Nagyal tribe

In this post I will look at the Nagyal, or Nagial sometimes pronounced Nangyal, with n sound hardly stressed, are a tribe of Jat and Rajput status. The Nagyal are very widespread in the Pothohar and neighbouring Chibhal region. In customs and traditions, they have more in common with the tribes referred to in my earlier posts such as Bangyal and Dhamial. They are distinct from Nagrial and Nagrawal, who are clans of the Bhatti Rajputs, with whom the Nagyal are often confused with. They are a Rajput-Jat tribe found mainly in Rawalpindi , in particular in Gujar Khan Tehsil, Jhelum and Gujrat districts of Punjab, Mirpur District of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. There are also Hindu Nagyal Jatt found in Jammu and Samba districts in Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir.

Map of Mirpr District

Gujar Khan Weather Forecast

Map of the Gujar Khan Region


Just a brief background to the Jat population of the Potohar plateau. The Jats are clearly sub-divided into tribes, who refer to themselves as quoms or rarely zats, having a common name and generally supposed to be descended from a traditional common ancestor by agnatic descent, i.e. through males only. Another interesting thing about the various tribes in the region is that there name often ends in al, which is patronymic, for example, the sons of Kals, are the Kalyal and so on, very similar to the Arabic Bin or Slavic ovich or ov. The aals started off as clans of a larger tribe, such as Kanyal being an aal of the Chauhan tribe, which overtime grew in numbers, leading separation from the parent stock. For example, very few tribes in the region are simply known as Bhatti, Chauhan or Panwar, but often as Bhatti Gungal, Chauhan Kanyal or Panwar Bangial. Some Nagyal claim to be an aal, or clan of the Minhas Rajputs.

Origin Story

So who are the Nagyals, and short answer is that they are a clan of the Minhas tribe of Jammu. They claim descent from a Nag Singh, a Jamwal Minhas, who is said to left his homeland migrated to Akhnur. But it quite possible the Nagyal have some connection with a ancient people called the Nagas. The Nagas were mentioned as an snake-worshipping tribe of ancient India, and Puranic legends have constructed the genealogy of the Nagavanshis as a sub-clan of the Suryavansha. Interestingly, the snake was used as a tribal totem among the peoples of Himalayas. Like Matyals mentioned in my earlier post, who are said to be worshipers of Mata, we may conjecture that the Nagyals were somehow connected with the snake cult.


According to their own tribal traditions, the tribe came to be called Nagyal due to an event that took place. The mother of the ancestor of the tribe left her son in a cradle asleep. She had gone out to visit someone, and shortly she came back and saw that her son was awake and happily playing with a cobra. She was shocked to see that the wild venomous snake had not bitten the child but, in fact, was trying to protect. From there onwards she and her family vowed not to kill snakes, and hence the child and its descendants were referred to as Nagyals. This legend itself indicates that at one point in their history, the Nagyal were followers of the cult of the Nag.

However, according to another tradition, common among the Hindu Nagyals of Jammu, the word Nagyal is said to be derived from Nag-wale meaning those who are connected to Nag. Nag here is pronounced as Nug (rhyming with jug or mug). The Nagyal according to this history are migrants from Afghanistan, in particular from the region of Nagarhar (pronounced Nugur-arh). It must be said that traditions of immigration from Afghanistan are not restricted to the Nagyals, and are also common other tribes of Punjab such as the Bhatti and Sandhu.I now return to the Nagyal, who are said to have started migrating eastwards, towards the Punjab, where they began to be called as Nag-wale, which later changed into Nagyal.  The Nagyal are concentrated in the Jhelum-Jammu belt, in the foothills of the Himalyas. The Hindu Nagyals have two clans based on their origin – Saamkariyé Nagyals, and Rubaiyé Nagyals. The Saamkariyé Nagyals claim to have originated from Samarkand, while the latter from somewhere further west within Afghanistan. This region was historically home to Dardic speaking tribes, the last group were the Tirahi, who only disappeared at the beginning of the 20th Century, so it just possible the ancestors of the Nagyal belonged to one such Dard tribe.


Like other Chibhalis groups referred to such as the Kanyal, once the Nagyal lefts the hills of the Chibhal and arrived in the Pothohar plateau, a process of conversion to Islam occurs. Different Nagyal groups have different tradition is to their history of settlement. The Ghik, a clan of the Nagyal, now settled in Gujar Khan Tehsil, have a tradition that they descend from four brothers that came to settle in this region during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. One of the brothers settled at Ghik Badhal, from whom descend the Ghik Rajputs, second brother settled in Dhok Nagyal, from whom descend the Nagyals of that village, third brother settled in Bagwal and fourth brother settled at Qutbal. So, it seems small groups of Nagyal left the hills and settled land that must have been lightly settled.

Hindu Nagyals

The Hindu Nagyal were concentrated in the Deva-Batala, a region that is now part of Bhimber District. At the division of Jammu and Kashmir, they had leave this region, and are now found in Jammu, Punjab and Haryana. Like other Jammu Jats, they have traditions of Kul-Devta and Kul-Guru. At present, there are three kul-devta temples in India where Nagyals collect on a half yearly basis – Naushera (North of Akhnoor), Sai (South of Bishnah in Jammu) and Rajpura (near Kathua). In fact, until early 20th Centrury, Nagyals were either Hindu or Muslim; conversion to Sikhism was linked to the British Army’s policy of enrolling Jat Sikhs in Punjab. Since the Jhelum Valley – Chhamb belt was located on the Northern edge of Punjab but fell under the jurisdiction of Jammu and Kashmir State, the British had no formal record of Jats in the region. As a result, a significant section of the community converted to Sikhism and enrolled in the British Army. It became a common practice for one son to convert to Sikhism later. Military service is a tradition which continues today– both for Indian and Pakistani Armies..




Presently, the Nagyal are found in Jhelum, Mirpur and Rawalpindi districts, with those of Rawalpindi generally being acknowledged to be of Rajput status, while those of Jhelum and Mirpur considering themselves as Jats. Starting off with the Islamabad Capital Territory, the Nagyal are found in Mohra Nagyal village. In neighbouring Rawalpindi District, they all found in all the tehsils bar Murree.

Rawalpindi District

In Kahuta Tehsil the villages of Hardogher and Nagyal, and in Rawalpindi Tehsil, their villages are Banda Nagyal, Mohra Nagyal and Maira Nagyal, while in Kallar Syedan they are found in Basanta, Bhalla, Dhamali (Chak Mirza), Doberan Kalan (in Dhok Allah Rakha), Jocha Mamdot and Nala Musalmanan. There is a whole clusters of villages in Gujar Khan Tehsil that entirely inhabited by the Nagyal, or they form an important element, and these include Bagwal, Bhatta, Begwal, Bhai Khan, Chak Bagwal, Cheena, Dhok Baba Kali Shaheed, Dhok Badhal, Nagial Umer, Dera Syedan, Dhok Nagyal (near Gharmala), Gagian, Gharmala, Ghick Badhal, Hoshang, Katyam (near Ratala), Karyali, Kaniat Khalil, Nata Mohra, Mohra Nagyal, Qutbal, Sasral, Nagial Sohal, Saib, Mohra Jundi, Dhok Nagyal in Bewal and Nagial Pahlwan. Mohra Nagyal is a single Nagyal village in the Islamabad Capital Territory.

Other Nagyal Villages

In Jhelum District, Chautala, Dhok Kanyal, Dhok Masyal, Dhok Nagyal, Gora Nagyal, Nagyal, Sohan and Wagh (near Pind Dadan Khan) are important villages, while in the neighbouring Chakwal District, their villages include Ghazial, Mohri, and Potha. There is one Nagyal village near Sarai Alamgir in Gujrat District, called Mandi Majuwa. In Azad Kashmir, they are found mainly in Mirpur District, an important Nagyal settlement is the village of Nagial.

Hindu Nagyals of Samba District

There are several villages of Hindu Nagyal Jats in the Ramgarh Tehsil of Samba District, such as Nanga, Rakh Flora and Tupsari.

