharekan Kalan, Dhola Khurd,  Dhoul Bala, Dhoul Zairen, Furkhpur Kohna, Ghoghanwali, Kadher Gharbi, Khamb Kalan, Khamb Khurd, Kot Rehm Shah, Lakha, Madhary, Mianwal Ranjha, Thakkar Kalan, Thatti Bawa, Thatti Shah Muhammad and Noorpur Katvi

Villages Kirana Bar Sargodha District

While in Sargodha, District, their villages include Badar (in Bhera Tehsil), Ran, Rahimpur, Garhi Kala, Mela, Kot Sher Mohammad, Wah Miana, Midh Ranjha, Buccha Kalan, Mela, Dhingran-aali, Chak 88SB, Kot Fazal Ahmed and Jholpur.

 

Villages Jhelum/ Chakwal

Outside the Kirana Bar, opposite the bank of the Jhelum River, are several Ranjha villages in Jhelum and Chakwal districts. Almost all the Ranjha villages in Jhelum are found in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, which situated across the river Jhelum from Sargodha. There main villages are Baghanwala, Daulatpur, Chak Mujahid Shumali, Dhudi Thal, Ghowra, Maira Ranjha, Pinanwal, Sial, Sammanwal  and Thil. Outside Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, Ranjha are also found in the village of Ranjha near Dina. In Chakwal District, the Ranjha are found in the villages of Munday, Ranjha and Sutwal.

 

Other Ranjha Villages

Kot Ranjha in Gujrat District, Ado Rai and in Kamoke in Gujranwala District. In Dera Ghazi Khan District, the Ranjha are found in Basti Ranjha and Rakh Ranjha.

Distribution of Ranjha by District According to 1911 Census of India

 

District Jat Rajput
Shapur (Sargodha) 7,536
Jhelum 579
Total Population 7,536 579

 

 

Wariach

 

The last clan I will look at in this post are the Waraich, also pronounced as Baraich, Braich, Araich, and Varaich, depending on which Punjabi dialect is being used. They are also known as Chungh. I shall focus on the large Wariach community found in Gujrat and Mandi Bahaudin, where there customs were very similar to the other tribes referred to in this post, in that they are a Muslim and followed a pastoral lifestyle. In East Punjab, the Wariach were and are largely Sikh, with a about 20% following Islam. The Muslim Wariach of Indian Punjab are now found scattered throughout Central Punjab.

Like most tribes, there are various theories as to the origin of the Wariach.

According to the British colonial historian Sir Lepel Griffin, the tribe migrated to Punjab during the reign of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi and settled in Gujrat, in present day Pakistan. According to the Epigraphica Indica, Volume I, page 29, a rock inscription at Chamak Harsati Balaghat mentions that “Bharhaich” Jats performed ten asvamedha yagnyas (Sanskrit “Horse sacrifice”) and, constructed ten ghats in Varanasi. Whether the reference to the current tribe is difficult to confirm. In terms of distribution, the complete absence of Wariach in Uttar Pradesh probably suggest that connecting the Wariach with the inscription would be incorrect.
According to a tribal tradition – Waraich, a Jat, had five sons who settled in the Chenab valley raising cattle. Three of brothers moved to Gujrat and the other two moved to Gujranwala. In or about the tenth century A.D. they moved down to the Jhelum River in large numbers and settled down there. Until the thirteenth century AD they continued to fight with Gujjar tribes. Today these Waraich occupy a very compact area comprising 360 villages in a region called Jatat. During the period of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, a certain Haria leader of these Waraich converted to Islam founding a village later called after him Hariawala. With the conversion to Islam, the Wariach of the Jhelum and Chenab valley converted to Islam. However, in the Gujranwala Bar, there remained several villages of Sikh Wariach until partition of Punjab in 1947.
According to another tribal origin myth, the Waraichs are the progeny of three brothers, Haria, Gunia and Kurtal, who were rulers of Bahraich principality (in what is now eastern Uttar Pradesh state of India). During Sher Shah Suri’s conquest of Bengal, they captured his treasure en-route to the province. It was believed that the Shah would not succeed in his campaign however to their surprise, Sher Shah conquered Bengal and established his rule over a large part of Northern India. Following their defeat these Waraichs left Bahraich and travelled westwards. They settled upon finding suitable grazing grounds on the banks of the Chenab river. This new home was on the lands previously used by Gujjars for grazing cattle. This settlement led to rivalry between the Waraich Jats and the established Gujjars. The Wariach eventually defeated the Gujars, and made themselves masters of Gujrat, in Punjabi a word meaning land of the Gujjars.
They occupy 141 villages in Gujrat (including Mandi Bahaudin district) and 84 villages in Gujranwala. By the 18th Century groups of Wariach had crossed the Jhelum and settled in the Pind Dadan Khan plain, while other groups moved settling in Sialkot and Gurdaspur. A significant number of this second group became Sikh.

