Narma and Sohlan Rajput

In this post, I look at two related tribes, the Narma and Sohlan. Both are branches of the famous Parmar Rajputs, who ruled much of central India, from their capital at Ujjain. Once the Parmar state was destroyed, groups of Parmar migrated to different parts of India, including the foothills of the Pir Panjaal.

Narma

Starting off with the Narma, they are a clan of Paharia Rajputs, whose territory extends from Mirpur and Kotli in Azad Kashmir to Gujrat and Rawalpindi in Punjab. According to tribal traditions, they are Agnikula Rajputs descendant of Raja Karan. This Raja Karan was said to be from Ujjain or Kathiawar, although the Thathaal tradition is he was the ruler of Thanesar in Haryana. My post on the Nonari also explores this mysterious figure found among the traditions of many Punjab tribes. The Narma, therefore are Panwar Rajputs, who ruled Malwa and Ujjain, their famous kings names were Raja Bikramjeet and Raja Bahoj. During the invasions of Mahmood of Ghaznai the Narma were said to be living in the Haryana. Naru Khan 8th descent of Raja Karan accepted Islam and the tribe were named after him; Naru or Narma Rajputs. They were land owner of several villages within Haryana; the chief men of this tribe were known by the title Rai, and this title is still used by their descendants presently. Most Narma Rajputs have accepted Islam, although some remain Hindu. The Panwars are said to have thirty four branches, named after places, titles, language and person’s names like Omtawaar were known as the descendants of Omta, similarly the descendants of Naru became Naruma and then Narma.

 

Naru and Narma

There might be a common ancestory between Naru and Narma, they both claim their ancestor name was Naru, who accepted Islam and given new name Naru Khan during the invasion of Mahmood of Ghazna, and he lived in Haryana area. However, the Narma claim that they are of Panwar Rajput ancestry, while Naru origin stories make reference to Chandravanshi origin (Please see my article on the Pothohar tribes on Rajput sub-divisions). Coming back to the Narma, their origin myth refers to a Rai Pahre Khan, seven generations from Naru Khan who came from Kaithal in Haryana to what is now Jhelum district and founded two villages Fatehpur and Puran. A descendent of Pahre Khan, Rai Jalal Khan relocated to Senyah. As a tribe, the Narma are distributed over a large territory with Gujrat in the east, Rawalpindi in the west, and Mirpur and Poonch in the north, with Panjan in Azad Kashmir being a centre of the tribe.

Clans

The Narmas in Gujrat say that they have nine clans which are as follows:

1. Sadrya

2. Adryal

3. Sambrhyal

4. Haudali

5. Jalali

6. Alimyana

7. Joyal

8. Umrali

9. Hassanabdalia.

Narma Rajputs in Indian administered Kashmir

In India administered Kashmir, they are found mainly in villages near Naushehra in Rajauri District. There main villages include Jamola and Gurdal Paine.

Narma Rajput in Azad Kashmir

Important Narma villages in Azad Kashmir include Khoi Ratta, Narma, Panjan, Dhargutti, Palal Rajgan, Panjpir, Prayi, Charohi, Rasani, Sabazkot, Sanghal, Senyah, and Tain all in Kotli District.

In Bagh District, their villages include Sirawera, Dhoomkot. Kaffulgarh, Ghaniabad, Bees Bagla, Sarmundle, Mandri, Bhutti, Nikkikair, Awera, Dhundar, Cheran, Makhdomkot, Chattar, Adyala Paddar, Lober, and Patrata.

While in Bhimber District, they are found in the villages of Haripur (Samani Tehsil), Jhangar (Bhimber Tehsil), Makri Bohani (Bhimber Tehsil), Broh (Bhimber Tehsil), Khamba (Bhimber Tehsil), Thandar (Bhimber Tehsil), Siyala (Bhimber Tehsil), Garhone (Bhimber Tehsil), and Chadhroon (Bhimber Tehsil).

Narma Rajput in Punjab

In Punjab, they are found in the districts of Gujrat, Jhelum and Rawalpindi. The villages of Puran and Fatehpur in Jhelum District are said to be their earliest settlements. In Rawalpindi, they are found in Jocha Mamdot ,Sood Badhana and Narmatokh Kangar villages.

Sohlan

Sohlan is said to have emigrated from Malwa in the middle ages, settling in the foothills of the Pir Panjal mountains, and converting to Islam. The Sohlan established a principality based on the town of the Khari Sharif and during the time of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals the reigning authorities never levied taxes in the Solhan ruled areas, in lieu of peaceful passage to Kabul. There are however other traditions which connect the Sohlan clan with the royal family from Kishtawar; with Raja Sohlan Singh quarrelling with his relations and settling in Khari, and expelling the Gujjar population. Legend also has it that Mangla Devi an ancestor of the tribe and after whom Mangla is named after was the first person from the tribe to convert to Islam. This site has now been inundated by the construction of the Mangla Dam in Mirpur District. After the collapse of the Mughal Empire, the Sohlan areas came under the rule of the Sikhs. This rule lasted until 1846 when Sohlan inhabited areas north of the Jhelum river were handed over to the Gulab Singh Dogra in an agreement with the British as part of the Treaty of Amritsar. As result of this treaty, Sohlan territory was effectively partitioned, with Sohlan south of the Jhelum coming under direct British areas, in what became the district of Jhelum and sub-district of Gujar Khan. Despite this separation, both the Chibhal territory of Jammu State and British Pothohar continued to share common cultural traditions, with minor dialectial differences between Pothwari and Pahari languages.

 

Presently, the Sohlan are found chiefly in the Mirpur District of Azad Kashmir, with small numbers found in Jhelum, Gujar Khan, and Rawalpindi.

Starting with Mirpur District, their villages include Bani (Mirpur), Dalyala, Ghaseetpur Sohalian, Koonjarai Nawab, Mehmunpur, and Sahang. Sohlan villages in Mirpur are located mainly around the town of Khari Sharif which has historically been ruled by this clan. Since the development of the Mangla Dam, old Jabot Village, which was also an important Sohlan village was submerged underwater causing many families to move to Khari Sharif, and establishing the village of New Jabot. The Sohlan village in Jhelum District are located north of the city of Jhelum near the border with Mirpur, the principal settlement being Sohan. Other villages include Gatyali or Patan Gatalyan, Chak Khasa, Pakhwal Rajgan, Chitti Rajgan, Pind Ratwal Tahlianwala, Dhok Sohlnan, Piraghaib and Langerpur. They are closely connected to with both the Bhao and Chibs, who are their neighbours, and with whom they share good many customs and traditions. Outside this core area, Sohlan villages include Sahang and Dhok Sohlan in Tehsil Gujar Khan district, Morah Sohlan, Pehount in the Islamabad Capital Territory and Naar Mandho in Kotli District.

Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1891 Census of India

In 1891 the total Rajput population was 1,983,299 of which Muslims were 1,559,977. I would also ask the reader to look at my other posts such as Muslim Rajput clans of British Punjab according to the 1901 Census of India.