Distribution of Nagyal According to the 1911 Census of India




Rajput Jat Total


2,038 2,038


1,830 1,830
Other Districts


127 103 230
Total 2,165 1,933 4,098



The Nagyal of Punjab were all Muslim in 1911, found almost entirely in Jhelum and Rawalpindi, with a single Nagyal village in Gujrat. Most of the Jhelum (including Chakwal in 1911) Nagyals consider themselves as Jats, although a few did register themselves as Rajputs. The opposite was the case in Rawalpindi, where most Nagyal had registered themselves as Rajputs, showing the dual identity of the tribe. To give some idea, in 1911, the total population of British Punjab was 24,187,750, and presently the just the population of Pakistani Punjab is 110,012,442.






Baghial, Manyal and Rupyal tribes

In this post I return the Chibhal country, and look at three tribes, namely the Baghial, Rupyaal and Manyal, who are found in this region. While Manyal are found entirely in the old Poonch Jagir, the other two are also found in Mirpur and the Pothohar regions. Like other tribes in the region, some sections of these tribes call themselves Jats, while other are Rajputs. The Manyal are also known as Malik Manyal, and have a lot in common with the Safial tribe discussed elsewhere. While Safial are concentrated in the Darhal region, the Manyal are found mainly in the Budhaal region. Both groups are collectively known as Malkana.


I shall start of by looking at the Baghial. Like other clans looked in my posts, the Baghial have a number of traditions as to their ancestry. They are found in Pothohar, Mirpur and the old Poonch Jagir. Those of Rawalpindi claim to of Panwar (Agnivanshi) lineage, while those of Mendhar considers themselves to of Thakyal (Suryavanshi) lineage. It could be that indeed these two Baghial are distinct clans. However, the Mendhar Baghial to have legends that a branch of their tribes settled in the Pothohar region. Just one more point, the Baghial are entirely distinct from the Bughial, who are branch of the Ghakkar tribe.

The Panwar Baghials

According to the Baghial of Pothohar, they are closely related to the Bangial, a tribe of Jat/Rajput status found throughout northern Punjab. In Pothohar, the Baghial are found entirely in Rawalpindi District, where they occupy five villages in Gujar Khan Tehsil. They are often confused with the Bughial, who are clan of the Gakhar tribe, but with whom they have no relations. The common ancestor of both tribes is Bangash Khan, the Baghial being descended from his eldest son Bugha Khan, which would therefore make them also of Panwar ancestry. Another difference relates to the fact that while Bangial are found throughout northern Punjab, the Baghial are concentrated in Rawalpindi, and only claim to be of Rajput status. Important Baghial villages include Dhamali, Loona, Dhok Sumbhal, Kanoha in Kallar Syedan Tehsil, Pind Dara, Supiyali Baghial and Maira Mohra, all in Rawalpindi Tehsil.

The Thakyal Baghials

In the Poonch Jagir, mainly in present day Mendhar, the Baghial claim to be a branch of the Thakyal Rajputs. The Thakyal Rajputs are of Suryavanshi lineage. The Thakyals are named after Raja Jothar Singh Thakyal who established the Bhimber state in northern Punjab at the foothills of the Himalayas. There was a Thakyal Rajput by the name of Rusmi Dev who lived in a place called Thakar Dhooli, near the village Dhuruti, located near Ziarat Saen Kamla Badshah, now located some two kilometres on the Pakistan side of the Line of Control dividing Jammu and Kashmir.


Rusmi Dev in his descendants established a presence in the Rajouri and Mendher areas, and threw a challenge to the rule and authority of Jayrah clan. The relationship between the Thakyals and the Jayrahs deteriorated resulting in a war between the two clans. Led by Rusmi Dev, Thakyals defeated the Jayrahs (Jarals) and he took over as a ruler of this tiny state. It was a time when Islam was fast spreading all over Hindustan. With influence of Islam growing in the land Rusmi Dev, he also embraced Islam and changed his name to Rustam Khan. He ruled his territory till his death and was laid to rest in Dhuruti where his tomb still exists. Rustam Khan had four sons. His eldest son was named as Bagh Khan. Bagh Khan migrated Mendhar area and founded a village known as Sangal, presently called Narol. The other three were Sangi Khan, Kangi Khan and Kaloo Khan. Sangi Khan’s descendants live in Muzafarabad and Bagh in Azad Kashmir, Abbottabad in the Hazara region, and Gujarkhan and Rawalpindi in Punjab. It could that the Panwar Baghial of Pothohar are really Sangi Khan’s branch of the tribe.

The Baghial first settled in Sangal area now called Narol but later speard over to a number of villages like Kalaban, Salwah, Harni and Gursai. There are few Baghial families living in Sarhutti, Ari and Galhutta.

The Jat Baghials

A second group of Baghial are found in Haveli Baghal, a village in Dadyal Tehsil of Mirpur. Unlike the Mendhar Baghial, this lineage considers itself to be Jat, and intermarries with other clans of Jats such as the Rachyal and Roopyal. In Mendhar itself, the Baghial of the villages of Thera, Banola and Kasblari, consider themselves as Jats, and intermarry with other Jat clans.


The Manyal trace descent to the town of Rajouri, and the ruler of the town called Manipaal, who lived around the late 12th Century. Manipal belonged the Pal lineage of Rajputs, who around this time were rulers of several principalities in the Pir Paanjal region. In some sources, Mani pal is referred to as Amna pal. It is traditionally believed that ‘Pal’ originated from Sanskrit ‘Pala’ meaning protector or keeper. The Pal Rajahs of the Pir Panjaal claimed a mythical origin from the Pala dynasty of Bengal. Manipal’s ancestral is said to have to come from the Pal kingdom and settled in Rajouri, where are said to have overthrown the Khasiya. Several rulers in what is now Himachal Pradesh also claim to be Pal Rajputs, such as the rulers of Bhajji. Manipal’s own rule was overthrown by Rai Noorudin Khan, founder of the Jarral Rajput line of rulers in Rajouri. Noorudin Khan arrived as a refugee from Kangra, and was greeted by Manipal, who offered his hospitality. The Rai took advantage of this, and seized the throne of Rajauri. In this way Raja Noor-Ud-Din laid the foundation of Muslim Jarral rule in Rajouri in 1194 A.D, which lasted till 21st October 1846 A.D. The Rai took advantage of this, and seized the throne of Rajauri. Manipal and his supporters fled to the region of Budhaal. A branch of his family settled in Majwhaal in Kotli District.


In exile in Budhaal, a prince seventh in decent from Manipal is said to have met a Sufi saint by the name of Doodh Haqani, and converted to Islam. He was then known as Din Mohammad. His Fathi Mohammad settled in ‘Moharra’, and was nicknamed Manyaala, on account of his descent from Raja Amna Pal, his clan is still known as Manyaal. Din Mohammad’s son Fateh Mohammad is said to have seized Thakyala from the Thakyal Rajputs. Fateh Mohammad established his base at Mohra village, and all the current Manyals trace their descent from him. They are also known as Malik or Malik Manyaal. The Manyal have produced Sain Bahadur, a famous Naqsbandi Sufi of the Chibhal region. Other than Mohra, the Manyal are also found in Gonthal. The bulk of the tribe remains in Budhaal tehsil.



The Rupyal, or The Rupyal or sometimes pronounced as Ruplaal claim descent from the legendary Raja Salvahan, the founder of the city of the Sialkot. He is said to have had 15 sons, the sixth one being called Roop or Roopa. Roopa was said to have left the Sialkot and settled in Pind Dadan Khan, sometime around the conquest of that region by Mahmood of Ghazni. Fourteenth in descent from Rajah Roopa Dev was an individual named Mal. Mal is said to have converted to Islam and adopted the name Rai Jalaluddin. After his conversion, the Rai is said to have left Pind Dadan Khan and settled in Poonch. This settlement occurred in the 15th Century, but happened before the invasion of Kashmir by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, according to Mohamad Din Fauq. The Rai settled in Sarhroon in Poonch. In Sarhoon, there was long settled a clan of local notables called the Chaudhary. When the Mughal Emperor Jahangir visited Kashmir, the Chaudharys provided him with excellent hospitality. As a result, the Emperor granted Sarhoon to the Chaudharys. This caused conflict with Rai Sher Khan, who was then chief of the Rupyaals, who over powered the Chaudhry’s and established Rupyaal rule over the Sarhoon and the villages nearby. The Rai remained rulers of this petty state until the hills of the Chibhal were conquered by the Dogras in the early 19th Century. The Poonch branch, and Pothohar branch of Rupyals consider themselves to be Rajputs, while those in Mirpur call themselves Jats, and intermarry with other tribes of Jat staus.