Sakhaal/ Sakhial, Tezyal, and Thakial tribes

In this blog, I revert back to the Chibhal region, and this time look at three tribes, namely the Tezyal, Thakial and Sakhaal, all of whom are only found in Azad Kashmir, largely in the region that now covers Bagh, Kotli and Mirpur districts. Readers are asked to look at my posts on the Bhao and Sohlan, which gives some background to the general history of the Chibhal region. Almost all these tribes are of Dogra stock, and are essentially people of the foothills, and claim and are accepted as Rajput or Sahu.

Sakhial

I start of with the Sakhial, sometimes spelt, Sakhaal, who are found mainly in what is now southern Azad Kashmir. According to their tribal traditions, they are branch of the Ghakkhar or Kayani tribe. Most Ghakkhars, now claim descent from the Kayani dunasty of ancient Iran, who are a semi-mythological dynasty of Persian tradition and folklore which supposedly ruled after the Pishdadids, and before the historical Achaemenids. Considered collectively, the Kayanian kings are the heroes of the Avesta, the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, and of the Shahnameh, Iran’s national epic. There ancestor, a Ghakkar Khan arrived in the Pothohar region, around the time of Mahmood of Ghazni. He said to have accepted Islam after his settlement in Pothohar, earlier being a Zoroastrian. On account of this supposed Iranian descent, many GHakkars now prefer to call themselves as Kayani.

The Gakhars then are subdivided into a number of clans, known as muhis, such as the Admal, Iskrandral and Bugial. Some clans, however, like the Paharial, Jodhial, Mangral, Kainswal, Farmsial, Sunal, Kul Chandral, Tulial, Sakhal, and Sagial are not recognised as true Gakkhars by the others. Historically, Gakhars clans of the higher status did not marry those of lower status. This is no longer the case now. The Sakhaal of Mirpur however deny that they are anything other than Ghakkhars, and their status as Sahu in accepted in the region they occupy. Unlike the other two tribes discussed in this post, the Sakhaal were never successful in establishing their rule, and remained confined to the status of village headmen.

Fourth in descent from Ghakkar Khan was Rajan Khan. Rajan Khan was said to have been accepted as chief of the Ghakkars. Rajan has two sons, the younger of which was named Ishak. While his older brother Saphar Khan was proclaimed as chief after the death of Rajan Khan, Ishaq and followers moved to what is now Mirpur District. Ishaq is said to have founded the village of Kathar, now called Kathar Delawar Khan. This branch the of the Ghakkars became known as Sakhaal or Sakhial Ghakkars, literally meaning the aal or children of Ishaq. A grandson of Ishaq, by the name of Tassa Khan left Kathar and settled in Poonch. These Sakhaal are settled in Salotri in Indian Poonch, while a second group are found in Balnawi near Palandri. The Balnawi Sakhaal trace direct decent from Raja Tassa Khan. Tassa Khan had three sons, Mohammad Yar Khan, Balo Khan and Sattar Khan.

In Mirpur District, other than Kathar, the Sakhaal are also found in the villages of Siakh, Namb, and Panyam.

