Arain Population of Punjab according to the 1901 Census

In this post, I look at the distribution of the Arain, the third largest Muslim group in Punjab in 1901, and fifth largest over all. They were almost entirely Muslim, with a small Hindu majority found largely in what is now Haryana. The Arain were found throughout Punjab, except the Pothohar region, where there place was taking by the Malyar caste. The Arain shown in Rawalpindi were largely recent immigrants working in the Cantonment. In  terms of Arain sub-groups, you had two distinct groups, the Sirsawal, or Ghagharwal and Sutlejwal. The former were Punjabi speaking found in territory stretching from Ambala to Gujrat. In 1901, the Sutlejwal Arain had begun to settle in the Canal Colonies, with found in Lyalpur and Montgomery Districts, which were the focus of the canal colonization regimes.

Historic Distribution

Historically, the Arain community was concentrated in territory that is now part of Indian Punjab, especially the Jalandhar Doab. According to 1911 Census of India, the highest concentrations of Arains was in the Kapurthala State, where they accounted for 16% of the population, and neighbouring Jalandhar District, where they formed 15% (about one third of the Muslim population) of the population. By the late 19th Century, the Arain were encouraged by the British colonial authorities to settle in the new canal colonies in the Sandal Bar and Neeli Bar regions, and by 1911 Arain formed 12% of the population of Lyalpur District and 7% of Montgommery District. Other districts with large Arain populations were Lahore (10%), Gurdaspur (7%), Ferozepur (6%), Gujranwala, Sialkot (6%) and Multan (5%). In the Phulkhian States, Hoshiarpur, Karnal, Delhi and Hissar they formed less than five percentage of the population. North and west of the Jhelum, they were practically absent in the Pothohar region, the Salt Range and the Thal Dessert, where their place was and still taken by the Maliar caste. Those few Arains who were found in this region are often treated as sub-tribe of the Jats. In essence the Arain were found in territory stretching from the Chenab in the west to the Sultlej in the east, in what was the Punjabi speaking heartland of the British colonial province of Punjab. This was also the region that suffered the worst violence during the partition of India in 1947, with almost the entire Arain population of Indian Punjab migrating to Pakistani territory. However, there are still a small number of Muslim Arains still found in Malerkotla, Sangrur and Patiala districts.

The bulk of the Arain population is now settled in the districts of Faisalabad, Sahiwal and Toba Tek Singh, with a large number of refugees settled by the Thal Development Authority in the districts of Khushab, Mianwali, Bhakkar and Layyah.


District / States Muslim Hindu Total
Jalandhar  143,472 143,472
Lahore  127,668  127,668
Chenab Colony  70,234 12  70,246
Sialkot  67,208  67,208
Firuzpur  64,703  64,703
Gurdaspur 64,147  64,147
Kapurthala 50,558  50,558
Amritsar 47,329  195  47,524
Patiala State 47,065  957  47,022
Bahawalpur State 38,488  38,488
Hoshiarpur 35,092  35,092
Multan 32,410  32,410
Ludhiana 32,200  32,200
Montgomery  31,063  31,063
Gujranwala  30,082  34  30,116
Ambala  29,445  23  29,468
Gujrat  22,228  22,228
Karnal  12,516  296  12,812
 8,999   8,999
8,312   8,312
Shahpur 6,981   6,981
Dera Ghazi Khan
5,651   5,651
5,495   5,495
Nabha State
Kalsia State
3,246   3,246
Jind State
 3,222 3,222
Faridkot State
 2,962 2,962
Malerkotla 1,865
Rawalpindi 1,208  1,208
Kangra 720  720
Mandi State  405  405
Nahan State  371  371
Suket State 212
Shimla 153    153
Other Districts
Total Population 1,005,188 1,596

The Population of Kharal and Kathia tribes according to the 1901 Census of Punjab

In this post, I look at the distribution of the Kathia and Kharal tribes according to the 1901 Census. Like the Khokhars, these two tribes were separately enumerated from the general Rajput category. Both claim Panwar Rajput ancestry. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the Kathia. Time permitting, I wish to write a post on the Kharals.