The Rupyal are a tribe found mainly in the Mirpur District, Haveli District and the Pothohar region of the Punjab, Pakistan. In Mirpur they are found in Pandkhor and villages in Dadyal tehsil. In the old Poonch Jageer, their villages include Miani Basti (Haveli), Choi, Degwar Maldyaal, and Chathra. A second cluster of Rupyaal villages are found in Mang Dhagron in Sudhnoti District.

In Punjab they are found mainly in Rawalpindi District, with Doberan in Kahuta and their villages in Kallar Syedan tehsil include Nothia Shareef, Mohra Ropial, Chapri Akkoo, Chanam Shareef and Chauntra. In Jhelum, they are found in Makhiala.


Lilla and Phaphra

In this post, I will look at two tribes, namely the Phaphra and Lilla, who live in close proximity to each other in the Pind Dadan Khan region of Jhelum. Both of them have been called Jat, and here I wish to make a point. Both these tribes claim to an extra sub-continental descent, the Phaphra claim to be Mughal, while the Lilla Qureshi. Yet, the definition of Jat is elastic enough in this region for both these tribes to be included in the Jat category. What makes someone a Jat here is whether other tribes of Jat status will intermarry with them. I would also ask the reader to look at my article on the Jalap, which gives some background on the Jats of the Jhelum region.

Pind Dadan Khan Weather Forecast

Map of the Pind Dadan Khan Region


Phaphra is small tribe of Mughal status, also found in Pind Dadan Khan plains located north of the river Jhelum.

The tribe claims to be Barlas Mughals, and get its name from an ancestor named Phaphra, who settled in the district in the 15th Century. So who exactly are the Barlas, and I shall briefly look at this group of medieval Mongols. According to the Secret History of the Mongols, written during the reign of Ögedei Khan [r. 1229-1241], the Barlas shared ancestry with the Borjigin, the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors, and other Mongol clans. The leading clan of the Barlas traced its origin to Qarchar Barlas, head of one of Chagatai’s regiments. Qarchar Barlas was a descendant of the legendary Mongol warlord Bodonchir (Bodon Achir; Bodon’ar Mungqaq), who was also considered a direct ancestor of Genghis Khan. Due to extensive contacts with the native population of Central Asia, the tribe had adopted the religion of Islam, and the Chagatai language, a Turkic language of the Qarluq branch, which was heavily influenced by Arabic and Persian. Timur, the ancestor of the Mughal dynasty belonged to the Barlas clan, and therefore that would connect the Paphra with the Mughals.

As their little historic evidence to connect the Phaphra with the Mughals, there is some scepticism as to their claim of Mughal ancestry. British settlement documents from the late 19th and early 20th Century refer refer to them as a “semi-Jat tribe”. As I have already mentioned, the word Jat in the Jhelum region often means a cultivator. The fact that the Phaphra often intermarry with neighbouring tribes such as the Lilla and Gondal, who are considered as Jat often reinforces the perception that the Phaphra are Jat.

According to Phaphra traditions, they came to this district from the direction of Faridkot, in what is now in East Punjab India. They settled in India around 15th Century, slightly earlier then the Mughal takeover of the Punjab. The Phaphra settled here as agriculturists, getting their name from their leader at that time Phaphra. However some other traditions claim he was called Nittharan. According to a family tree kept by Chaudharies of Gharibwal, the largest landowners among the tribe, gives their genealogy as follows:

Harbans or Shah Ibrahim (a descendent of Timur), Tilochar, Shah, Mal, Phaphra, Pheru, Vatra, Jatri, Harsh or Arif, Tulla, Nado, Hardev, Mahpal, and finally Nittharan.

Nittharan is said to have five sons namely; Gharib, (descendants in Gharibwal), Samman (Sammanwal), Ichhin (son’s name Sau, descendants in Sauwal), Rao (Rawal), and Dhudhi (Dhudhi, and Qadarpur). Some of the earlier names are clearly Hindu, although this does not itself preclude their claim to Barlas ancestry. But there position in Jhelum society was more akin that of the Jats then the Mughals. Their headmen use the title Chaudhary, and their customs are very similar to the Gondals, the largest Jat tribe in their vicinity. The Phaphra are now divided into two rival clans, the Dhudhial, from the village of Dhudhi Paphra and Sadowalia from those who belong to the village of Sadowal.

The Paphra occupy a compact area of about 25 square miles at the foot of the Salt Range, east of Pind Dadan Khan in Jhelum District .The main Mughals Phaphra villages are Chak Danial, Chak Shadi, Chakri Karam Khan, Dewanpur, Dhudi Paphra, Ghareebwal, Jutana, Karimpur, Kaslian, Kot Phaphra, Kot Shumali, Rawal, Sidhandi, Sammanwal, Sadowal, Saowall, Shah Kamir, Qadirpur, Thil, Warnali, and Warra Phaphra, all in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District. In Chakwal District they are found in Dhok Virk and Jotana. Mohra Phaphra is a lone Phaphra village in Rawalpindi District. Across the Jhelum, in Mandi Bahauddin District the Paphra are also found in villages of Phaphra, Chak No 29 and Nurpur Piran.


The next tribe I will look are the Lila, who are also found above the Jhelum in Pind Dadan Khan District.

According to their tribal traditions, they originally located in Arabia, being relations of the Prophet on his mother’s side. This would make the Lila’s Qureshi by origin. They then left Arabia under the leadership of an individual named Haris, who migrated to India, with a band of 160 men and settled at a place called Masnad in Hindustan, which they say still exists as a small town or village, though its exact situation is not known. This happened in the time of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. However, the Lilla did not stay long in Masnad, and moved to Multan. There they became disciples of the pir Ghaus Shah. The Pir warned them that they would prosper as long as they remained united, but that any disagreements within the tribe would lead to their ruin.

Accompanied by Ghaus Shah, the tribe settled in Shahidiwalian, near present day Gujranwala. After they had been settled there for some time the locals of the place began to get tired of the trouble they caused, and made complaint to the Emperor at: Delhi, who ordered that they should be moved on. The local governor was ordered to expel them and succeeded in dividing the tribe into two factions, which fought a pitched battle. The defeated party dispersed and its descendants are now found near the Chenab, mainly in what’s now Mandi Bahaudin District, while the others, weakened by the struggle, migrated to the Pind Dadan Khan plain, led by Lilla Buzurg, whose is considered the ancestor by all the present Lillas. When Lilla arrived at their present location, the tract was then occupied a tribe of Hal Jats.

According to another tribal tradition, their ancestor Haras, arrived in Sindh with Muhammad bin Qasim in 710 CE . When Muhammad Bin Qasim returned to Arabia, Haras and his clansmen settled in Multan. They settled near the town of Mandi Yazman, tending their cattle. A famine then drove them moved towards the river Chenab. Conflict with other tribes forced the tribe towards Mohibpur, on the west bank of the Jhelum near the town of Khushab. A further migration under the leadership of Lilla Buzurg took the tribe further north along the Jhelum. In a tract was then occupied a tribe of Hal Jats, the tribe now known as Lila finally settled. The Lillas then exterminated the Hal, barring one pregnant woman, who had managed to escape. From her some are descended families of Hal Jats that reside with the Lillas.

According to the tribal traditions of the Awan, who villages border those of the Lilla, they were first settle the area by the Jhelum, which was a swamp, with the Lilla coming later from Hindustan, meaning North India. It seems that Lila came either from the east or south, leading a pastoral life until finally settling in their present location. The Lilla have several clans, the main ones being the Dulyal, Guliyal, Gujj, Karmal, Khushial, Marhal, Maswal, Nuthlial, and Nushial. Despite the claim to Qureshi ancestry, the Lilla are considered as Jats by their neighbours and intermarry with other tribes of Jat status such as the Gondal, Jethal, Phaphra and Wariaches.