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 297,343 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Khokhar 137,883 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot, Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Gurdaspur
Chauhan 132,116 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe, in central found mainly in Lahore, Amritsar and Jallandhar
Sial 106,146 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Gondal 62,071 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Shahpur
Panwar 54,892 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe; a smaller grouo also found in Jhelum
Kharal 51,586 Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Joiya 47,773 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Janjua 36,970 a western group in Rawalpindi and Jhelum and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Ghorewaha 34,192 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Manj 26,983 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Wattu 24,150 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Bahawalpur to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Sulehri / Sulehria 24,345 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Naru 22,680 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana – by early 20th Century, several Naru were settled in Faisalabad and Sahiwal in the canal colonies
Tomar / Tonwar 21,691 Modern Haryana (especially Rohtak and Panipat), Ambala, and in the Bahawalpur Stater
Bariah also pronounced as Varya 19,463 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Ranjha 18,490 Jhelum / Chakwal
Taoni 17,730 Ambala – a Ranghar grouping
Manhas / Minhas 16,026 From Rawalpindi to Hoshiarpur – a Muslim Dogra grouping
Dhudhi 11,286 Sargodha, Jhang, Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Bhakral 11,207 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Jatu 10,837 Modern Haryana (especially Hissar and Gurgaon), Ambala, and Rohtak. They are a Ranghar tribe
Satti 10,799 Rawalpindi
Dhanyal 8,524 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Khichi 7,845 Sargodha, Jhang and Sahiwal
Mekan 7,733 Sargodha (Shahpur District), Jhang and Rawalpindi
Chib 6,673 Gujrat, a Muslim Dogra clan
Mandahar 4,022 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and Hissar. They are a Ranghar tribe
Khanzada 3,471 Gurgaon – a branch of the Jadaun clan
Tiwana 3,120 a western group in Kushab and eastern group in Patiala
Raghubansi / Raghuvanshi 3,060 Ambala – a Ranghar clan
Kanial 2,725 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Katil 2,461 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Pundir 2,117 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar group with villages near the Yamuna river
Bargujar 2,046 Gurgaon – a Ranghar tribe found in Rewari
Kethwal 1,849 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Jadaun 1,353 Gurgaon and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Bagri 1,186 Hissar and Firuzpur, in areas bordering Bikaner. Rajasthani immigrants
Rathore 1,067 Hissar, Firuzpur and Bahawalpur, in areas bordering Bikaner. Rajasthani immigrants
Chandel 912 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Patiala and Ludhiana
Khoja 841 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Jaswal 558 Hoshiarpur
Gaurwa 546 Gurgaon – Ranghar group
Atiras 477 Patiala State
Pathial 470 Kangra and Hoshiarpur
Luddu 258 Hoshiarpur
Guleria 248 Hoshiarpur
Dhanwal 214 Sahiwal and Okara
Dadwal 147 Hoshiarpur
Pathania 138 Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Katoch 101 Hoshiarpur
Miscellaneous clans 299,166 throughout Punjab

 

Population of Muslim Jat Clans of British Punjab According to the 1891 Census of India

In 1891 the total Jat population was 4,625,523, of which Muslim Jats numbered 1,771,034. I would also ask the reader to look at my posts on the Population of Muslim Jat Clans of British Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India and Population of Muslim Jat Clans of British Punjab According to the 1911 Census of India. Both these posts give a breakdown of the larger Jat clans. The process of counting up clans began with the 1891 Census. However only the 68 largest clans were enumerated separately, the rest simply declared miscellaneous. Deciding whether a clan was Jat or Rajput ended up being an arbitrary process. For example in the 1891 Census, the Gondals declared themselves all as Rajputs. while in 1901 a total of 2,508 declared themselves as Jats, while the majority of 36,088 declared themselves to be Rajput. By the 1911 Census, almost all Gondals, about 62,320 declared themselves as Jats, while a mere 31 declared themselves as Rajputs.

Wariach 54,499 Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sialkot, Lahore and Amritsar
Sidhu 48,668 Hissar, Jallandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Sialkot, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat and Chenab Colony
Sandhu 28,011 Hissar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Montgomery, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Amritsar, Shahpur (Sargodha), Chenab Colony, Jhang and Multan
Tarar 25,619 Lahore, Gujrat, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Jhelum and Chenab Colony
Bajwa 25,255 Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Jallandhar and Patiala State
Gill 19,573 Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Firuzpur, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Bhutta 16,376 Shahpur, Jhelum, Mianwali, Multan and Chenab Colony
Virk 16,052 Gujranwala, Chenab Colony, Gujrat, Dera Ghazi Khan, Sialkot, Lahore and Amritsar
Ghumman 15,044 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Goraya 13,039 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Sipra 11,908 Patiala, Montgomery, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Shahpur (Sargodha), Chenab Colony, Jhang, Multan and Bahawalpur
Dhillon 11,864 Ambala, Hissar, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot Mianwali, and Chenab Colony
Kahlon 10,854 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Kapurthala, Jalandhar and Chenab Colony
Chatha 10,574 Patiala, Lahore, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat and Chenab Colony
Thaheem 10,382 Multan, Bahawalpur, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Chhina 10,058 Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Rawalpindi, Mianwali, Chenab Colony and Dera Ghazi Khan
Langah 9,905 Shahpur, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Mianwali, Multan and Bahawalpur
Bains 8,963 Ambala, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Shahpur, Chenab Colony, Multan and Dera Ghazi Khan
Cheema 8,676 Patiala, Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat and Chenab Colony
Sahi 8,619 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujrat, Jhelum and Sialkot
Randhawa 7,994 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala and Sialkot
Harral 7,869 Gujranwala, Shahpur, Mianwali, Gujrat, Jhang, and Chenab Colony
Langrial 7,811 Sialkot, Gujrat and Multan
Soomra / Samra 7,065 Mianwali, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalpur
Aulakh 5,916 Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Amritsar, and Jallandhar
Dhariwal 5,685 Ambala, Hissar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Maan 5,210 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Sarai 4,496 Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Ambala and Jallandhar
Chahal 4,805 Ambala, Ludhiana, Firuzpur, Amritsar, Lahore, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Bhullar 4,419 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Jalandhar and Lahore
Mangat 3,919 Patiala, Ludhiana, Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sialkot
Hanjra 3,852 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Montgomery, Shahpur, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Chandhar/ Chadhar 3,822 Montgomery, Amritsar, Firuzpur, Lahore, Jhang, Muzaffargarh, Mianwali, Multan, Jhelum, Shahpur and Chenab Colony
Heer 3,662 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Montgomery, Shahpur, Mianwali, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Kang 3,571 Patiala, Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Multan, Muzaffargarh and Chenab Colony
Naul 3,440 Jhang
Lodike 3,233 Gujranwala
Dhotar 2,596 Gujranwala and Gujrat
Deo / Dev 2,336 Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Mianwali and Chenab Colony
Pannun 2,161 Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Atwal 2,040 Amritsar, Ludhiana, Chenab Colony and Jallandhar
Bhangu 1,662 Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Chenab Colony
Sohal 1,648 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Sialkot
Dalal 1,618 Hissar, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Delhi
Marral or Marhal 1,547 Karnal, Patiala and Jhang
Waseer 1,513 Chenab Colony
Bal 1,312 Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana
Mahil 1,081 Ambala, Hoshiarpur and Amritsar
Bahiniwal / Wahiniwal 1,058 Montgomery, Hissar, Rohtak and Firuzpur
Jakhar 1,051 Hissar, Firuzpur, Bahawalpur, Mianwali, Montgomery, and Multan
Sarah 1,027 Firuzpur,
Pawania 982 Karnal, Hissar and Firuzpur
Buttar 916 Dera Ghazi Khan, Ludhiana, Firuzpur, Lahore, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala and Sialkot
Dhindsa 888 Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Nain 726 Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Ahlawat 634 Rohtak
Dahya 432 Ambala, Bahawalpur, Hissar, Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Butta 420 Chenab Colony
Rathi 374 Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Dhankar 203 Delhi and Rohtak
Godara 170 Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Dagar 156 Rohtak and Delhi
Ghatwala or Malik 134 Hissar, Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Phogat 114 Karnal and Rohtak
Gulia 112 Mianwali
Gandhi 97 Mianwali
Deshwal / Deswal 87 Hissar, Gurgaon, Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Sahrawat 27 Karnal, Rohtak and Gurgaon
Miscellaneous clans 1,290,075