Kharal Population

District / States






20,866     20,866
Chenab Colony 7,244   7,244
Bahawalpur State 5,738     5,738
Multan 4,748     4,748
Gujranwala 3,035     3,035
Jhang 1,785     1,785
Patiala State   1,177 532 1,709
Mianwali 1,207 1,207
Firuzpur 903    903
Muzaffargarh 723 723
Lahore 193 193

Other Districts










Kathia Population of the Punjab


District Population
Montgomery 2,419
Total Population 2,419


Khokhar Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this post I will give the distribution of the Khokhar population according to the 1901 Census. As the table shows, most of the Khokhar were found in the river valleys of the Jhelum, Chenab and Sutlej. I will ask the reader to look at my posts on the Bandial and Bhachar as well as the Khokhar of UP, which gives some background to this community.

District / States Population
Shahpur 24,351
Bahawalpur State 16,540
Jhang 16,398
Multan 11,606
Chenab Colony 8,511
Montgomery 8,093
Dera Ghazi Khan 4,199
Lahore  1,503
Firuzpur  1,169
Sialkot  784
Other Districts  4,713
Total Population 107,943


Bhatti Rajput Population of Punjab according to the 1901 Census

This is my third post looking at the distribution of Rajput tribes in Punjab. This one will look at the Bhattis, who in population numbers were the largest tribe in the Punjab. Although found in almost every district, but had especial concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot, Gujranwala) and the Pothohar regions. I will also ask the reader to look at my post on the Muslim Bhatti of Uttar Pradesh, to get some background on the tribe.



District / States






 36,268      36,268
Multan  25,675  195  81  26,951
Lahore  21,470  142    21,612
Firuzpur  18,585  204   18,789
Amritsar  16,417  87  14 16,518
Gujranwala  12,934 12,934
Montgomery  12,759  31 12,790
Gurdaspur  11,675  40 11,715
Jhelum  10,664 10,664
Chenab Colony  9,730  35  564 10,329
Sialkot  9,853 9,853
Jhang  7,737 7,737
Dera Ghazi Khan  7,272 7,272
Shahpur  7,205  61 7,266
Hissar 5,986 596 6,582
Jalandhar 6,484 58 6,542
Muzaffargarh 5,442 5,442
Patiala State 5,180 221 5,401
Kapurthala State 4,958 228 5,186
Hoshiarpur 3,274 313 3,587
Gujrat 1,784 1,784
Ludhiana 1,748 18 1,766
Ambala 1,416 1,416
Faridkot 1,381 11 1,392
Karnal 775 58  19 852
Nabha State 721  10 731
Mianwali 590 590
Delhi 326  83 409
Rohtak 368 23 391
Jind 263 56 319
Gurgaon 119 70 189

Other Districts











Panwar / Parmar Rajput population According to the 1901 Census of Punjab

The Panwar, sometimes pronounced as Parmar or even Puar were the third largest Rajput tribe in the Punjab. The eastern Panwar, who numbered around 33,553, or 50% of the total population were like the Chauhans, a tribe of Ranghar pastoralists, concentrated in Haryana. A second group, who numbered 19,689, about 30% of the population were concentrated in south west Punjab, especially in Bahawalpur State, and the neighbouring areas of Multan, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Mianwali and Firuzpur in present East Punjab. These Panwar, many of whom considered themselves to be Jats, were Seraiki speaking farmers. In between these groups were the Sikh Panwars of the Rechna Doaba, Muslims Panwars of Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana, the Mahton Panwars of the same region, and the Panwar Rajputs of the Pabbi Hills in the Jhelum/Gujrat region. It is worth pointing that several West Punjabi tribes such as the Bangial, Hon, Sohlan, Narma, Dhudhi, Mekan and Tiwana claim to be descended from the Panwar Rajputs. They are now fairly distinct from the parent tribe, and were recorded seperately.