The four ancestral villages of the tribe are Lilla Bhera (also known as Mainowana), Lilla Bharwana, Lilla Hindwana, and Lilla Guj, which are said to be named after their founders, Maino, Bharo, Hindo, and Guj. Each of these villages are named after their founders, Maino, Bharo, Hindo, and Guj. The tribe holds about 40 square miles of territory between Pind Dadan Khan town and the Salt Range in the Jhelum District, and form the majority in the villages of Chak Hameed, Jalalpur Sharif, Lilla Handwana, Lilla Goj, Lilla Bhera (also known as Mainowana) and Rawal in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. There also a second cluster of Lilla villages on the banks of the Jhelum River in Khushab District, such as Kotla Jagir, Mohibpur and Waheer. While in Mandi Bahauddin District, they are found in Bohat, and further south in Sargodha District, they are found in Bhikhi Khurd, descendants of the second group of Lillas who dispersed to the Chenab.

Population of Muslim Rajput clans of Jammu and Kashmir State according to the 1911, 1921 and 1931 Census of India

In this post I set out the results of the 1911, 1921 and 1931 Census of the Jammu and Kashmir Princely State for the various Rajput clans. Around 60% of the population was Muslim, divided into as much as a hundred clans. In terms of Administration, the state was divided into four regions, Kashmir (including Muzaffarabad), Jammu (including Mirpur), Poonch and the Frontier regions. The administration set up was as follows:

Jammu Province: Districts of Jammu, Jasrota (Kathua), Udhampur, Reasi and Mirpur.

Kashmir Province: Districts of Kashmir South (Anantnag), Kashmir North (Baramulla) and Muzaffarabad.

Frontier districts: Wazarats of Ladakh and Gilgit.

Internal jagirs: Poonch, Bhaderwah and Chenani.

In the 1941 census, further details of the frontier districts were given:[28]

Ladakh wazarat: Tehsils of Leh, Skardu and Kargil.
Gilgit wazarat: Tehsils of Gilgit and Astore
Frontier illaqas: Punial, Ishkoman, Yasin, Kuh-Ghizer, Hunza, Nagar, Chilas.

The Muslim Rajput population was found mainly in Jammu, Poonch and Muzaffarabad region of Kashmir. They spoke Punjabi and related dialects.

The 1911 Census recorded 22 clans, whie the 1931 recorded 23 clans. Jammu District, which included most of the southern part of the State, had prior to 1947 a large Muslim population, most of whom moved to Pakistan as the result of partition. Like neighbouring Sialkot in Punjab, most Jammu Rajputs belonged to the Agan, Awan, Bhao, Bhatti, Khokhar, Minhas and Sulehria tribes. These tribes spoke Punjabi, and had much in common with clans found in Sialkot and Gurdaspur. West of Jammu tribes, we find those of Mirpur, roughly covering the southern third of modern day Azad Kashmir. The Chibs were the largest tribe in this region, concentrated in and near Bhimber, and other areas east of the Chenab. Around Mirpur town, we find the Awan, Bains, Gakhar, Sahu and Minhas, and while a large number of Jaral were found in near Bhimber. In the mid Himalayas, roughly comprising the modern districts of Rajouri and Reasi we find the Domaal, Jaral, Kamlak and Thakkar tribes. Most of these tribes spoke dialects of Pahari. Finally, in the Poonch Jagir now divided in half by the line of control, we find the Badhan, Dhund, Douli, Janjua Janhal, Maldial, Mangral and Minhas tribes. The edges of the Kashmir valley were home to the Bomba and Khakha tribes.

1911 Census

The total Muslim population was 196,817  (58%) out of a total population of 341,665. The rest were entirely Hindu.

Tribe Jammu District (including city) Jasrota Udhampur District Reasi District Mirpur District Poonch Jagir Muzaffarabad District Kashmir North Total
Awan 1,978 127 108 324 6,280 6,171 11,642 580 27,558
Badhan 79 1,393  4,007  505 6,586
Bains  167 5,802 59 97 6,193
Bhao 66 2 51 437 16 592
Bhatti 502 1,900 347 543  1,111 4,451
Bomba  4 1,190 1,462
Chauhan  147  24  4 6  46 32  2,219  368  3,646
Chib  198  2  13  336  8,659  270  100  8  9,665
Dhund 9,611 6,225 15,858
Domaal  9 2,599 1,035 2,992  308 6,953
Douli  248 2,820  23  3,099
Gakhar  121 5 170  357  4,095  8,186  759  13,825
Janhal  236  944  1,180
Janjua  186  2  11  1,404  427  4,460  1,343 8,062
Jaral  214  29  52  3,893  3,434  569  172  8,566
Khakha  1  4  1,206  179  1,391
Khokhar  486  72  23  1,115  949  2,537  2,305  7,736
Maldial  8  11,492  123  11,643
Mangral 17  2 429 5,937 539 76 7,027
Manhas/ Minhas 1,000 42 110 403 490 3,630 1,024 6,797
Narma 2 127 1,970 4,495  14 6,617
Sau / Sahoo  26 2,934 2,961
Thakkar 5 9 66 4,038 16 728 359 6,103 10,451
Others 8,150 372 949 2,833 3,081 4,106 596 24,497

1921 Census

In 1921 Census, seperate clans other then the Basdhan, Bhatti, Dhund and Domaal were not seperately enumerated.


Tribe Jammu District (including city) Kathua District Udhampur District Reasi District Mirpur District Poonch Jagir Muzaffarabad District Kashmir North Total
Badhan 17  8 371 260  2,865  469 3,992
Bhatti 1,203  65 2,144 464 1,236  957 6,246
Bomba 48 11 2,327 366 3,609
Dhund 15 9,896 5,180 15,430
Domaal 2,682 310 4,657 7,670
Others 2,263 228 6,751 4,298 14,776 16,683 863 46,290

1931 Census

The total Rajput population was 391,888 of which Muslim Rajputs numbered 233,441 (60%)


Tribe Jammu District (including city) Kathua District Udhampur District Reasi District Mirpur District  Poonch Jagir  Muzaffarabad District Baramula District Total
Awan  2,140  33  17  562  5,817  9,674  12,481  701  33,600
Badhan 7 142 532 5,211
Bains  678  3,832  442  678
Bhao  53  4  83  569  21  30  761
Bhatti 1,355 16 2,312 1,664 2,893 8,240
Bomba  48  11  2,327  366  3,609
Chauhan  241  32  207  69  279  193  127  1,275  3,947
Chib  971  14  63  452 7,378  392  253  8,073
Dhund 5 43 1 12,105  5,360 17,523
Domaal 32 2,769 97 3,458 6,856
Douli  11  27
 Gakhar  98  17  102  776  5,076  6,608  3,723  16,726
 Janhal  14  62  78
 Janjua  198  20 10  1,364 220  2,112  1,709  186  6,022
 Jaral  1,068  8  152  6,094  3,480  566  144  11,627
 Khakha  11  11  9  1,010  6,627  10  7,739
 Khokhar  1,156  47  48  1,162 943  921  1,698  6,700
 Maldial  112  13,985  1,390  15,630
 Mangral  7  10  545  6,827  1,101  956  37  9,509
 Manhas/ Minhas  1,425  15  109  1,043  1,162  3,760  1,159 8,682
 Narma  12  75  2,078  4,684  6,857
Sulehria/ Sulehri  7,733  45  37  203  45  98  8,162
Sau / Sahoo 834 894
Others 2,263 228 6,751 4,298 14,776 16,683 863 46,290

List and Population of Jat clans of the Rawalpindi Division According 1901 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Jat clans and their population in the Rawalpindi Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1901 Census of India. Please also read my introduction for the 1911 Census on the Jat clans to give you some background. Almost all the population that professed to be Jat were Muslim, with exception of Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, which was home several Hindu Wariach Jats.