Population of Muslim Jat Clans of British Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

Bellow is a breakdown of the larger Jat clans by population. I would also the reader to look at my posts Population of Muslim Jat Clans of British Punjab According to the 1891 Census of India/ and Major Muslim Jat clans, which gives a brief description of the main clans.

 

Tribe Population Distribution
Wariach 58,936 Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sialkot, Lahore and Amritsar
Cheema 39,358 Patiala, Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat and Chenab Colony
Bajwa 27,609 Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Jallandhar and Patiala State
Chandhar/ Chadhar 27,422 Montgomery, Amritsar, Firuzpur, Lahore, Jhang, Muzaffargarh, Mianwali, Multan, Jhelum, Shahpur and Chenab Colony
Sandhu 25,786 Hissar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Montgomery, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Amritsar, Shahpur (Sargodha), Chenab Colony, Jhang and Multan
Tarar 25,606 Lahore, Gujrat, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Jhelum and Chenab Colony
Gill 19,894 Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Firuzpur, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Virk 19,703 Gujranwala, Chenab Colony, Gujrat, Dera Ghazi Khan, Sialkot, Lahore and Amritsar
Ghumman 16,893 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Hanjra 15,892 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Montgomery, Shahpur, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Bains 14,398 Ambala, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Shahpur, Chenab Colony, Multan and Dera Ghazi Khan
Bhutta 14,208 Shahpur, Jhelum, Mianwali, Multan and Chenab Colony
Goraya 14,076 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Bhatti 13,682 Shahpur, Jhelum, Mianwali and Chenab Colony
Langrial 12,960 Sialkot, Gujrat and Multan
Dhillon 12.913 Ambala, Hissar, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot Mianwali, and Chenab Colony
Sipra 12,558 Patiala, Montgomery, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Shahpur (Sargodha), Chenab Colony, Jhang, Multan and Bahawalpur
Heer 11,839 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Montgomery, Shahpur, Mianwali, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Soomra / Samra 11,509 Mianwali, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalpur
Chatha 11,483 Patiala, Lahore, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat and Chenab Colony
Sahi 11,478 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujrat, Jhelum and Sialkot
Sidhu 11,322 Hissar, Jallandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Sialkot, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat and Chenab Colony
Parhar 11,099 Shahpur, Bahawalpur, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Thaheem 11,023 Multan, Bahawalpur, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Kahlon 10,809 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Kapurthala, Jalandhar and Chenab Colony
Langah 10,808 Shahpur, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Mianwali, Multan and Bahawalpur
Harral 10,599 Gujranwala, Shahpur, Mianwali, Gujrat, Jhang, and Chenab Colony
Chachar 10,079 Bahawalpur and Dera Ghazi Khan
Randhawa 9,617 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala and Sialkot
Chhina 8,492 Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Rawalpindi, Mianwali, Chenab Colony and Dera Ghazi Khan
Panwar or Puar 7,900 Bahawalpur and Firuzpur
Chelar 7,529 Bahawalpur
Babbar 6,657 Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffargarh
Kang 6,580 Patiala, Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Multan, Muzaffargarh and Chenab Colony
Sandhel 6,215 Dera Ghazi Khan, Mianwali, Muzaffargarh, Bahawalpur
Maan 5,939 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Aulakh 5,838 Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Amritsar, and Jallandhar
Sarai 5,746 Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Ambala and Jallandhar
Janjua 5,394 Mianwali, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Jodhra 5,157 Attock
Mangat 5000 Patiala, Ludhiana, Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sialkot
Autrah 4,962 Multan, Mianwali and Muzaffargarh
Ghallu 4.906 Multan, Muzaffargarh and Bahawalpur
Buttar 4,923 Dera Ghazi Khan, Ludhiana, Firuzpur, Lahore, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala and Sialkot
Dhariwal 4,884 Ambala, Hissar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Chahal 4,466 Ambala, Ludhiana, Firuzpur, Amritsar, Lahore, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Sahu 4,294 Multan and Muzaffargarh
Dosanjh 4,198 Kapurthala and Jalandhar
Sial 4,169 Rawalpindi and Mianwali
Jakhar 4,165 Hissar, Firuzpur, Bahawalpur, Mianwali, Montgomery, and Multan
Lak 3,971 Shahpur, Jhang, Chenab Colony, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Bhullar 3,905 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Jalandhar and Lahore
Naij 3,894 Bahawalpur
Bohar 3,833 Bahawalpur and Dera Ghazi Khan
Khaki 3,801 Multan, Muzaffargarh and Bahawalpur
Khokhar 3,735 Gujranwala
Malana 3,609 Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Dahya 3,602 Ambala, Bahawalpur, Hissar, Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Mohana 3,591 Dera Ghazi Khan
Deo / Dev 3,549 Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Mianwali and Chenab Colony
Lodike 3,269 Gujranwala
Malak 3,264 Bahawalpur
Atwal 3,200 Jalandhar and Amritsar
Lali 3,137 Shahpur and Jhang
Samma 3,084 Bahawalpur
Kharal 3,046 Gujranwala
Kalru 2,956 Multan and Muzaffargarh
Kanyal 2,944 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Khera or Khaira 2,942 Lahore, Amritsar and Sialkot
Sahotra 2,805 Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar and Chenab Colony
Maitla 2,765 Dera Ghazi Khan and Multan
Phor 2,738 Multan and Dera Ghazi Khan
Lakaul 2,675 Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Dhotar 2,545 Gujranwala and Gujrat
Gondal 2,508 Jhelum, Rawalpindi and Chenab Colony
Bassi 2,449 Jalandhar and Kapurthala
Sohal 2,383 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Sialkot
Sangi 2,338 Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalpur, Firuzpur and Kapurthala