District / States









Bahawalpur State










 5,453  157  69  5,679






Jind State









 11  2,308

Patiala State







 1,451  24 1,475







Lahore 1,212 23 220 1,455
Gurgaon 920 355 1,275
Muzaffargarh 695
62 100 857
Dera Ghazi Khan 849   849
Jhelum 649 649
Chenab Colony 295 29 205 529
Jalandhar 425 18 443
Mianwali 426 426
Dehli 135 272 407
Gujranwala 16  380 396
Sialkot 278 74 352
Ambala 242 57 299
Rawalpindi 157 157
Dujana State 104 40 144
Shahpur 48  83 131
Gurdaspur 127 127
Gujrat 111 111
Hoshiarpur 108 108

Other Districts









Chauhan Rajput Population According to the 1901 Census of Punjab

In this post, I look at the distribution of the second largest Rajput tribe in Punjab. Most of the Punjab Chauhans were Ranghars, living in Haryana. The Ranghars were Rajput groups who had converted to Islam. The majority were found in Ambala, Karnal, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hissar regions, about 101,380 about 63% of the total Chauhan population. The Rewari Ranghars, in what was then Gurgaon District, and were entirely Chauhan gave great trouble to the British. Outside Haryana, the Chauhans, also largely Muslim were found throughout Punjab. The Haryana Chauhans are often known as Raos, which is really a title and not clan name. In central Punjab, especially in the Majha, most Chauhan considered themselves as Jats. After Partition, almost all the Chauhan Ranghars migrated to Pakistan.

District / States








 53 33,725











 4,439  6,218 10,657






Patiala State









Kapurthala State













Firuzpur  2,499  588 100 3,187 
Rawalpindi 3,029  18  14 3,061
Nabha State 949 2,039 2,988 
Lahore  1,393 644 303 2,349
Chenab Colony 1,426 66  781 2,273
Kalsia State  782  1,229  16 2,027
Jind State  963  1,003 1,966
Shahpur  1,463  315  52 1,830
Amritsar 1,307  260 1,567
Ludhiana  1,349  143  58 1,550
Pataudi State  431  1,081 1,512
Jalandhar  1,028  326  74 1,428
Montgomery  1,206  195 1,401
Muzaffargarh  564 16 585 1,165
Gujranwala  221 834  84 1,139
Gurdaspur  916  113  15 1,044
Hoshiarpur  699  217 916
Sialkot  710  42 752
Jhang 506 39  79 624
Kangra  58  485 543
Dera Ghazi Khan  453  21 474
Mianwali 197 197
Gujrat 79     43 122

Other Districts










Khanzada of Mewat

In this post, I will look at the Khanzada, a grouping of Muslim Rajputs traditionally found in the Mewat region, which is much larger then the current district of Mewat. It covered a considerable part of the princely states of Bharatpur and Alwar, and the southern portion the British Punjab district of Gurgaon. I also wish to point out that the Khanzada of Mewat have no connection with the Khanzada of Awadh.

British Colonial Writers and the Khanzada

According to the British colonial ethnographer William Crooke, there two etymologies for the name of ”Khanzada”. He favours that of “descendants of the Khan” but notes the “probably less correct explanation ‘descendants of a slave'”. While another colonial ethnographer Denzil Ibbetson notes that the Khanzadas self-identified as being of the Jadubansi gotra in the 1881 Punjab census and he speculated that their communal name could be translated as “the son of a Khan ” and is the Muslim equivalent to the Hindu word ”Rajput” (“son of a Raja”). From this he concluded that

there can be little doubt that the Khanzadas are to the Meos what the Rajputs are to the Jats.

This may be the case, but the Khanzada deny any connections with the Meo community, historically intermarrying with groups like the Rewari Ranghars and Qayamkhani, both claiming Chauhan ancestry, and Rajput status. The Khanzada were also rulers of the Mewat state from 1372 till 1527, until a branch of Kachwaha Rajputs conquered the region.

Alexander Cunningham, noted that ”khanzada” and ”khanazada” are different words, and that descendants of people who took the name of Khan upon conversion to Islam would indeed be referred to as ”khanzada”. He uses the historic writings in Babur’s autobiography, Tarikh-i-Salatin Afaghana and Abu Fazl’s ‘Ain-i-Akbari to demonstrate that the corruption of meaning was a relatively recent occurrence. Powlett, author of the Alwar State Gazetteer in the late 19th Century records a distinction in Mewat between the Khanzadas and the more numerous Meos. He says that, although both groups were Muslim, the former term referred to the ruling group of Mewat and the latter to a group of lower social standing. Although the two communities would combine on occasion in raids and battles, there was as a rule no love lost between them. He thought that the Khanzadas were probably the group being referred to by Persian historians when they wrote of the “Mewatti chiefs. Crooke, who recognises the noble status, says nonetheless that “I have a suspicion that they are more intimately connected than they acknowledge with the Meos.