Rawalpindi District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 46,061, of which 43,853 (95%) were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

Tribe Total
Aura 1,660
Badhan 246
Baghial 647
Bains 1,388
Bhagiara 270
Chatha 130
Chhina 653
Dhamial 2,203
Dhamtal 695
Gangal 325
Gill 373
Gondal 958
Hanial 155
Harial 194
Hattial 222
Heer 428
Hindan 489
Jatal 395
Jodhra 5,157
Kalial 1,791
Kanial 954
Kassar 105
Khalis 102
Khatril 1,578
Khor 389
Langrial 120
Lodhra 134
Magial 596
Magrial 486
Mangral 226
Matyal 314
Mial 599
Mundra 150
Phira 164
Phul 135
Salhal 215
Sandhu 99
Sangal 427
Sial 618
Sudhan 1,765
Tama 231
Thathaal 534
Walana 112
Wariach 347

Jhelum District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 73,364, of which 72,763 (99%) were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

Tribe Total
Badhan 248
Bains 962
Bhakral 585
Bhatti 2,053
Bhutta 678
Chadhar 121
Chauhan 224
Dhudhi 352
Gondal 879
Harral 460
Heer 243
Janjua 120
Jhammat 929
Kanial 1,990
Kassar 111
Langah 482
Mahil 320
Minhas 824
Ranjha 236
Sahi 445
Sial 126
Tarar 758
Thaheem 139
Wariach 388

Gujrat District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 198,075, of which 192,000 (97%) were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:


Tribe Total
Bains 478
Bajwa 532
Bhullar 106
Bhutta 373
Chatha 812
Cheema 2,923
Chhina 287
Dhariwal 388
Dhillon 568
Dhotar 1,513
Ghumman 739
Gill 503
Goraya 148
Harral 158
Heer 1,654
Hanjra 2,338
Jakhar 235
Kang 1,183
Langrial 3,702
Mangat 1,031
Marral 168
Pannun 242
Randhawa 298
Sahi 4,498
Sandhu 228
Sarai 661
Sidhu 2,157
Sipra 1,259
Sohal 374
Tarar 14,531
Virk 775
Wariach 37,805

Shahpur District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 63,876, of which 63,649 (99%) were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

Tribe Total
Aulakh 103
Bains 613
Bhachar 166
Bhatti 3,864
Bhutta 1,298
Burana 657
Chadhar 3,303
Chhina 538
Hanjra 528
Harral 1,849
Heer 553
Hurgan 236
Jhawari 1,092
Jora 718
Lak 2,197
Lali 531
Lala 357
Langah 604
Mahil 181
Mangat 226
Marath 548
Nissowana 518
Panjootha 966
Rehan 1,567
Sahi 164
Sidhu 100
Sipra 1,382
Tarar 1,223
Thaheem 288
Tulla 1,403
Virk 318
Wariach 445

Mianwali District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 137,665, all of whom were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

Tribe Total
Aheer 843
Asar 1,377
Atar Khel 181
Atra 652
Aulakh 1,887
Aura 232
Autrah 1,075
Bains 353
Bedha 472
Bhachar 1.422
Bhadwal 1,207
Bhatti 1,880
Bhullar 483
Bhumla 793
Bhutta 778
Birkan 130
Budhwana 366
Chadhar 1,226
Chandhar 235
Chhajra 367
Chhina 1,580
Dab 103
Deo 915
Des 158
Dhandla 286
Dharal 419
Dhariwal 184
Dhillon 949
Dhudhi 335
Dumra 585
Gandhi 1,288
Ghallu 818
Gill 190
Goraya 365
Gorchar 807
Hanbi 336
Hans 498
Harral 347
Heer 603
Janjua 573
Jatal 164
Jakhar 1,229
Jhammat 507
Joiya 670
Kahlon 442
Kalasra 918
Kallu 1,301
Kallu Khel 147
Khandoa 1,278
Khera 176
Kohawer 1,020
Lak 452
Langah 704
Langrial 222
Lohanch 676
Mallana 454
Naul 229
Pala Khel 169
Rawana 215
Saggu 434
Sahgra 321
Sahi 963
Samtia 1,007
Saandh 948
Sandhila 701
Saandi 410
Sarai 150
Sawag 460
Srb 1,144
Sial 2,945
Sohal 435
Soomra 930
Talokar 1,096
Thaheem 352
Turkhel 1,344
Turk 1,499
Waghora 173
Wawana 258

Bhawpal, Domaal, and Mangral tribes of Azad Kashmir

In this post I shall look at three tribes of Chibhali or Pahari Rajputs, found mainly in the Mirpur-Kotli-Rajouri-Poonch region, now bisected by the Line of Control. This region is located in the Pir Panjaal Mountain range. These mountains form part of the Inner Himalayan region, run from east-southeast to west-northwest across the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and the disputed territories comprising Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan administered Azad Kashmir, where the average elevation varies from 1,400 m (4,600 ft) to 4,100 m (13,500 ft). The mountains are traversed by the rivers Chenab and Ravi, with the Chenab also forming a culturally boundary, with tribes located in the east of the Chenab remaining Hindu, while those found in the west have generally converted to Islam. These three tribes are the Bhawpal, Domaal, and Mangral . Two of these clans, the Doomal and Mangral are now entirely Muslim, but Bhawpal still have a Hindu branch. With regards to the Mangral, they also have a large presence in Rawalpindi District. All three tribes speak Pahari, but the Mangral dialect is also close Pothohari, reflecting their more western location.


I shall start off with a little known tribe, the Bhawpal or sometime pronounced Bhopal, who are a Rajput clan that are included within a group of tribes that form part of the Chibhali community. Chibhali history starts with the conversion of Dharam Chand Chib, the Hindu Raja of the area in the 15th Century to Islam. As a result of his conversion, many other Rajput clans also converted to Islam. What ever the actual facts of this conversion, it is an important foundation myth for most the tribes in the Pir Panjal region. The Bhawpal, like other Chibhalis, are a clan of Katoch Rajputs of Kangra, in what is now Himachal Pradesh, India, claiming descent from a Bhawpal or Bhopal.

In Pakistani Kashmir, they are found mainly in Kotli District and Bagh District, in villages near the line of control, while in Indian administered Jammu & Kashmir, they are found in Rajauri, Nawshera and Jammu tehsils


The Domaal are well known tribe with a substantial presence in the historic Poonch area. The Domaal are of Rajput status, a claim generally accepted by their neighbours. They are found principally in the divided district of Poonch in Jammu & Kashmir, as well as Rajouri District in Indian-administered Kashmir and Bagh District in Azad Kashmir.

Like most tribes in the region, the Domaal have a number of traditions as to their origin. In one such tradition, there was once a Mala Rajput who went to Kargil. There, he contracted a marriage with a Buddhist woman, and the Domaal are the progeny of this marriage. However, with regards to origin myths, the more common traditions make the Domaal a branch of the Chib Rajputs. They are said to be descended from two brothers Dharam Chand and Purab Chand (incidentally also ancestors of the Muslim Chib). Dharam Chand, the ruler of Bhimber, and on a visit to Delhi converted to Islam. For this action, he was excommunicated by members of his tribe. Purab Chand was the younger brother, hence known as Rajah Doem or the second rajah. Upon the conversion of Dharam Chand to Islam, the nobles of Bhimber then chose his younger brother Puran Chand as the new ruler. Dharam Chand’s conversion to said to have taken place during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb (rule 31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707). According to tribal legends, Purab Chand attempted to marry the wife of Dharam Chand, who was still in Delhi. The wife managed to get a letter out to Delhi, and Dharam Chand, now known as Shadab Khan returned. However, he was murdered on his way to Bhimber, which left Purab Chand on the throne. However, Dharam Chand’s widow supported the claims of her sons to the throne of Bhimber. The population of Bhimber rose against Purab Chand, who took refuge in the neighbouring kingdom of Rajouri.

Upon Purab Chand’s arrival in Rajouri, the kingdom was facing raids from two tribes called the Darida and Jayrah. After his arrival in Rajouri, Purab Chand converted to Islam, and took the name Doem Khan. On the request of the Raja of Rajouri, Doem Khan and his followers defeated and destroyed the Darida and Jayrah. He then built a fort in the village that came to be known as Rajdhani, literally capital, in the Thanamandi tehsil of Rajouri. In this region, the Domaal were effectively independent utill the arrival of the Sikhs in the 1790s. Doem Khan, who acquired the nickname Dom had three sonsSardar Gaman Khan, Pirwali Khan and Mouladad Khan. The Domaal are therefore the descendants of Dom Khan, the suffix aal clans signifying descent. The descendants of the first two sons are settled in Rajouri, the most important villages being Rajdhani, Pajgra, Kakora and Galhoti. Dom Khan is buried in the village of Narrouni, still a place of pilgrimage for many Domaals in Rajouri.