Naul 2,311 Jhang
Aura 2,329 Rawalpindi
Kalasra 2,284 Mianwali and Muzaffargarh
Bahiniwal / Wahiniwal 2,227 Montgomery, Hissar, Rohtak and Firuzpur
Daha 2,222 Muzaffargarh, Multan and Bahawalpur
Dhamial 2,209 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Johal 2,199 Amritsar, Kapurthala, Jalandhar and Chenab Colony
Nonari 2,086 Multan, Muzaffargarh, Montgomery and Bahawalpur
Channar 1,959 Multan and Bahawalpur
Lang 1,873 Multan
Mahil 1,861 Ambala, Hoshiarpur and Amritsar
Nanwai 1,833 Bahawalpur
Uttera 1,817 Multan and Bahawalpur
Kalial 1,791 Rawalpindi
Sudhan 1,765 Rawalpindi
Pannun 1,752 Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Chhajra 1,648 Dera Ghazi Khan
Barra 1,597 Dera Ghazi Khan
Bhachar 1,588 Mianwali
Jakhlan 1,584 Dera Ghazi Khan
Kalwar 1,582 Bahawalpur
Khatreel 1,578 Rawalpindi
Rehan 1,573 Jhang and Shahpur
Hans 1,542 Multan, Muzaffargarh and Montgomery
Waseer 1,513 Chenab Colony
Jhammat 1,508 Mianwali and Jhelum
Turk 1,499 Mianwali
Kohawer 1,487 Mianwali
Kahka 1,453 Bahawalpur
Gandhi 1,452 Mianwali
Bal 1,439 Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana
Marral or Marhal 1,434 Karnal, Patiala and Jhang
Sahmal 1,417 Jhang and Chenab Colony
Tulla 1,403 Sargodha
Asar 1,400 Mianwali
Sanda 1,398 Bahawalpur and Mianwali
Gilotar 1,394 Jhang
Dumra 1,357 Mianwali and Dera Ghazi Khan
Turkhel 1,344 Mianwali
Sekhon 1,335 Gujranwala
Kahu 1,331 Chenab Colony
Dahar / Dahiri 1,327 Bahawalpur
Kalu 1,301 Mianwali
Kalu 1,301 Mianwali
Jhullan 1,285 Bahawalpur
Lohanch 1,275 Mianwali and Muzaffargarh
Wagha 1,273 Chenab Colony
Rawn 1,213 Multan
Bhidwal 1,207 Mianwali
Hanbi 1,207 Dera Ghazi Khan
Bhangu 1,186 Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Chenab Colony
Khandoa 1,168 Mianwali
Chaudhari 1,162 Bahawalpur
Ser 1,144 Mianwali
Uttra 1,145 Mianwali
Kalyar 1,123 Multan
Rawn 1,212 Multan
Talokar 1,096 Mianwali
Jhawari 1,092 Shahpur
Mahe 1,050 Multan
Ganja 1,047 Bahawalpur
Tonwar / Tomar 1,038 Bahawalpur
Dhindsa 1,032 Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Kachela 1,010 Multan
Samtia 1,007 Mianwali
Joiya 993 Bahawalpur, Firuzpur and Mianwali
Duran 977 Bahawalpur
Panjootha 966 Shahpur
Grewal 965 Ludhiana
Dhudhi 965 Mianwali
Dhandla 929 Dera Ghazi Khan
Bhaya 923 Bahawalpur
Kajla 922 Dera Ghazi Khan
Hidan 915 Jhang
Dab 908 Jhang
Bar 899 Chenab Colony
Minhas 824 Jhelum
Dakah 823 Bahawalpur
Gorchhar 807 Mianwali
Shajra 796 Multan and Bahawlpur
Bhumla 793 Mianwali
Lar 778 Multan and Muzaffargarh
Mahaar 773 Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur
Kanera 765 Dera Ghazi Khan
Wahla 756 Chenab Colony
Kalhora 725 Bahawalpur
Panuhan 723 Multan
Jora 718 Shahpur
Jappa 706 Jhang
Jatal 703 Rawalpindi
Kolar 661 Bahawalpur
Burana 657 Shahpur
Khichi 651 Bahawalpur
Mahesar 648 Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur
Baghial 647 Rawalpindi
Dhandhu 643 Bahawalpur
Khombra 637 Bahawalpur
Dhamtal 635 Rawalpindi
Manela 628 Bahawalpur
Kanju 626 Multan
Raad 618 Multan
Khatti 612 Dera Ghazi Khan
Butta 610 Chenab Colony
Rajoke 607 Chenab Colony
Mial or Miyal 599 Rawalpindi
Maghial 596 Rawalpindi
Bhakral 585 Jhelum
Pawania 581 Karnal, Hissar and Firuzpur
Lodhra 580 Multan
Pawania 576 Hissar, Karnal and Rohtak
Bedha 572 Mianwali
Masson 563 Bahawalpur
Nissowana 560 Shahpur and Jhang
Ghatwala or Malik 556 Hissar, Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Marath 549 Shahpur
Sanghera 544 Jalandhar and Kapurthala
Basra 540 Gurdaspur and Sialkot
Thathaal 534 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Sialkot
Murali 526 Jhang
Khal 512 Bahawalpur
Bipar 508 Bahawalpur
Dharal 499 Mianwali
Burara 498 Bahawalpur
Kohadar 496 Bahawalpur
Badhan 494 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Sialkot
Magrial 486 Rawalpindi
Chan 479 Muzaffargarh
Bhutt 475 Bahawalpur
Makwal 473 Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur
Sutera 468 Bahawalpur
Sehwag 462 Karnal and Rohtak
Dasa 459 Bahawalpur
Nain 456 Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Jaam 448 Bahawalpur
Sagoo 445 Shahpur (Sargodha)
Rak 435 Multan
Khalne 412 Bahawalpur
Wattu 411 Chenab Colony
Sandi 410 Mianwali
Jhar 402 Dera Ghazi Khan
Deshwal / Deswal 400 Hissar, Gurgaon, Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Khar 389 Muzaffargarh
Jaj 382 Chenab Colony
Noon 377 Multan
Dhal 374 Shahpur
Mohal 373 Montgomery and Bahawalpur
Budhwana 366 Mianwali
Rathi 363 Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Chauhan 361 Lahore and Amritsar
Gahora 352 Bahawalpur
Gaun 349 Multan
Manais 332 Montgomery
Sahgra 331 Multan
Unnar 329 Bahawalpur
Toor 329 Patiala State
Gangal 325 Rawalpindi
Kathia 320 Montgomery
Matyal 314 Rawalpindi
Athangal 308 Multan
Sarah 300 Firuzpur,
Dona 290 Multan
Kont 288 Bahawalpur
Siroha 281 Rohtak
Mahota 277 Multan
Bucha 275 Multan
Bhagiara 270 Rawalpindi
Gawanis 262 Chenab Colony
Wawana 258 Mianwali
Kalasan 252 Jhang
Jhak 246 Bahawalpur
Hurgan 236 Shahpur
Chauhan-Hamshira 233 Bahawalpur
Tama 231 Jhelum
Hundal 230 Amritsar and Chenab Colony
Mangral 226 Rawalpindi
Hattial 222 Rawalpindi
Suddle 221 Multan
Khehi 219 Bahawalpur
Kudhan 216 Jhang
Kassar 216 Jhelum
Rawana 215 Mianwali
Salhal 215 Rawalpindi
Mangon 204 Jhang
Kasra 204 Jhang
Bhindar 194 Gujranwala
Harrial 194 Rawalpindi
Nehon 184 Bahawalpur
Atar Khel 181 Mianwali
Waghora 173 Mianwali
Godara 170 Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Phira 170 Rawalpindi
Pala Khel 169 Mianwali
Balani 167 Chenab Colony
Pandah 165 Multan
Des 158 Mianwali
Markhand 155 Bahawalpur
Hannial 155 Rawalpindi
Mundra 150 Rawalpindi
Targar 150 Jhang
Matmal 149 Jhang
Dagur 148 Gurgaon, Rohtak and Delhi
Kalu Khel 147 Mianwali
Lidhar 141 Amritsar and Chenab Colony
Gallat 138 Rohtak
Phal 135 Rawalpindi
Walana 132 Rawalpindi
Sian 131 Chenab Colony
Birkan 130 Mianwali
Chal 123 Multan
Sangah 123 Bahawalpur
Tatla 117 Chenab Colony
Sahrawat 108 Karnal, Rohtak and Gurgaon
Hasnana 104 Jhang
Khalis 102 Rawalpindi
Narwal 101 Karnal
Dalal 97 Hissar, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Delhi
Bandecha 90 Lahore
Chandhran 76 Multan
Kookara 55 Jhang
Ahlawat 48 Rohtak
Baidwan 47 Ambala
Rohal 44 Karnal and Rohtak
Dhankar 42 Delhi and Rohtak
Sheoran 37 Hissar and Karnal
Salakhlan 25 Rohtak
Gulia 17 Rohtak and Delhi
Sethi 14 Ludhiana
Boparai 13 Ludhiana
Aujla Malerkotla 11
Kadian 11 Karnal