Origin Myths


The Khanzadas themselves claim to be Yaduvanshi Rajputs, with a genealogy going back Krishna. There is a community tradition that their origins can be traced to the Jadaun Rajput, Lakhan Pala and to the area of Karauli. This raja was in turn a descendant of Adhan Pala and therefore of Tahan Pala, who founded Tahangarh near to Bayana in the eleventh century AD, and of Bijah Pala, the founder of Bijai Garh. Bijah Pala was the 88th generation sprung from Krishna, and therefore Lakhan Pala was the 94th generation. According to these traditions, which Powlett regards as being of extremely dubious authenticity, Lakhan Pala became a Muslim in the time of Firoz Shah and established himself at Kotila. From there he controlled Mewat and other areas. Cunningham is of the opinion that Lakhan Pala’s two sons, Sambhar and Sopar, took the names Bahadur Khan and Chajju Khan, respectively, upon their conversion to Islam. He also says that Lakhan Pala’s four brothers went on to establish the Jadaun branches of the [[Meo]]s. Lakhan Pala’s two sons, Sambhar and Sopar, took the names Bahadur Khan and Chajju Khan, respectively, upon their conversion to Islam. He also says that Lakhan Pala’s four brothers went on to establish the Jadaun branches of the Meos.


Khanzada Leaders and the Mewat State

The Khanzada were affective rulers of the Mewat, and in this section, I give a brief historical sketch.

Bahadur Khan

Bahadur Khan (also known as Bahadur Nahar), is said to have received the title of ”Nahar” (”Tiger”), from Firoz Shah, an emperor of Delhi, in recognition of him having killed a tiger single-handed. Powlett, who relies heavily on the accounts of Persian historians such as Ferishta records that Bahadur Khan was a Jadaun Rajput by birth and “the reputed founder of the Khanzada race”, who had his stronghold at Kotila. Powlett believes that either Bahadur Khan or his father probably converted to Islam in order to please Firoz Shah and thereby obtain power, since it appears that they were members of a family that had previously held royal powers but had lost them. Cunningham, who conducted archaeological surveys of India, believes that Bahadur Khan and his brother were the converts, and that in return for doing so Firoz Shah granted them Tijara and Jhirka. In recognition of the grant, the name of the latter was changed to Firozpur-Jhirka.


However, Cunningham does also note that “Some say that it was their father Lakhan Pal who first embraced Islam”. The first known reference to Bahadur Khan relates to his capture of Firozabad in 1389This action was in support of Abubakar, a grandson of Firoz Shah, who was contesting Muhammad Shah (also called Nasiruddin) for the throne of Delhi following the death of Firoz Shah in 1388. The support met with only temporary success as Muhammad Shah, who was an uncle of Abubakar, soon overturned his nephew and imprisoned him for life. Bahadur Khan, however, was allowed to flee. Two years later, Bahadur Khan took advantage of Muhammad Shah’s ill health in order to launch an attack on Delhi. Although he came close to the gates, he was rebuffed and a counter-attack on Kotila by Muhammad Shah caused him to depart for Firozpur-Jhirka.


Muhammad Shah died in 1392. Bahadur Khan, together with Ikbal Khan, then held the balance between two rival claimants of the throne, Mahmud Shah and Nusrat Shah. They would not allow either claimant to gain an advantage over the other and so for three years there were two emperors of Delhi. Timur had occupied Delhi by 1398 and Bahadur Khan watched the confusion of unfolding events from the distance of Kotila. Eventually, he and others paid homage to the conqueror: Timur arranged to meet Bahadur Khan and was much pleased to receive a present of two white parrots from the Khanzada leader. Cunningham reports a traditional account that in 1400 Bahadur Khan was murdered on the instructions of his father-in-law, the Hindu Rana Jamuwas, who disapproved of his Islamic conversion. In revenge for this act, Malik Alauddin, who is called the head of the family, killed Rana Jamuwas. A tomb at Tijara, from whence Malik Alauddin came, is reputed to be that of Bahadur Khan’s son, variously named as Alauddin Khanzada or Alauddin Firoz, although this is not certain.