According to some sources, they account for 35% of the population in Rajauri Tehsil. The community occupies the southwestern slopes of the Pir Panjal range. Their villages are found along the slopes of hills overlooking a number of tributaries falling into the Poonch River and Chenab River. Perhaps the greatest concentration of the Domaal is in the Manjakot block of Tehsil Rajouri. Important villages include Rak Galali, Hayatpura, Nabi Kot, Sarola and Mangalnara.

Mouladad Khan’s descendants left Rajouri, and initially settled in Mendhar in the Poonch Kingdom. Here they are found in the mainly in the villages of Galhota, Naka Manjhari, Gohlar, Uri and Bahera. A number of Mendhar Domaal moved to Kotli, and settled in the villages of Kodti, Khad Gujran, Barmoch, Chawki, Banarli, and Jagaalyar.


The next tribe we shall look is are the Mangral, sometimes pronounced as Mahngral, Mangarpal. They are closely associated with the history of the town of the Kotli, which was said to be founded by their ancestor Raja Mangar Pal. The Mangrals ruled Kotli State until 1815 when it was incorporated into the State of Jammu by the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh. Raja Sensphal Khan who founded the city of Sehnsa and was the first Mangral to adopt Islam. Since then the Mangral are entirely Muslim, and found mainly in Kotli, with smaller communities found in both Indian and Pakistani administered Poonch. They are in essence a Chibhali tribe, and have much in common with both the Domaal and Kamlak clans. With regards to their origin, nothing is definite. According to Hutchinson and Vogel, authors of the Punjab Hill States, “Kotli was founded about the fifteenth century by a branch of the royal family of Kashmir. Kotli and Punch remained independent until subdued by Ranjit Singh in 1815 and 1819 respectively.” However, other traditions make the Mangral Chandravanshi Rajputs, descendent from the ancient race of the Yadavas, the clan of Krishna. According to the Chandravanshi tradition, Raja Mangar Pal son of Hani Dev who migrated to present day Sialkot from the Jangladesh region of northern Rajastan in the Twelfth century A.D. Hani Dev’s brother Nirmal Dev continued to live in Jangladesh. Prior to the mid 15th Century Jangladesh was a wild barren area. It was subsequently conquered by Rao Bika a Rathore Rajput and since then has been known as Bikaner. If we accept this tradition, the Mangral and Bhatti have a common origin, but Mangral are always considered Sahu, while only some Bhatti are.

Mangral rule over Kotli lasted for approximately four centuries until they were defeated by the army of the Sikh leader Ranjit Singh. The Mangrals led by Raja Shah Sawar Khan initially defeated the Sikh forces in two battles (1812 and 1814), though at very high cost in loss of life. However, the Sikh army returned in 1815 with 30,000 soldiers and a final battle ensued. Having lost many fighters, the Mangrals agreed to a compromise, giving up control of their city (then based in Baraali near modern Kotli) to Ranjit Singh. The rural areas remained under the control of various Mangral families as jagirs from the Jammu Raj, and they continued to be the landowners and collectors of tax revenues. This arrangement lasted until Pakistan’s 1962 Land Reform Act, whereby the ownership of the land was transferred to the tenant farmers without compensation to the landowners.

The last official count of Indian castes was conducted by the British in their census of India of 1931. At the time they recorded 4,500 adult male Mangrals. According 1911 Census, there were 2,309 Mangral in Rawalpindi District. Mangral’s in Rawalpindi are found mainly in Jawra and other nearby villages in Gujarkhan Tehsil.There are also three Mangral villages in Kahuta Tehsil of Rawalpindi District, namely Galli, Marigala Mangral and Nandna Mangral


Dhamial, Gaharwal, Jatal and Ranial tribes



In this posting, I return to the theme of the lesser known tribes of the Pothohar region of Pakistan, and I shall look at the Dhamial, Gaharwal, Jatal, and Ranial tribes. All of these tribes are in fact branches of the well known Janjua tribe. Let me start off with a brief note of the Janjua Rajputs. According to their traditions, the Janjua claim descent from the Pandava dynasty through Arjun, the cousin of Krishna. Although there is no definitive source to confirm the ancestry of the ancient King Porus of Punjab, the Janjua Rajputs claim that their ancestor, Rai Por is the Porus who fought Alexander in Punjab in 326BC, although this might be conjecture. The Janjua tribal history begins with Raja Ajmal Dev Janjua, who embraced Islam in the 12th century due to his love for Sufi art, poetry and teachings. Rai/Raja Mal followed the Islamic tradition of change of name after conversion and was then known as Raja Mal Khan. Mal Khan is said to have four sons, Bhir, Jodh, Kala and Khakha. From the last descend the Khakha of Kashmir, whose branch the Tezyal I have already looked at in an earlier post. From Jodh descends the Dhamial, from Bhir the Ranial, from Kala, the Gaharwal, and their branch the Jatal. In Chakwal and Jhelum, many Jatal and Dhamial now consider themselves to be Jats.



Dhamial (also written as Dhamyal) Like the other tribes looked, some sections of the Dhamial claim Jat status, while other stress the fact that they are Rajput. The Dhamial are chiefly found in the Rawalpindi District but also in Gujrat District, Jhelum District and Attock District of the Punjab and Mirpur District of Azad Kashmir. In Azad Kashmir, the Dhamial are the second largest Rajput-Jat tribe in the state. With regards to their origins, the Dhamial have a number of traditions as to there origin. Most however agree that they are descended from a Raja Dhami Khan, hence the name Dhami al, or sons of Dhami. They also point to the town of Dhamiak in Jhelum District as to where the tribe originated from. According to one of the traditions, Raja Dhami Khan came from Ghazni in Afghanistan, built a fort in Dhamiak, the ruins of which are still in existence, and defeted the Gakhar rulers of the region to establish control. The fort is still known in the local vernacular as dhami kot (fort of dhami in Punjabi), and the town of Dhamiak is simply said to be a corruption of the word dhami kot. Most traditions however claim that Dhami Khan was a Janjua Rajput, and they are infact a clan of the Janjua tribe. In the early thirteenth century, the Janjua chieftain, Raja Mal Khan rose to prominence. He increased his dominion over Hazara (later renamed Amb) through his son Raja Tanoli, Jhelum through his son Raja Jodh, parts of Kashmir through Raja Khakha, Rajghar (later renamed Malot) in Chakwal through his eldest Raja Bhir and what is today forms the area of Kahuta tehsil through Raja Kala Khan. Tarikh-e-Alfi of the Ghorids makes a mention of the rise to power of Raja Mal. According to Lepel H. Griffin, in Chiefs and Families of note in the Punjab (Lahore, 1910, ii, p254)

””On the death of their father, they determined to divide the country called, from Raja Mal, the Maloki Dhan between them. Jodh took the Salt Range near about the Makrach, and captured the town of Makshala from a colony of Brahmins (Mohyals)…He changed its name to Makhiala and built a fort there and two tanks for rain water….. Wir Khan (also spelt Bhir), took the possession of Khura (also spelt Khewra) near modern Pind Dadan Khan.””

The descendants of Raja Jodh continued to rule this region through various interruptions until the time of the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh. Raja Bhir meanwhile took over the Malot (Rajghar) state from his father. It was in this tradition that Raja Bhir’s later descendant, Raja Malu Khan, allying his cousin Raja Mubarak Khan who was the descendant of Raja Jodh Khan, gained control of the region of Dhamial and Ranial.  Latter in the post I shall look at the Ranial branch.