 

Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1911 Census of India

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 208,664 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Chauhan 109,533 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe, in central found mainly in Lahore, Amritsar and Jallandhar
Khokhar 93,012 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot, Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Gurdaspur
Sial 91,211 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Joiya 49,486 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Panwar 44,924 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe; a smaller grouo also found in Jhelum
Wattu 34,696 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Bahawalpur to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Naru 29,665 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana – by early 20th Century, several Naru were settled in Faisalabad and Sahiwal in the canal colonies
Ghorewaha 26,203 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Janjua 25,621 a western group in Rawalpindi and Jhelum and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Sulehri / Sulehria 25,512 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Mandahar 24,703 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and Hissar. They are a Ranghar tribe
Manj 20,633 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Bariah also pronounced as Varya 17,893 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Tomar 16,686 Modern Haryana (especially Rohtak and Panipat), Ambala, and in the Bahawalpur Stater
Mair-Minhas 15,075 Chakwal
Kharal 14,521 Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Jatu 13,825 Modern Haryana (especially Hissar and Gurgaon), Ambala, and Rohtak. They are a Ranghar tribe
Manhas / Minhas 10,382 From Rawalpindi to Hoshiarpur – a Muslim Dogra grouping
Awan 9.555 Two groups of Awan registered themselves as Rajput, those of Sonepat and near Delhi – who were a Ranghar tribe, and smaller group in Gurdaspur and Sialkot. All Awan declared themselves as Awan
Taoni 9,273 Ambala – a Ranghar grouping
Alpial 8,986 Attock – a branch of the Manj Rajput tribe
Chib 8,360 Gujrat, a Muslim Dogra clan
Jodhra 8,085 Attock District
Dhanyal 7,909 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Dhudhi 6,730 Sargodha, Jhang, Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Baghial 6,715 Rawalpindi
Dhamial 5,973 Rawalpindi
Bhakral 5,744 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Bhakral 5,744 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Khichi 4,774 Sargodha, Jhang and Sahiwal
Langrial 3,886 Multan, Sahiwal and Okara – northern branch in Rawalpindi/Jhelum and Gujrat – most northern Langrial declared themselves as Jat
Chadhar 3,825 Jhang District – outside Jhang most Chadhars registered themselves as Jat
Dahya 3,620 Ambala District – a Ranghar clan
Khanzada 3,662 Gurgaon – a branch of the Jadaun clan
Kalial 3,662 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Dahya 3,620 Ambala District – a Ranghar clan
Kathia 2,900 Sahiwal and Okara
Kanial 2,317 Rawalpindi
Mangral 2,309 Rawalpindi
Nagrial 2,220 Rawalpindi
Kalyar 2,177 Sargodha – most Kalyar declared themselves to Jat
Raghubansi 2,135 Ambala – a Ranghar clan
Katil 2,104 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Gaharwal 2,069 Rawalpindi
Nagyal 2,038 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Qaimkhani 2,020 Hissar – essentially a Rajasthani tribe, a branch of the Chauhan
Rawat 1,971 Malerkotla State
Thathaal 1,618 Rawalpindi
Mekan 1,584 Sargodha – most Mekan declared themselves as Jat
Jhap 1,559 Jhang
Jamra 1,455 Dera Ghazi Khan
Tiwana 1,347 a western group in Kushab and eastern group in Patiala
Matyal 1,347 Rawalpindi
Jatal 1,310 Rawalpindi
Rathore 1,148 Hissar, Firuzpur and Bahawalpur, in areas bordering Bikaner. Rajasthani immigrants
Khuhi 1,148 Multan
Warha 1,288 In Hissar a Ranghar group, also found along the Sutlej in Firuzpur and Bahawalpur State
Dogar 1,300 Sahiwal and Okara – most Dogar registered themselves as Dogars and numbered 68,473
Jalap 1,172 Jhelum – a branch of the Khokhar tribe
Nagrawal 1,143 Rawalpindi
Ramial 1,120 Rawalpindi
Ghangar 1,002 Rawalpindi
Daha 991 Multan, Sahiwal and Okara – a branch of the Panwar
Badpyar 988 Delhi with villages near the Yamuna river – a Ranghar clan
Pundir 985 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar group with villages near the Yamuna river
Atiras 965 Patiala State
Kural 961 Rawalpindi
Phularwan 935 Sahiwal and Okara – a second group in Sialkot
Baghela 923 Sahiwal / Okara
Mukhmdal 852 Gujrat – a Chib sub-clan
Jora 834 Fazilka, Hissar and Sirsa
Attar 821 Sargodha
Mial 817 Rawalpindi
Hon 811 Rawalpindi – a branch of the Panwar tribe
Bargujar 805 Gurgaon – a Ranghar tribe found in Rewari
Mayen 802 Patiala State
Mahaar 792 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Bahawalpur to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa – most Mahaar declared themselves as Jat
Adrah 792 Rawalpindi
Kala 747 Jhang
Sakhri 743 Hissar – a Ranghar clans, sub-division of the Jatu
Taraqar 710 Multan
Bhao 706 From Kharian to Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Rath 706 Sahiwal / Pakpattan
Sarral 698 Rawalpindi
Luddu 680 Hoshiarpur
Gaurwa 644 Gurgaon – Ranghar group
Kethwal 642 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Doli 639 Sahiwal / Okara
Barial 633 Ludhiana District
Chandel 618 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Patiala and Ludhiana
Sohlan 606 Jhelum
Noon 599 Sargodha and Multan – a branch of the Bhatti tribe
Agan 569 Gurdaspur – Muslim Dogra clan/td>
Dhanwal 569 Sahiwal and Okara/td>
Jandran 551 Sahiwal / Okara
Bains 548 Rawalpindi – the majority of the Bains registered themselves as Jats
Ranjha 579 Jhelum / Chakwal
Ratial 549 Rawalpindi
Mughal 544 Rawalpindi
Satraola 544 Hissar – a Ranghar tribe
Bhan 519 Sargodha
Chatha 420 Rawalpindi
Jawal 288 Delhi – a Ranghar clan
Jadaun 165 Gurgaon and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Jaswal 160 Hoshiarpur
Meun 76 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Pathania 71 Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Jaral 58 Kangra
Gondal 31 Rawalpindi – almost all the Gondals declared themselves as Jat, except a few in Rawalpindi