Tezyal

Looking at now at Tezyal, sometimes spelt Tezal, who are also fairly localized, found almost entirely in villages along the right banks of the Mahl river in the Bagh District of Azad Kashmir. According to their tribal traditions, the Tezyal are a branch of the Janjua clan of Rajputs, found mainly in what was known as the Poonch jageer. They are in fact a sub-division of the Khakhe Rajputs, who are located mainly in Muzafarabad District, in villages along the Jhelum River, quite close to the Line of Control. Janjua origin myths make reference to a Raja Khakha being the youngest son of Raja Mal Khan, the founder of the Janjua tribe. His elder brothers included Raja Jodh Khan of Makhiala (Jhelum), Raja Bhir Khan of Malot (Chakwal), Raja Kala Khan of Kahuta and Raja Tanoli of Amb (Hazara). The Khakhe are referred to in the 15th Century as occupying the Jhelum River beyond the town of Muzaffarabad, thereby controlling the access to Kashmir valley. In effect, the Khakha were independent until the region was conquered by the Sikhs in the 18th Century.

Coming back to the Tazyal, seventh in descent from Khalhe Khan were two brothers, Raja Gondh Khan and Raja Dhodha Khan. Dhodha Khan had been nicknamed Tez Khan, literally quick, on account of his fighting prowess. Having left the Jhelum valley, the brother conquered territory that now forms Bagh District in Azad Kashmir. The Tezyal are therefore the descendants of Tez Khan. In Bagh, they were petty chieftains, there territory lieing between the Janhal, Sudhan, Jarrals of Rajouri and Rathore of Poonch. Like other petty Rajputs of the hills, the accepted the over lordship of the Mughals. With the arrival of the Sikhs in the 18th Century, the Tezyal lost their independence. They are found settled in sixteen villages, the main ones being Dheerkot, Natrol, Bhagsar, Mankiala, Nawal, Arja, Seelkot, Rongli, Bees Bagla, Dharray, Mallot and Nazarpur.

Thakyal

We now move on to the Thakyal, sometimes written as Thakial, who are a tribe of Rajput status found mainly in Bagh and Kotli districts. According to tribal traditions, they are of Suryavanshi lineage said to be descended from Rama the mythical king of Ayodhya. Thakial tradition links them to Jamwal and Raja Agnigarba who came to Ayodhya and founded a small state on the banks of River Tawi. The tribe claims descent from Raja Jothar Singh Thakial who established the Bhimber state in the northern Punjab at the foothills of the Himalayas. It remained an independent state for thousands of years under the Thakial rule until the fourteenth century, until the last Thakial ruler Siripat was toppled. Siripat Thakial had no sons but had a daughter, who he married to the oldest son of Partab Chand, the Raj Kumar Chib Chand. On the death of Maharaja Siripat, the Raj Kumar Chib Chand became the Maharaja of Bhimber. From this union, of the Thakial princess(rani) and Raj Kumar Chib Chand, the Chib Rajput clan emerged. The region where the Thakyal are found is still called Chibhal, after the Chib tribe.

After Chib Chand became the ruler of the state, some Thakials are said to have conspired to overthrow Chib Chand which resulted in Chib Chand executing some leaders and driving others out of the state. These refugees settled in the area north of Bhimber, currently known as Fatehpur Thakiala, which was then ruled by the Jayrah clan.

Among the Thakials, there was a man of great stature and resolve named Rusmi Dev. Rusmi Dev lived in a place called Thakar Dhooli in the village Dhuruti in Fatehpur Thakiala. There are many stories about Rusmi Dev; among them being the one where he fought and killed an evil jinn. It is said that he was travelling across the Pir Panjal mountains when he met an old holy man who told him to return to his home for he would one day will become a ruler and also told him that he will convert to Islam.

The relationships between the Thakials and the Jayrah deteriorated and war broke out between the two clans, which led to the Jayrah’s being defeated. Rusmi Dev, the Thakyal leader became the ruler. It was at this time that Islam was spreading in the Himalyas, and Rusmi Dev and his clansmen converted to Islam, and Rusmi Dev adopted the name Rustam Khan. Rustam Khan had four sons and their decedents are the modern day Thakials. His oldest son was called Sangi Khan, whose decedents live in Muzafarabad and Bagh in Azad Kashmir, and Abbotabad in Hazara, and Gujarkhan, Muree and Rawalpindi in Punjab. The descendents of other three sons, Bagh Khan, Kangi Khan and Kaloo Khan live in the Mendhar area of Jammu and Kashmir. Bagh Khan’s descendents are known as the Baghal.