The tomb of Bahadur Khan himself is located in Kotila. An inscription on its gateway suggests that it was constructed between 1392–1400 AD, having been started by Bahadur Khan and completed by his successor.


Jallu Khan


Bahadur Khan had at least two sons, the elder being Kalnash and a younger one called Mubarak. Mubarak allied himself with Ikbal Khan, the power behind the weak kingship of Mahmud Shah, but was then killed by his ally, who had become suspicious of his intentions. There appears to be little record of Kalnash, although he had travelled with his father for the audience with Timur. At some point after the death of Bahadur Khan, power appears to have passed to Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar

Khizr Khan had ingratiated himself with Timur and by that means had obtained virtual control of North India. He had invaded Mewat as early as 1411, did so again in 1413, and then, having become king of Delhi, he razed Kotila in 1421, forcing Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar into the surrounding hills. Khizar Khan was succeeded by Syed Mubarak (also known as Mubarak Shah) in the same year. Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar probably died a year later.

Jallu (or Jalal) Khan and Kaddu, both grandsons of Bahadur Khan, found themselves having to adopt scorched earth tactics subsequent to the death of Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar. Syed Mubarak had taken up the challenge of subduing the rebellious people of Mewat in 1424 and the attempt failed as the Mewatis laid waste their own territories before retreating to the hills. Similar tactics were adopted by Jallu and Kaddu in 1425 when Syed Mubarak renewed his attempt to quell resistance. He had more success on this occasion: the Mewatis had first retreated to Indor but he succeeded in forcing them from there to the hills, and destroyed the town in the process. Nonetheless, the subsequent surrender was a short-lived affair, and further incursions into Mewat proved to be necessary.

Kaddu had been killed by 1427, when another attempt to crush the rebellious Mewatis met with such resistance from Jallu – and from Ahmad Khan and Malik Fakaruddin, who were probably also of the same family – that it failed. They had again adopted a scorched earth policy, and retreated this time to the fort at Alwar. There was more success in the following year, when the Mewatis were forced to pay tribute to the ruler of Hindustan, but Rewari at least appears to have remained under Mewati control


Jallu is claimed to have captured Amber, the stronghold of the [[Kachwaha]] rajas, and removed one of its gates to Indor. The fort at Indor, which lay about 6km to the north of Kotila and south of Delhi, was a Khanzada stronghold much favoured by Jallu. He died around 1441, and Cunningham notes that he “is the great hero of the Khanzadas, who are never tired of relating his gallant deeds”.



A brother of Jallu, Ahmad, succeeded him and lived in relative peace until perhaps 1466, although he had to give up Tijara and pay tribute to [[Bahlol Lodi]] in order to achieve this.

Adil Khan

Cunningham refers to Adil Khan as the successor to Ahmad Khan. He considers it most likely that this person was a son of Ahmad. There was at least one other son, Alawal Khan, whom Cunningham notes Powlett describing as the destroyer, in 1482, of the power of the Nikumbha Rajputs, a Suryavanshi community who had established most of the forts then in existence in Alwar and in northern Jaipur, including probably those at Indore and at Alwar itself.


Hasan Khan Mewati

Perhaps the most famous Khanzada leader is Hasan Khan Mewati. Cunningham believes him to have been the son of Adil and a nephew of Alawal

The back-and-forth quest for control continued for much of the fifteenth century. However, 1526 saw the arrival of a new force in the form of Babur. This warrior, who claimed to be a representative of Timur, desired to surpass that man’s achievements by establishing an empire in the region rather than merely raiding it. Babur had won the Battle of Panipat (1526) in order to gain possession of Delhi and Agra, at which point Powlett describes that

“Then it was that the Rajputs made their last great struggle for independence. They were led by Rana Sankha, a chief of Mewar, who invited the Mewatti chief, Hasan Khan, to aid the nation from which he had sprung in resisting the new horde of Musalmans (Muslims) from the north.”