 

List and Population of Jat clans of the Rawalpindi Division According 1901 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Jat clans and their population in the Rawalpindi Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1901 Census of India. Please also read my introduction for the 1911 Census on the Jat clans to give you some background. Almost all the population that professed to be Jat were Muslim, with exception of Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, which was home several Hindu Wariach Jats.

Rawalpindi District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 46,061, of which 43,853 (95%) were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

Tribe Total
Aura 1,660
Badhan 246
Baghial 647
Bains 1,388
Bhagiara 270
Chatha 130
Chhina 653
Dhamial 2,203
Dhamtal 695
Gangal 325
Gill 373
Gondal 958
Hanial 155
Harial 194
Hattial 222
Heer 428
Hindan 489
Jatal 395
Jodhra 5,157
Kalial 1,791
Kanial 954
Kassar 105
Khalis 102
Khatril 1,578
Khor 389
Langrial 120
Lodhra 134
Magial 596
Magrial 486
Mangral 226
Matyal 314
Mial 599
Mundra 150
Phira 164
Phul 135
Salhal 215
Sandhu 99
Sangal 427
Sial 618
Sudhan 1,765
Tama 231
Thathaal 534
Walana 112
Wariach 347

Jhelum District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 73,364, of which 72,763 (99%) were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

Tribe Total
Badhan 248
Bains 962
Bhakral 585
Bhatti 2,053
Bhutta 678
Chadhar 121
Chauhan 224
Dhudhi 352
Gondal 879
Harral 460
Heer 243
Janjua 120
Jhammat 929
Kanial 1,990
Kassar 111
Langah 482
Mahil 320
Minhas 824
Ranjha 236
Sahi 445
Sial 126
Tarar 758
Thaheem 139
Wariach 388

Gujrat District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 198,075, of which 192,000 (97%) were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

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Tribe Total
Bains 478
Bajwa 532
Bhullar 106
Bhutta 373
Chatha 812
Cheema 2,923
Chhina 287
Dhariwal 388
Dhillon 568
Dhotar 1,513
Ghumman 739
Gill 503
Goraya 148
Harral 158
Heer 1,654
Hanjra 2,338
Jakhar 235
Kang 1,183
Langrial 3,702
Mangat 1,031
Marral 168
Pannun 242
Randhawa 298
Sahi 4,498
Sandhu 228
Sarai 661
Sidhu 2,157
Sipra 1,259
Sohal 374
Tarar 14,531
Virk 775
Wariach 37,805

Shahpur District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 63,876, of which 63,649 (99%) were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

Tribe Total
Aulakh 103
Bains 613
Bhachar 166
Bhatti 3,864
Bhutta 1,298
Burana 657
Chadhar 3,303
Chhina 538
Hanjra 528
Harral 1,849
Heer 553
Hurgan 236
Jhawari 1,092
Jora 718
Lak 2,197
Lali 531
Lala 357
Langah 604
Mahil 181
Mangat 226
Marath 548
Nissowana 518
Panjootha 966
Rehan 1,567
Sahi 164
Sidhu 100
Sipra 1,382
Tarar 1,223
Thaheem 288
Tulla 1,403
Virk 318
Wariach 445

Mianwali District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 137,665, all of whom were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

Tribe Total
Aheer 843
Asar 1,377
Atar Khel 181
Atra 652
Aulakh 1,887
Aura 232
Autrah 1,075
Bains 353
Bedha 472
Bhachar 1.422
Bhadwal 1,207
Bhatti 1,880
Bhullar 483
Bhumla 793
Bhutta 778
Birkan 130
Budhwana 366
Chadhar 1,226
Chandhar 235
Chhajra 367
Chhina 1,580
Dab 103
Deo 915
Des 158
Dhandla 286
Dharal 419
Dhariwal 184
Dhillon 949
Dhudhi 335
Dumra 585
Gandhi 1,288
Ghallu 818
Gill 190
Goraya 365
Gorchar 807
Hanbi 336
Hans 498
Harral 347
Heer 603
Janjua 573
Jatal 164
Jakhar 1,229
Jhammat 507
Joiya 670
Kahlon 442
Kalasra 918
Kallu 1,301
Kallu Khel 147
Khandoa 1,278
Khera 176
Kohawer 1,020
Lak 452
Langah 704
Langrial 222
Lohanch 676
Mallana 454
Naul 229
Pala Khel 169
Rawana 215
Saggu 434
Sahgra 321
Sahi 963
Samtia 1,007
Saandh 948
Sandhila 701
Saandi 410
Sarai 150
Sawag 460
Srb 1,144
Sial 2,945
Sohal 435
Soomra 930
Talokar 1,096
Thaheem 352
Turkhel 1,344
Turk 1,499
Waghora 173
Wawana 258

List and Population of Muslim Rajput clans of the Rawalpindi Division According to 1901 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Rajput clans and their population in the Rawalpindi Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1901 Census of India. Please also read my introduction for the 1911 Census to give you some background. Almost all the population that professed to be Rajput were Muslim, with exception of Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, which was home several Bhao and Chib Rajput villages, who had remained Hindu. In 1901 Rawalpindi Division comprised the following districts; Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Gujrat, Shahpur, and Mianwali.. In 1902, Attock was seperated from Rawalpindi and seperate figures were produced. However, the 1901 data on Rawalpindi includes the Attock figures/

In terms of choice of calling oneself Rajput or Jat, this as much depended on the status of a tribe within the village they inhabitted. For example, the Kanial in Jhelum District declared themselves to be Jat, while in Rawalpindi as Rajput. However, in Gujrat the boundary between Rajput and Jat was somewhat more rigid, with those calling themselves Rajput were Dogra clans that had accepted Islam such as the Bhao, Chib, Minhas and Narma.