In terms of distribution, they are now found mainly in Bagh, Thub Thakyalan, Muzaffarabad and Kotli districts. Fatehpur Thakiala is named after them.

List and Population of Muslim Rajput clans of the Rawalpindi Division According to 1911 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Rajput clans and their population of the Rawalpindi Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1911 Census of India. Please also read my introduction for the list of Jats clans. Almost all the population that professed to be Rajput were Muslim, with exception of Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, which was home several Bhao and Chib Rajput villages, who had remained Hindu.

Rawalpindi District

The main Rajput clans in Rawalpindi District, were enumerated for the 1911 Census of India, and are as follows:

Tribe

Rawalpindi Tehsil

Gujar Khan Tehsil

Murree Tehsil

Kahuta Tehsil

Total

Adrah

314

450

28

792

Baghial

1,491

3,264

7

1,953

6,715

Bhakral

1,657

2,359

1,263

5,279

Bhatti

3,300

11,526

100

4,552

19,488

Bains

24

524

548

Chatha

390

30

420

Chauhan

1,581

1,846

17

567

4,011

Dhamial (Rajput)

2,656

2,356

2

959

5,973

Dhanyal

3,511

205

4,001

192

7,909

Ghangar

159

863

1,002

Gaharwal

37

30

2,002

2,069

Hon

808

3

811

Janjua

2,948

214

25

1,998

4,285

Jatal

1,195

115

808

1,310

Kalyal

133

1,257

808

3,198

Kanyal

620

1,006

691

2,317

Kural

32

37

892

961

Kethwal

101

541

642

Manhas

1,183

943

19

1,125

3,270

Mangral

854

1,031

133

291

2,309

Matyal

1,058

1

288

1,347

Mial

110

707

817

Mughal

324

220

544

Nagyal

780

427

831

2,038

Nagral

1,393

827

2,220

Nagrawal

609

534

1,143

Ramial

550

570

1,120

Ratial

89

72

388

549

Sarral

680

18

698

Thathaal

690

874

54

1,618

Other Rajput clans in the district include the Narma, Sehngral, Sohlan, Langrial, Khingar, Chib, Dhudhi, Ghik, Malal, Bhutial, Jamsral, Sainswal, Bijnial, Hayal, Janjil, Tharjial, Khumbal, Bharial, Hafyal, Gungal, Salhal, Hattar and Toor.

Jhelum District

These were the main Rajput clans in Jhelum District, as enumerated for the 1911 Census of India:

Tribe

Jhelum Tehsil

Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil

Chakwal Tehsil

Total

Bhakral

460

1

4

465

Bhatti

285

1,578

4,723

6,586

Chauhan

1,082

1,222

2,090

4,394

Chauhan Taubl

1,229

1,229

Gondal

7

7

Jalap

17

1,155

3

1,172

Janjua

2,100

6,956

1,517

10,572

Khokhar

383

175

212

770

Mair-Minhas

173

233

14,679

15,075

Minhas

378

951

1,329

Panwar

251

22

245

518

Ranjha

573

6

579

Sohlan

606

606

These were the main Rajput clans in Attock District, as enumerated for the 1911 Census of India:

Tribe

Attock Tehsil

Pindigheb Tehsil

Fateh Jang Tehsil

Talagang Tehsil

Total

Alpial

8,986

Bhatti

3,553

9,956

Chauhan

636

Janjua

1,028

Jodhra

8,085

Other Rajput clans of the district include the Hon, Dhamial, Bhakral, Kahut, Khingar, Chib, Minhas, Mangeal, Johad, Adhial, Kurar, Jhottial, Mair-Minhas, Tuh, Hattar, Chanial, Bhatti-Mehra, Bhatti-Kanjal, Bhatti-Jangle, Bhatti-Badhuer and Bhatti-Shaikh.