Villages in Jhelum and Chakwal

Presently, the Dhamial, both Jat and Rajput are found in Rawalpindi, Chakwal, Jhelum and Mirpur districts. Dhamial villages in Jhelum District include Kotla Faqir, Mamuri Dhamial, Mohra Lal, Hathia Dhamial, Dheri Dhamial and Rakha Dhamial. The town of Dhamiak remains the centre of the tribe in the district. In neighbouring Chakwal District, important Dhamial villages include Dohrian, Dhoke Bangwalian, Dhok Qutab Din, Dhok Alfo near Mangwal, Ghanwal, Chak Jharray, Chak Kharak,  Sohawa, and Kot Raja 


Villages in Rawalpindi District

Looking at each individual tehsil of Rawalpindi District starting with Gujar Khan Tehsil:

1) Aheer

2) Chak Dolat

3) Chak Rajgan

4) Chechi Bahadur

5) Dhamial

6) Dhok Baba Waris

7) Dhok Kund

8) Dolmi Dhamial

9) Gasroor

10) Jajja

11) Jhamath

12) Miani Borgi

13) Mohra Hafyal

14) Mohra Salyal,

15) Mohra Dhamial

16) Mohra Jundi

17) Natta Mohra

17) Ratala,

Rawalpindi Tehsil:

1) Bajnial

2) Dhamial

3) Khail Dhamyal

4) Safair

5) Sher Dhamial,

Kallar Syedan Tehsil,

1) Bhai Mehr Ali

2) Dhamali,

3) Dhok Attari, near Bhalakhar

4) Dhok Pakka Khoo,

5) Dhok Baba Mehru near Khanpur,

6) Mawa Dhamyal

7) Mohra Phadyal

8) Pari Nakkah near Bhalakhar,

9) Phagwari Gala

10) Sahib Dhamial

and in Kahuta Tehsil: Aliot.

Moving to Azad Kashmir, they are found in the villages of Kandoor, Samlota, Chakswari, Daggar, Dehri Dhamial and Nakkah Dhamial.


We now look at the Gaharwal or sometimes pronounced Kaharwal, who are a Rajput clan. According to the 1931 Census of India, they numbered approximately 1,600.

The Gaharwal claim descent from Pir Kala, a son of Raja Mal Dev Janjua, who married Kaho Rani when he came to the Kahuta hills, and named the ilaqua Kahru after her. Hence the descendants are called Kahrwal. The Dulal is a sub-division of the tribe. This branch should not be confused with the Dolal Qureshis of Gujar Khan Tehsil. To sum up, the Gaharwal, like the Dhamyal and Jatal, referred in my earlier post, are a branch of the Janjua Rajputs.

The Kahrwal Janjua’s are found in the Kahuta and Kallar Saidan Tehsils of the Rawalpindi District. Important Gaharwal villages include Matore, Bagla, Darkali, Mamyaam, Guff Sanghal ,Mehra Sanghal , Pind-Bansoo and Blong. In Kallar Syedan they are found in Sehi Rajgan.



The Jatal are a tribe of both Jat and Rajput status, who claim descent from Jatto Khan, a Janjua Rajput, who belonged the Gaharwal branch. So they are in fact sub-group of the Gaharwal. They are extremely localized, found in only in the districts of Rawalpindi and Jhelum. Like other Rajputs tribes of the region, they have a long and distinguished history of military service. Important Jatal villages include Aheer, Lakho, Mohraian,  Jatal Sukhroo and Repa in Gujar Khan Tehsil, Jatal and Jatal Durab in Rawalpindi Tehsil and Nandna Jatal and Tirkhi in Kallar Syedan Tehsil . While in Jhelum District, they are found mainly in Jhelum and Dina tehsils. In the Islamabad Capital Territory, Jatal are foind in Gagri village.


I shall finally look at the Ranial branch of the Janjuas. Like the other branches, the Ranial trace their descent from Raja Mal Khan, the traditional ancestor of the Janjua tribe. As I have already discussed in my account of the Dhamial, the Ranial branch of the Janjua descend from Raja Bhir, who was the erstwhile ruler of Malot (Rajghar) state in Chakwal, and from him descended, Raja Malu Khan, who was the direct ancestor of the Ranials. Raja Malu Khan was allied with Mubarak Khan, the Dhamial. According to the Tehreek-e-Janjua (Sahiwal Press, v1, p224), these two Rajas employed a sudden military onslaught to conquer the areas of Ranial and Dhamial. Through the repute of their military success, they were able to win the neighbouring gentry over to their own side and established good relations with them. Raja Malu took the area of Hayal Ranial whilst Raja Mubarak took the Dhamial plain. Interestingly, Raja Malu’s offspring were known as the Rajas of Ranial and Raja Mubarak’s offspring likewise, were known as the Rajas of Dhamial. This later culminated in the recognition of these two branches as simply Ranial Rajas and Dhamial Rajas. Being neighbours, they taxed their subjects separately, but followed common policies on other matters such as the supply of soldiers to the Mughal emperors, cultivation and trade.

Family tree

The Ranial Rajputs are linked ancestrally to the Janjuas through Raja Malu Khan, who was a descendant of Raja Bhir as illustrated below:

                   Raja Mal Khan, the Janjua king
                   Raja Bhir, the elder son of Raja Mal Khan
                   Raja Acharpal (later converted to Islam and was renamed Raja Ahmed Khan)
                            Raja Sunpal
                            Raja Islam-ud-din
                            Raja Noor-ud-din
                            Raja Daulat Khan
                            Raja Hans Khan
                            Raja Malu Khan (during Jehangir’s reign [1605-28])

Some of Raja Malu Khan’s descendants settled in Nambal in Kallar Syedan Tehsil of Rawalpindi, immigrating from Malot, in Chakwal District(the ancestral kingdom of Raja Bhir who inherited it from his father, Raja Mal Khan). Raja Malu Khan was one of five brothers. The other brothers were: Raja Sadu Khan: whose descendants are settled in the area of Sehel Tehsil and Pindi Gheb,  Raja Nadyam Khan: whose descendants are in Harajpur Pind and Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, Raja Babul (who was the Minister of Maral Garh): whose descendants are settled in the Murali district in Chakwal and Raja Jangu Khan: whose descendants are settled in Dana, Khanpur and Dadan Chey.

Gujjral, Matyal, Nathyal and Thathaal tribes

In this post, I shall look at four tribes, who are generally of Jat status in Jhelum and Mirpur districts, but who are considered Rajput in Rawalpindi. They are all aals, or clans of larger tribal groupings. The Gujjral are Bhattis, the Matyal are Thakkars, Nathyal are Janjuas and Thathaal are Suryavanshi. Unlike the Bar tribes in my last post, they have no recent tradition of pastoralism. In fact, these Chibhalis are in essence mountain farmers, but in Jhelum, both the Chibhalis and Bar groups have intermarried, producing a distinct Jhelumi Jat culture. This is especially true in the Pind Dadan Khan plains, where the Chibhali groups like the Nathyal and Thathaal are found in close proximity to Gondal, Tarar and Ranjha who were once all Bar nomads.

Map of Mirpur District

Map of Jhelum District


I shall start off by looking at the Gujjral, a clan of Jat status found in Jhelum and Gujrat districts. Just to clarify, these Gujjral Jats, as far as I know have no connection with a Khatri clan, also called Gujjral, which incidentally was historically also found in the same region. In my earlier postings, I made reference to the fact that the various tribes in Pothohar and the Jhelum valey have name often ends in al, which is patronymic, for example, the sons of Kals, are the Kalyal and so on, very similar to the Arabic Bin or Slavic ovich or ov. So the Gujjral are the descendents of Gujjar, which itself opens a number of questions. For the Gujjar is a well known tribe found through out Punjab, with a large presence in the Jhelum valley, who do not and are not considered as Jat. So how did these sons of Gujjar evolve in the a Jat tribe. The answer lies in the traditions of the tribe, which states their ancestor was a Bhatti Rajput, who was suckled by a Gujar foster mother, and given the name Gujar. Despite this close relationship with the Gujjars, the Gujjral intermarry with clans such as the Gondal and Lilla, who are of Jat status, and not with groups that fall within the Gujjar category. Outside Chakwal, they are found in the village of Dhok Gujral near the town of Dina in Jhelum District, Mohra Heeran near Choa Khalsa in Rawalpindi District and the village of Pind Jattan in Bhimber District (Azad Kashmir) is an important tribal settlement.