Babur was frustrated by Hasan Khan, with whom he had attempted to curry favour in order to obtain support against the Hindus. Hasan Khan had refused to co-operate and, according to Babur, was “the prime mover in all the confusions and insurrections of the period. The position taken by Hasan Khan was probably with an eye to regaining possession of Tijara, whose possessor at that time had allied with Babur. Babur’s difficulty was removed around the time of his victory over the Rajputs and Mewatis at the Battle of Khanwa, near to Fatehpur Sikri on 16 March 1527: Hasan Khan either died in that conflict, as Babur claimed, or was assassinated soon after at the behest of members of his family


Hasan Khan’s tomb is thought to be at Bhartari, near to Tijara, although the structure carries no indicative markings.

Mughal period

Nahar Khan, the son of Hasan Khan, sued for peace with Babur subsequent to the Battle of Khanwa and thereafter it appears that the Khanzadas lived in relative obscurity. By now, their seats of power at Tijara and at Alwar were both under the control of others. Powlett, writing in 1878, says that


The political power of the Khanzada chiefs of Mewat was now permanently broken, and they do not again appear, like Bahadur Khan and Hasan Khan, as the powerful opponents or principal allies of emperors.;… [They] still retained local importance, which did not quite disappear until the present century.

A part of that local importance was signified by the marriage of Babur’s successor, Humayun, and also of Humayun’s powerful aide, Bairam Khan, with great-nieces of Hasan Khan.  Additionally, according to Powlett, Khanzadas were

 “distinguished soldiers” in the armies of the Mughal empire. There was one brief flaring, during the rule of[Aurungzeb, when Ikram Khan Khanzada succeeded in gaining the War flags of the Governor of Tijara, but the once fractious Mewat region was generally peaceful under Mughal rule.

The Rise of the Alwar State

Pratap Singh, Thakur of Macheri, a Kachwaha Rajput of the Naruka branch, became a distinguished soldier of fortune in the Jaipur State Forces, who eventually entered the Imperial (Mughal) service. He gained many victories against the Jats, receiving Imperial recognition of dominion over some of the territories he conquered. He established an independent Alwar state in 1770, and assumed the title of Maharao Raja of Alwar after successfully conquering the famous fort of that city. Alwar State remained a semi-independent princely state until the Partition of India. The Khanzadas were reduced to the status of zamindars, although many continued to serve in State Forces. However, the Chaudharis of Tijara and Nawabs of Shahabad remained important Khanzada estates within the Alwar Kingdom.

British Period

Percy Powlett notes in 1878 that what ever local importance the Khanzadas may have once had, it disappeared during the nineteenth century. He says that they were by this time

y were by this time they are not numerically insignificant and cannot now be reckoned among the aristocracy. In social rank they are far above the Meos, and though probably of more recent Hindu extraction, they are better Musalmans.


Despite their Muslim faith, they did in the 19th Century still use the services of Brahmins during their marriage ceremonies, and also followed some other Hindu customs for that purpose. There were 26 Khanzada villages in Alwar and the population was economically weak, in part because their productivity in agriculture was hampered by the non-involvement of women. Some had migrated from the Mewat region and others were employed by both the British and the state armies, but agriculture was the primary occupation. According to the 1901 Census, the total Khanzada population was 13,925, of which 3,971 lived in Punjab, almost all in Gurgaon, and  9,954 in Rajputana, mainly in Alwar and Bharatpur.

Partition and Settlement in Sindh

At the time of Partition in 1947, the entire Khanzada population had leave the states of Bharatpur and Alwar and Gurgaon. Most Khanzada have settled in Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas and Badin in Sindh.


Baloch Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

In this post, I will look at the distribution of the Baloch community in Punjab. as should expected, the majority occupied territory that bordered Baluchistan, such as Dera Ghazi Khan and Baloch Trans-Frontier.

There were infact two distinct groups of Baloch in Punjab, a larger Seraiki speaking group, with the Trans-Frontier Baloch actually speaking Balochi, found throughout South West Punjab, with Mianwali (present day Mianwali and Bhakkar districts) and Shahpur (present day Khushab and Sargodha) forming the northern boundary, Jhang, Lyalpur and Montgomery forming the eastern boundary of the region. This was home to 90% of the Baloch group. A second cluster, about 10% lived in and around Delhi, the present day Haryana state. These Baloch were Haryanvi speaking, and the Baloch colonies here dated from the 15th Century. The city of Lahore, as capital of Punjab, was home to large urban community, which formed the third sub-group among the Baloch of Punjab.