Rawalpindi District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 122,317, of which 121,420 (99%) were Muslims.

Tribe Total
Adrah 909
Alpial 9,395
Badhan 272
Baghial 5,769
Bains 152
Baria 106
Bhakial 404
Bhakral 10.819
Bhao Ragial 153
Bhatti 36,268
Budhal 152
Chatha 500
Chauhan 3,029
Chib 309
Dalal 133
Dhamial 2.967
Dhanial 3,935
Dhudhi 196
Gakhar 690
Gaharwal 194
Gangal 178
Gondal 168
Hafial 197
Hon 1,496
Janjua 3,815
Jasgam 129
Jatal 1,451
Jodha 368
Jodhra 1,802
Johar 407
Kahut 178
Kalial 773
Kangra 222
Kanial 2,435
Kanial Chauhan 470
Kassar 122
Kawar 487
Ketwal 2,251
Khakha 106
Khatril 722
Khel 234
Mair 235
Mangral 331
Marrial 167
Minhas 3,974
Mial 699
Nagial 3,036
Nagral 918
Nagrawal 580
Narma 158
Naru 241
Panwar 125
Ranial 1,345
Sainiwal 408
Salhal 271
Saswal 174
Sasral 1,292
Satral 146
Satti 326
Sial 388
Sudhan 227
Thathaal 4,134
Taranda 162
Tonda 162

Please note most Gakhars declared themselves to be Gakhar and in 1901 numbered 13,665. Similarly most Janjua, Satti and Sudhan declared themselves as such and numbered 8,361,17,094 and 2,291.

Jhelum District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 57,567, of which 57,316 (99%) were Muslims.

Tribe Total
Bhakral 702
Bhatti 10,664
Chauhan 5,140
Chib 254
Gakhar 475
Gondal 2,592
Jalap 949
Janjua 8,881
Kanial 107
Mair-Minhas 15,692
Mandahar 210
Minhas 723
Mekan 729
Panwar 649
Ranjha 869
Sial 477

Please note that some Gondal and Ranjha declared themselves to be Jat, and interestingly in the 1911 Census all the Gondal declared themselves as Jat. While the Mekan tribe declared themselves to be Rajput in 1901 Census and Jat in 1911. What is surprising is the omission of the Sohlan, who are an important tribe found along the Jhelum and Mirpur borders. The Gakhar population in 1901 was 10,572, almost all whom barring the 475 declared themselves simply as Gakhar, and not Rajput.

Attock District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 25,611, of which 25,590 (99%) were Muslims.Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Alpial 9,180
Bhatti 3,553
Chatha 5,395
Chauhan 502
Janjua 1,153
Jodhra 1,700

Gujrat District

The total Rajput population in the District was 23,711, of which those who were Muslim were 22,328 (94%). Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Bhatti 1,784
Chauhan 79
Chib 9,349
Janjua 1,063
Minhas 723
Narma 748
Panwar 111

The omission of the Bhao, who an important Kharian tribe is a mystery.

Shahpur District (Sargodha District)

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 73,177, of which72,096 (99%) were Muslims.Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Bargujar 176
Bhatti 7,205
Chauhan 1,463
Chib 311
Dhudhi 1,506
Gondal 25,535
Janjua 4,293
Jhammat 2,266
Joiya 3,004
Khichi 833
Mekan 6,577
Minhas 406
Noon 1,213
Panwar 48
Ranjha 8,907
Sial 2,679
Tiwana 2,971
Wattu 266

Mianwali District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 6,136, of which 6,003 (98%) were Muslims.Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Bhatti 590
Chauhan 197
Chib 204
Dharwal 175
Gaurwa 384
Gondal 173
Janjua 598
Joiya 1,174
Kanial 327
Khichi 514
Mekan 134
Naru 407
Panwar 426
Sial 193
Wattu 215

Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this post, I make reference to the 1901 Census of India, which gave a breakdown of the larger Muslim Rajput clans of British Punjab. The whole Province of Punjab had a 24.4 million population in 1901, of which the Muslim Rajputs numbered 1,505,586. In 1901, the Punjab comprised five administrative divisions — Delhi, Jullunder, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi — and a number of princely states. During the course of the Census, those districts that lay across the Indus which formed the Peshawar Division were formed into a new province named the North West Frontier Province. Geographically, the province was a triangular tract of country of which the Indus River and its tributary the Sutlej formed the two sides up to their confluence, the base of the triangle in the north being the Lower Himalayan Range between those two rivers. Moreover, the province as constituted under British rule also included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Kashmir and Tibet. On the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, which was divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna and Tons separated it from the United Provinces.

In present-day India, it included the regions of Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and Himachal Pradesh (but excluding the former princely states which were later combined into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union). While in present-day Pakistan, it included the regions of Punjab, Islamabad Capital Territory and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (until 1901).

My post on the Rajputs of Punjab gives more details as to the origin and distribution of the various Rajputs tribes.