I next look at the Matyal, sometimes pronounced as Mathyal, a tribe largely found in Jhelum and Rawalpindi districts. Like other tribes of the Pothohar region, the Matyal have a good many traditions as to their origin, often these being quite contradictory. According to one of there traditions, the Matyal get their name from the Hindu goddess mata, the Matyal being the devotees of Mata. The goddess mata is popular incarnation of Devi and one of the main forms of the Goddess Shakti, a deity closely associated with kshatriya groups in North India. These devotees of mata were members of Thakhar caste, a group of quasi-Rajputs found in the Jammu hills. This would mean that like the Kanyal, and Nagyal, the Matyal are immigrants from the country known as the Chibhal. However, another tradition makes the Matyal a clan of the Tanolis, a tribe of Barlas Mughal origin found in the hills of the Hazara division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Tanolis have two divisions, the Hindwal and Pallal, of which the Pallal are further divided in twelve clans, these being Bhujal, Rains, Ansal, Tekral, Baigal, Judhal, Sadhal, Dairal, Bainkaryal, Matyal and Lanhya. According to this tradition, the Matyals left their Hazara home in the thirteenth century, and settled in Malot There is still a hamlet or dhoke near the town of Malot called Dhoke Matyal or hamlet of the Matyal. Most of the Jat Matyal add suffix Chaudhry to their names, but some Matyal in the Pothohar region ( Sohawa and Gujar Khan) prefer to add Raja to their names.

In terms of distribution, the Matyal are found mainly in Chakwal, Jhelum and Rawalpindi districts of Punjab, as well as the adjoining Mirpur and Bhimber Districts of Azad Kashmir. They are also found in the capital of Pakistan, Islamabad. According to the census of India 1911, they numbered 1,147 in Jhelum District.

Villages in Punjab

In Punjab, important Matial villages include Aheer, Budhial, Dhok Matyal near Sasral, Lilla, Mohra Kaley Khan, Matial, Sasral, Sukho, Pothi and Punjgran Kalan in Gujar Khan tehsil of Rawalpindi District, Matial, Ranja Mattial, Bhondna, Pandori, Chak Balian and Maira Matial (Ranjha Maira) in Jhelum District, Pinwal in Chakwal District and Matyal in Attock District.

Villages in Islamabad Territory

In the Islamabad Capital Territory, the center of Matyals is the village of Gagri situated on the Soan River.

Villages in Azad Kashmir

Their villages include Matyal near Gangesar, Matyal in Kotli District, Ghura Matyal and Nar Matyal in Bhimbar District and Jatlan and Mohra Matyal in Mirpur District.


The next tribe I will look at are the Nathyals, sometimes spelt Nathial. There ancestor was a Natha Khan, a Janjua Rajput, who is said to have taken a Jat wife. His was therefore made to leave the tribe, and descendants thus became Jats. These origin stories are common among many of the Jats of the Jhelum region, and may suggest some connection with the Janjuas. So who exactly are the Janjua. According to their tribal traditions, groups of Rathore Rajputs, emigrating from Jodhpur, occupied the uplands of the Salt Range, around a thousand years ago. The leader of this movement according to the common account, was Raja Mal. He appears in every family tree.

Many prominent Muslim tribes trace their lineage back to the Janjua through the five princes of the House of Raja Mal Khan Janjua. Indeed the Nathial are not the only Jat tribe of Janjua descent, so do the Ghuman, Ganjial, Bhakral, Banth, and Basoya Jats. The five princes were Raja Bhir Khan, Raja Jodh Khan, Raja Kala Khan, Raja Tanoli Khan and Raja Khakha Khan. Jodh and Bhir were born of a Gakhar Rani while Kala, Khakha and Tanoli were born of another Rajput Rani.

Natha Khan came from the line of Raja Bhir. The lineage of Raja Bhir is described by Lepel H. Griffin, in his famous book Chiefs and Families of note in the Punjab (Lahore, 1910, ii, p254) as follows:


On the death of their father they determined to divide the country called, from Raja Mal, the Maloki Dhan between them. Jodh took the Salt Range near about the Makrach, and captured the town of Makshala from a colony of Brahmans (mohyals)…He changed its name to Makhiala and built there a fort and two tanks for rain water….. Wir Khan (also spelt Bhir), took the possession of Khura (also spelt Khewra) near modern Pind Dadan Khan. He had one son, Raja Ahmad Khan, from whom have descended the families of Malot, Badshapur, and Dalwal


Raja Bhir’s son, Raja Acharpal became a famous chief after his father’s death. The above mentioned Ahmed Khan was in fact Acharpal, who later changed his name after converting to Islam. Over time sections of the Janjua took to agriculture, and according to tribal traditions became Jats.


The tribe is mainly located in Bhimber and Mirpur districts of Azad Kashmir, and Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Chakwal districts of Pothohar. They are also found in the Jammu. The Nathyal in Jammu are predominantly Hindu, while in Pakistan are predominantly Muslim. After partition of the sub-continent in 1947, many of the Muslim Nathyals from the Jammu region migrated to Pakistan and settled mainly in Gujrat and Faisalabad districts. And the Hindu Nathyals from Bhimber and Mirpur regions migrated to India, and many of these are settled in Jammu, and some of them are also found in Delhi.


There is a village by the name of Dhoke Nathyal, which is located in Attock district. It is known as Nathyal Sharif, because of the presence of one of the Naqshbandi khankahs. Nathial in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District is another important Nathial settlement.


We now look at the Thathaal, sometimes spelt and pronounced referred to as Thothal and even Thathiyal. They are a clan of a Rajput and Jat status found in the area between Salt Range, Gujrat, Rawalpindi, Sialkot, Narowal , and in Azad Kashmir. There also a community of Sikh Thathaals found in Hoshiarpur and Himachal Pradesh. Prior to partition, there were several Muslim Thathaal villages in Gurdaspur District, all of whom moved to Pakistan.


According to their clan traditions they are said to be the descendants of a king named Raja Karan. The Rajah comes in tribal history of several Chibhal tribes such as the Narma, but whose identity is unclear. It could refer to Karan, the figure from the Mahabharat. The tribe claims to belong to the Suryavanshi branch of Rajput, claiming descent from Raja Karan through his son Raja Thathu whose other son Naru is said to have founded the Narma clan. However, as we have already said, the Narma are Agnikul and not Suryavanshi. But the two tribes live in close proximity, so it is possible one group adopted the other traditions. According to some tribal traditions, Raja Thathu was the first member of the tribe to convert to Islam. Due to the many dialects of the Punjabi language, the pronunciation of Thathal differs according to locality. In Potowar/Pahari it is pronounced Thothal. In Gujrat district it is written Thathal or Thathiyal. Other variations of the name in Pakistan and India include Thathar, Tharar and Thorar.

Some of the Kharian Tehsil Thathaals have a family tree that show that the name of their ancestor as Thuthir. This sound more like an Indian name than “Thutho” or “Thotho”, and is possibly a version of Sudhir. There is a strong possibility that “Thotho” or “Thutho” could be a shortened version of the original name. The next question is who was this Rajah Karan. Some Thathaals make reference to Karan being the ruler of Kashmir. It could be that the reference could be to Karan of the Mahabharata, who gave away his kavacha ( chest shield) and kundala (ear rings) to Lord ndra, who was disguised as a beggar. This generosity is to have cost Karan very dearly and he was killed by his brother Arjuna in the battle of Kurukshetra. Or could it be that there was indeed a Karan that lived much latter. Thathaal tradition refers to Karan being a contemporary of the Mughal Emperor Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( lived between 1542–1605), and it was not Karan but his son Thatho who was first convert to Islam. This would tally with the fact that there are still Thathaals who follow the Hindu or Sikh faith in eastern Punjab.

In terms of villages, in Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, we have the villages of Chaphar, Khambi Kaleechpur, Sahan Kalan, Kotla Arab Ali Khan and Mehmand Chak. In neighbouring Mirpur District, they are found in Panyam, and Dheri Thothaal. In Rawalpindi District, they are found in Bhair Allu, Chak Mirza near Jocha Mamdot, Haji Borgi near Qazian, Jatli and Mohra Thathaal in Gujarkhan Tehsil, while in Islamabad, they are found in the town of Tarlai Kalan. In Jhelum District, they are found in Dhok Thathaal, Potha and Shepur (near Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil). While in Attock District, they are found in Khabba Barala in Fatehjang Tehsil.