District / State Population
Dera Ghazi Khan 168,322
Muzaffargarh 76,586
Bahawalpur State 64,832
Multan 24,488
Baloch Trans-Frontier 22,369
Chenab Colony 17,433
Shahpur 12,995
Montgomery 12,024
Lahore 5,288
Firuzpur 3,388
Gujranwala 3,274
Jhelum 2,338
Rohtak 2,314
Gurgaon 2,241
Patiala State 1,382
Delhi 1,240
Hissar 1,151
Karnal 1,094
Rawalpindi 915
Gujrat 906
Faridkot 517
Other Districts 2,480
Total Population 467,843

Pathan population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

This is my eleventh post looking at the distribution of communities designated as agriculture. Of all the communities looked at, the Pathans were the most diverse in terms of language, culture and traditions. Other then the Makhad Pathans, who spoke Pashto, the Pathan groups difered little from the population of the region they were settled in. These colonies of Pathans were accounted for by Sir Densil Ibbetson in the following manner:

During the Lodi and Suri dynasties many Pathans migrated to India especially during the reign of Bahlol Lodhi and Sher Shah Suri. These naturally belonged to the Ghilzai section from which those kings sprung.[3]
— Sir Densil Ibbetson

Large numbers of Pathans accompanied the armies of Mahmud of Ghazni, Muhammad of Ghor and Babur, and many of them obtained grants of land in the Punjab plains and founded Pathan colonies which still exist. Many Pathans have also been driven out of Afghanistan due to devastated invading forces such as Genghis Khan and his Mongol armies, including internal feuds or famine, and have taken refuge in the plains east of the Indus River where the Mongols marked the line of their aggression. The tribes most commonly to be found in the Punjab region are the Yusufzai, Mandanr, Lodhi, Kakar, Sherwani, Orakzai, Tanoli, Karlanri and the Zamand Pathans. Of these the most widely distributed are the Yusufzai, of whom a body of 12,000 accompanied the Mughal Emperor Babur in the final invasion of India, and settled in the plains of India and the Punjab. But as a rule the Pathans who have settled away from the frontier have lost all memory of their tribal divisions, and indeed almost all their national characteristics.

In terms of distribution, most of the Pathan population was found in four distinct areas, about 20% in Mianwali, similar percentage in the Chhach, 20% in the region around Delhi, about 20% in East Punjab especially in Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Ambala, and Gurdaspur, 5% were the Multani Pathans, found in southern Punjab, the remainder distributed in Lahore and other parts of Punjab.

The Mianwali Pathans

The District with largest Pathan population was Mianwali, where they numbered 46,818, almost 20% of the total. There are four different tribes of Pathans in the district, the Niazais, Khattaks, the Biluchch Pathans, and the Multanis, and spoke a dialect of Punjabi close to Seraiki. The Khattaks of Isa Khel Tehsil, known as  Bhangish or Bhangi Khels from the region they occup in the Isa Khel Tahsil, and one village opposite their own
country across the Indus in the Mianwali Tehsil. The other section of Khattaks, called the Guddi Khels, hold the villages on the  skirts of the Maidani range. Both these Khattaks are unique in that they still Pashto.

The Makhad and Chach Pathans

Most of the 44,244 Pathans living in Rawalpindi District came from the Chhachh region. In 1902, this region became part of the seperate Attock District. These Attock Pathans are found in two parts of the tehsil, those of Sarwala, and those of Chhachh.The Chhachh Pathans have very little in common with the Sagri, as they are separated by the Kala Chita mountains. The Chhachh are a Hindko and speaking community, and have much in common with the Pashtun tribes settled in the neighbouring Hazara Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

The largest clan are the Alizai, who include the Tahirkheli, one of three mains septs of the Alizai. The Tahirkheli inhabit villages along the Haro river. The other tribe along the Haro are the Saddozai, and both they and the Alizai, are branches of the Utmanzai tribe. Together with the Manduri and Barahzai, who are also found in numbers in the district, they are all sections of the great Yousafzai tribe. By far the greater proportion of the Attock Pathans are Yousafzai, allied to the Yousafzai of Swabi and Mardan districts. In addition to these, there are also a small number of Kakar, Wardag, Khattaks, Akakhel, Bangash, and Jadoon. They are largely Hindko speaking.