Gujrat District

According 1911 Census of India, the total Rajput population of the district was 24,000, or 4% of the total population. Here is a list of the Muslim Rajput clans of Gujrat District:

Tribe

Gujrat Tehsil

Kharian Tehsil

Phalia Tehsil

Total

Bhatti

975

736

285

1,996

Chib

5

8,355

8,360

Janjua

307

1,040

212

1,559

Khokhar

3,708

116

2,070

5,894

Minhas

135

592

184

911

Mukhmdal

846

7

852

Just as a note to readers, the Mukhmdal were sub-clan of the Chib Rajputs.

Mianwali District

Below were the tribes that were enumerated as Rajput, all of whom belonged to Islamic faith.

Tribe

Mianwali Tehsil

Bhakkar Tehsil

Isakhel Tehsil

Total

Bhatti

9

16

35

60

Janjua

786

130

70

986

Joiya

609

1,018

23

1,650

Khichi

12

520

532

Shahpur District

Below are the principle tribes that were enumerated as Rajput by 1911 Census of India

Tribe

Shahpur Tehsil

Bhera Tehsil

Khushab Tehsil

Sargodha Tehsil

Total

Attar

821

821

Bhan

228

778

8

395

519

Bhatti

1,299

1,890

1,641

1,597

6,327

Chauhan

180

676

7

114

977

Dhudhi

467

557

482

1,506

Janjua

186

1,101

1,621

371

3,250

Jhammat

2,013

300

329

1

2,143

Joiya

388

90

36

514

Kalyar

360

13

1,804

2,177

Khichi

427

11

395

833

Khokhar

17

1,271

1

483

1,772

Mekan

1,544

22

8

1,584

Noon

357

127

115

599

Sial

584

138

211

15

948

Tiwana

192

10

1,278

60

1,540

List and Population of Jat clans of the Rawalpindi Division According 1911 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Jat clans and their population of the Rawalpindi Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1911 Census of India. In 1911, the Rawalpindi Division consisted of five districts, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Attock, Jhelum, Mianwali and Gujrat. There has been criticism of the 1911 Census, particularly of Pandit Harkishan Kaul, the census commissioner of Punjab. It started during his lifetime, and continues now with a cabal at Wikepedia supporting the mantra of the incompetent Indian and dismissing all works by Kaul. In my opinion, Pandit Harkishan was exceptional individual and ethnologist, and if we consider the time he was working, his achievements are truly extraordinary. Therefore, I dedicate this blog to him.

Just one more point I wish to make, the appearance of a particular tribe as Jat in the list does not in itself confirm that the tribe is Jat or otherwise. Identity does change with time, and some groups in the list may no longer identify themselves as Jats. This list is however very useful as it gives an historical distribution of Muslim Jat tribes in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a number of years prior to the partition of Punjab.

With regards to Jat tribes, this region is home to numerous small tribes who go by the name Jat.

Jhelum District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 84,361 (99%) out of a total population of 85,459. These were the main Jat clans in Jhelum District, as enumerated in the 1911 Census of India:

Tribe

Jhelum District

Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil

Chakwal Tehsil

Total

Bains

275

34

309

Bhakral

982

2

1,163

2,147

Bangial

64

3

1,802

1,869

Bhans

788

400

1,869

Bhatti

99

191

2,856

3,146

Bhutta

141

28

463

632

Chadhar

304

101

196

601

Dhamial

332

59

3,979

4,730

Dhudhi

142

384

526

Gungal

75

401

573

1,049

Ghogha

238

442

30

710

Gondal

2,574

1,155

2,820

6,549

Gujjral

26

762

788

Hariar

573

6

579

Haral

437

7

56

500

Jandral

14

410

194

618

Jangal

216

1

355

572

Jhammat

31

366

1,074

1,471

Jatal

433

254

23

710

Kalyal

574

7

2,458

3,039

Kanyal

145

2

2,456

2,603

Khanda

24

363

347

734

Khinger

902

3

241

1,146

Khatarmal

12

1

1,171

1,184

Khoti

68

12

566

646

Minhas

64

393

457

Matyal

1,147

1,147

Mekan

741

311

177

1,229

Nagyal

43

5

1,782

1,830

Phaphra

81

275

466

802

Serwal

572

572

Sial

441

252

432

1,230

Tama

155

462

617

Tarar

197

79

469

745

Thathaal

24

1,729

1,206

1,230

Raya

602

766

422

1,790

Readers can make reference to my posts on the individual tribes, such as the Bangial, Bhutta, Dhamial, Kalyal, Kanyal, Gungal, Jhammat, Mekan, Khinger, Khoti, Matyal, Jatal, and Thathaal. Other then the tribes in the list, the Customary Law of Jhelum District included Athal, Bhin, Dhaipai, Ghugh, Hargan (also spelt Hurgan), Jethal, Kurar, Iswal, Lilla and Nathial. In all fairness, the Jat clans of the region are numerous, and their can never be definite list. I already have articles on the Lilla and Jethal, and hope to write on the Ghugh.

Rawalpindi District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 15,722 (96%) out of a total population of 16,373. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe

Rawalpindi

Tehsil

Gujar Khan Tehsil

Murree Tehsil

Kahuta Tehsil

Total

Aura

380

230

610

Baghial

72

3

21

96

Bangial

727

445

32

1,204

Boria

30

16

46

Chhina

9

4

13

Dhamial

513

635

286

68

1,502

Dhamtal

520

520

Gondal

424

303

89

816

Hindan

262

279

541

Kalyal

9

120

129

Kanyal

149

149

Khatril

49

1,729

219

2,004

Magial

66

3

69

Mial

25

25

Sial

420

420

Sudhan

104

71

175

Thathaal

53

53

Shahpur (Sargodha) District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 174,184 (95%) out of a total population of 182,494. The district now comprises the bulk of Sargodha, all of Khushab with Malakwal now in Mandi Bahauddin District. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe

Shahpur Tehsil

Bhera Tehsil

Khushab Tehsil

Sargodha Tehsil

Total

Baghoor

4

801

2

807

Bains

10

175

482

45

712

Bajwa

1,591

4

4

80

1,685

Bhatti

1,471

735

264

1,741

4,211

Bhutta

147

338

101

167

753

Burana

32

756

147

Chadhar

893

2,194

211

703

4,001

Cheema

2,070

64

1

573

2,708

Chhina

274

474

245

306

1,299

Dhako

55

406

118

220

799

Dhal

225

258

188

20

691

Dhudhi

181

392

774

58

1,405

Ghumman

776

289

1,065

Gondal

1,459

12,962

5,224

8,978

28,623

Goraya

640

9

652

Hanjra

356

169

1

264

790

Harral

404

1,047

16

643

2,110

Hatiar

6

449

92

192

739

Heer

372

181

553

Jarola

516

33

1

550

Jhawari

1,092

1,092

Johiya

271

562

1,960

51

2,844

Jora

718

718

Kalera

41

228

29

557

855

Kalyar

356

198

133

23

715

Kharal

471

21

141

633

Khat

58

514

10

475

1,055

Khichi

1,219

2,132

609

1,328

5,288

Lak

1,419

746

71

920

3,156

Lali

587

61

11

25

684

Langah

28

162

440

6

638

Marath

548

548

Mekan

1,407

2,751

822

455

5,435

Nissowana

60

445

505

Noon

15

615

61

17

708

Panjootha

107

5

484

596

Parhar

142

389

13

220

807

Ranjha

314

6,008

209

5

7,536

Rehan

142

1,305

13

420

1,880

Sagoo

3

709

3

715

Sandrana

55

255

71

198

577

Sandhu

504

504

Sohal

67

740

3

810

Sujal

615

995

445

539

2,954

Tarar

233

919

1

563

1,716

Tatri

54

396

2

670

1,122

Thaheem

500

56

650

50

1,256

Tulla

213

787

311

1,311

Ves

447

246

1

274

Virk

161

245

100

120

626

Waraich

699

192

119

1,473

3,483

 Mianwali District

According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe

Mianwali Tehsil

Bhakkar Tehsil

Isakhel Tehsil

Total

Aheer

260

124

137

521

Arar

411

267

678

Asar

1,591

640

38

662

Asran

78

584

662

Auler Khel

415

492

1,337

2,244

Aulakh

386

1

387

Aulara

734

526

1,915

Alakh

18

819

837

Bhachar

96

107

203

Bhatti

489

1,517

223

2,229

Bhander

1

588

589

Bhamb

1,020

101

431

1,552

Bhawan

128

375

503

Bhutta

157

75

313

545

Bhichar

1,437

79

1,516

Bhidwal

59

1,236

1,295

Brakha

8

456

115

579

Chadhar

242

1,048

12

1,300

Chahura

566

21

587

Chhajra

19

575

594

Chhina

180

2,716

180

3,076

Dahral

523

163

52

738

Dhal

217

1,250

1,471

Dhudhi

86

1,019

9

1,114

Ghallu

20

1,458

1,478

Ghorhawal

587

4

591

Gorchhi

1,054

1,054

Hansi

4

661

26

691

Heer

519

515

1,034

Jakhar

9

1,415

1,424

Janjua

786

130

70

986

Jhammat

225

237

462

Johiya

72

594

666

Joia

609

1,018

23

1,650

Jora

622

104

13

739

Kalhar

414

120

66

600

Kallu

528

281

773

1,582

Kanera

262

526

75

863

Kanjar

168

1,387

1,555

Kanyal

327

458

785

Khar

163

1,018

1,013

Kharal

237

378

31

646

Kohawer

318

173

5

496

Kundi

1,111

149

78

1,338

Langah

327

458

626

Makkal

517

86

23

662

Mallana

122

494

616

Unu

110

667

777

Pumma

253

570

70

893

Sahi

16

499

515

Samtia

447

77

524

Sangra

85

568

653

Saand

477

24

53

544

Sandi

89

892

981

Sandhila

41

41

Sial

257

1,905

25

2,187

Soomra

36

575

611

Talokar

1,267

7

1,274

Targar

199

129

2,683

3,011

Turk

1

1

Turkhel

236

19

255

Waince or Bains

594

133

727

Gujrat District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 240,800 (98%) out of a total population of 245,997. Below is a list of clans that tabulated by the 1911 census as Jat clans. In addition to these, the Gujrat District Gazetteer gave a list that included the Bajwa, Baluta, Baryar, Chach, Chadhar Chatha, Dhillon, , Dudhra, Ganjial, Gher, Goraya, , Harcchal, Jag, Jhammat, Jhihal, Jindar, Kahlon, Kallar, Katial, Koratana, Lak, Langre, Lang, Langrial, Lidhar, Lilla, Mallana, Phaphra, Ranjha, Sahi, Sahotra, Sidhu and Tihal. The biggest omission from the list below are the Ranjhas, who are one the largest Jat clan in Phalia, which is now part of Mandi Bahauddin District. As the Ranjha area was transferred from the then Shahpur District, they were missed out by the Census enumerators.

 

Tribe

Gujrat Tehsil

Kharian Tehsil

Phalia Tehsil

Total

Bagril

586

586

Bangial

1,677

2

1,679

Chadhar

167

197

612

976

Chauhan

82

592

52

726

Cheema

1,711

3

688

2,572

Dhillon

617

45

30

692

Dhotar

53

7

1,295

1,355

Ghuman

663

113

70

846

Gondal

3,190

994

19,171

23,355

Hanjra

1,874

613

264

2,751

Heer

295

977

179

1,451

Kang

1,002

10

1,032

Langrial

12

3,724

3,736

Mangat

85

46

944

1,075

Sahi

892

1,581

1,501

3,736

Sandhu

2,844

476

122

3,442

Sarai

145

433

53

631

Sial

382

882

247

1,511

Sipra

308

181

595

1,084

Tarar

910

160

13,295

14,365

Totlle

12

4,180

4,192

Thathal/ Thothal

64

1,922

8

1,930

Virk

540

32

458

1,030

Wadhan / Badhan

32

630

662

Waince / Bains

353

103

140

596

Waraich

32,899

1,184

7,474

41,557