The Delhi and Haryana Pathans

Almost 43,420 Pathans, about 20% of the total population lived in territory that forms the modern states of Delhi and Haryana.  The Delhi Pathans lived largely in the city, and spoke Urdu, while the colonies in Gurgaon, Rohtak, Hisar, Karnal and Dujana were largely farmers and Haryanwi speaking. The princely states of Dujana, and Pataudi were ruled by Pathan rulers, and in Dujana town, the Pathans formed the largest single community. Almost the entire community were forced to leave at the time of Partition.

Multani Pathans

The descendants of Zamand very early migrated in large numbers to Multan, to which province they furnished rulers, till the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, when a number of the Abdali tribe under the leadership of Shah Husain were driven from Kandahar by tribal feuds, took refuge in Multan, and being early supplemented by other of their kinsmen who were expelled by Mir Wais, the great Ghilzai chief, conquered Multan and founded the tribe well known in the Punjab as Multani Pathans.

Zahid Khan Abdali was appointed Governor of Multan with the title of Nawab, at the time of Nadir Shah’s invasion. Multan was Governed by different members of this family, until in 1818 the city was captured by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh, after a heroic defence in which the Nawab and five of his sons were slain.

Their main clans were the Alizai, Badozai, Bamzai and Saddozai, all clans of the Durrani tribe. Other tribal communities include the Babar, Khakwani, Tareen and Yousafzai.[8] In Muzaffargarh District, the Pathans of the district are related to the Multani Pathans. They settled in Muzaffargarh in the 18th century, as small groups of Multani Pathan expended their control from the city of Multan. There distribution is as follows; the Alizai Durrani are found at Lalpur, and the Popalzai are found in Docharkha, while the Babars are based in Khangarh and Tareen in Kuhawar are other important tribes.

District / State Population
Mianwali  46,818
Rawalpindi  44,244
Delhi 17,763
Dera Ghazi Khan
Gurdaspur 11,214
Bahawalpur State
 Lahore 8,920
 Multan 8,251
 Patiala State
 Karnal 7,460
 Ambala 6,804
 Hoshiarpur 6,802
 Rohtak 5,712
 Gurgaon 5,497
Jalandhar 5,364
Hisar 4,870
Amritsar 4,676
Chenab Colony 4,531
Firuzpur 4,455
Muzaffargarh 4,019
Sialkot 3,983
Shahpur 3,562
Ludhiana 3,401
Gujrat 3,283
Jhelum 3,194
Montgomery 2,460
Nabha State 2,254
Shimla 1,312
Jhang 1,306
Malerkotla 1,282
Gujranwala 1,175
Kapurthala 1,155
Dujana 1,131
Jind 1,128
Kangra 987
Mandi 614
Kalsia 614
Keonthal 591
Chamba 550
Other Districts 1,089
Total Population 263,897


Ahir / Aheer (Yadav) Population of Punjab according to the 1901 Census

This is another of my series of posts looking at the distributions of castes gazetted as agricultural by the Land Alienation of Punjab. This time I am looking at Ahir, who increasingly self-identify as Yadav. The Ahir were found largely in what is now the state of Haryana, and were almost entirely Hindu. Muslim Ahirs were only found in the western most districts of Punjab, in Jhelum valley from Khushab to the city of Multan. I would ask the reader to at my post on the Muslim Aheer to get some background on the community.


District / State














































Pataudi 3,839     3,839
Karnal 1,697
 14  64 1,775
Ambala 1,323
 13 1,336
Firuzpur 1,236
14 1,250
Shahpur 71
1,017 1,088
Lahore 820
46 846
Mianwali   843 843
Rawalpindi 577
 15   592
Multan 261
234 495
Chenab Colony 40
13 398
Amritsar 342
Sialkot 259 32   291
Loharu 248 248
Gujrat 198
Faridkot 181
Jalandhar  170  170
Ludhiana  168  168
Jhang    167  167

Other Districts