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 249,302 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Chauhan 114,529 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe
Khokhar 108,239 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Sial 104,658 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Joiya 61,438 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Panwar 55,068 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe
Gondal 36,088 The Gondal Bar (Mandi Bahaudin, Gujrat and Sargodha), also in Rawalpindi
Naru 34,152 mainly in what is now India Punjab – Jallandhar and Ludhiana
Ghorewaha 33,295 mainly in what is now India Punjab – Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Ludhiana
Sulehria / Sulehri 28,577 Sialkot and Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Wattu 25,544 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Janjua 23,619 A western group found in Rawalpindi and Jhelum, and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Baria, also pronounced Varya 21,991 Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Patiala State
Mandahar 21,764 Mainly Karnal and Panipat – a Ranghar group
Manj 20,736 Amritsar, Firuzpur and Jalandhar
Jatu 18,861 Hissar, Sirsa and Rohtak – a Ranghar
Taoni 18,384 Ambala and Patiala State – a Ranghar tribe
Tomar/ Tonwar 18,365 Hissar, Karnal and Rohtak – a Ranghar tribe
Mair-Minhas 15,697 Chakwal
Minhas/Manhas 13,471 from Rawalpindi in the west to Hoshiarpur in the east – a Muslim Dogra group
Dhudhi 11,764 In Sahiwal, mainly in the new districts of Vehari and Okara
Ranjha 11,764 Gujrat, Jhelum and Mandi Bahaudin
Bhakral 11,577 Rawalpindi and Jhelum/Chakwal
Chib 10.697 Jhelum and Gujrat – Muslim Dogra sub-group
Khichi 9,769 Between Ravi and Sutlej – now Vehari, Pakpattan and Sahiwal
Alpial 9,395 Attock and Rawalpindi
Mekan 8,915 Sargodha and Jhelum
Tiwana 6,326 A western group in Khushab and eastern group in Patiala
Khoja 6,326 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Baghial 5,769 Rawalpindi
Noon 4,866 Sargodha, Multan and southern Punjab
Thathaal 4,134 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Gujrat
Dhanial 4,037 Murree Tehsil of Rawalpindi
Raghubansi 4,032 Hissar and Sirsa – a Ranghar group
Dahya 3,637 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Kanyal 3,271 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Nagial 3,036 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Dhamial 2,967 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Jhammat 2,550 Sargodha, Multan and South Punjab
Gaurwa 2,521 Gurgaon, Delhi and Rohtak – a Ranghar tribe
Kethwal 2,355 Rawalpindi – Murre Tehsil (now Kotli Sattian)
Katil 2,170 Sialkot and Gurdaspur – A Muslim Dogra sub-group
Jodhra 1,802 Attock and Rawalpindi District
Bargujar 1,502 Gurgaon and Delhi – Ranghar tribe
Hon 1,496 Rawalpindi
Lar 1,494 Multan and South Punjab
Jatal 1,451 Rawalpindi
Pundir 1,427 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Atiras 1,416 Patiala State
Ranial 1,345 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Sasral 1,292 Rawalpindi
Nissowana 996 Jhang and Sargodha
Jalap 949 Jhelum
Nagral 919 Rawalpindi
Adrah 909 Rawalpindi
Bhon 853 Sargodha
Kalial 773 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Chandel 752 Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana
Narma 748 Rawalpindi and Gujrat
Satti 744 Rawalpindi – Murree
Khatril 722 Rawalpindi
Mial 699 Rawalpindi
Gakhar 690 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Targar 653 Multan and South Punjab
Rathore 587 Firuzpur and Hissar
Nagralwal 580 Rawalpindi
Jamra 548 Dera Ghazi Khan
Satraola 546 Hissar – a Ranghar group
Chatha 500 Rawalpindi
Kowar 493 Rawalpindi
Luddu/td>

491 Hoshiarpur
Kanial Chauhan 470 Rawalpindi
Sainiwal 439 Rawalpindi
Rath 410 Sahiwal and Okara
Johar 407 Rawalpindi
Bakhial 404 Rawalpindi
Jodha 368 Rawalpindi
Joota 367 Jhang
Bosan 340 Multan
Chadhar 334 Jhang
Mangral 331 Rawalpindi
Fattiana 318 Sahiwal
Pathial 311 Hoshiarpur
Maral 307 Jhang
Tanwari 273 Multan
Badhan 272 Rawalpindi
Salhal 262 Rawalpindi
Khel 234 Rawalpindi
Sudhan 227 Rawalpindi
Kangra 222 Rawalpindi
Dharwal 202 Mianwali
Hafial 197 Rawalpindi
Gaharwal 194 Rawalpindi
Kahut 178 Jhelum / Chakwal
Gangal 178 Rawalpindi
Saswal 174 Rawalpindi
Marial 167 Rawalpindi
Kathia 166 Sahiwal
Taranda 162 Multan
Tonda 156 Rawalpindi
Bhao Ragial 153 Rawalpindi
Bains 152 Rawalpindi
Budhal 152 Rawalpindi
Dalal 133 Rawalpindi
Satral 146 Rawalpindi
Jasgam 129 Rawalpindi
Matra 121 Multan
Kassar 113 Jhelum / Chakwal
Katoch 112 Kangra
Khakha 106 Rawalpindi
Jaswal 89 Hoshiarpur
Bagri 82 Firuzpur
Pathania 69 Gurdaspur
Ladhar 47 Rawalpindi
Jaral 47 Kangra
Kilchi 46 Rawalpindi
Thakkar 36 Gurdaspur
Guleria 11 Gurdaspur

 

Bib, Karlal, Sarrara and Turk tribes of Hazara

In this post, I shall look at four tribes, namely the Bib, Karlal, Sarrara and Turks that are found in the Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Hazara is located in the North-Eastern part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, east of the Indus River and comprises six districts: Abbottabad, Battagram, Haripur, Mansehra, Kohistan, and New District Torghar. The region is bounded on the north and east by the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir. To the south are the Islamabad Capital Territory and the province of Punjab, whilst to the west lies the rest of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The river Indus runs through the division in a north-south line, forming much of the western border of the division. The total area of Hazara is 18,013 km².

Hazara lies in a region which is a crossroads of cultures, where the plains of the Punjab meet the Central Asia. Its population consists of numerous tribes, many of whom claim and are of Pashtun ancestry. However the tribes looked at in this post make no such claim. It is likely that they are of Hindu ancestry, but other then the Turks, they now all claim Arab ancestry. Like most of the population of Hazara, all these tribes speak the Hindko language, which main be descended from the ancient language of the Gandhara civilization. The population are referred to as Hindkowan, meaning people who speak Hindko.

Bib

I start this post with one of the least known of the Hazara tribes, the Bib. The origin of the Bib is subject to some argument. According to their own traditions, the Bib are a branch of the Awan tribe, a claim generally not accepted by the Awans. They, like the Awans claim descent from the fourth Caliph of Islam, Ali. Their customs are similar to neighbouring Hindkowan communities, and they are entirely Sunni.
The are found in the Abbotabad District, occupying two villages between the Rash plains and Thandiani range. This region is extremely mountainous, located in the northeast of Abbottabad District in the foothills of the Himalayas. To the east beyond the Kunhar River lies the Pir Panjal mountain range of Kashmir. Cut from the other the Awans of the Haripur plain, the Bib have much in common with their neighbours the Karlal and Sarrara, rather then the Awans.

Karlal

The Karlal, also known as Kard’al, Karaal, Karhral, or Kiraal, is a Hindko speaking tribe, found mainly in Abbottabad District, inhabiting the hilly area of the Galyat and the Nara tract. A minority are also settled in the Haripur District. A small number are also found in neighbouring Azad Kashmir, in Kotli District. Many Karlal now prefer the self-designation Sardar, meaning chief in Farsi.
The tribe trace their descent from a Sardar Kallar Shah son of Sujann Shah who is believed to have come from southern Afghanistan, and was a descendant of Alexander the Great. In Haripur and Abbottabad, they are known as Sardars, a name they acquired during the time of the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1296), when the tribal members were made rulers of the galliyat region of Hazara. There is also some argument as to the religion of the Karlal, as whether they were Hindu or not. As some of the oldest inhabitants of Hazara, a region that was largely Hindu till the early 13th Century, it is likely that they were either Hindus, or strongly influenced by Hinduism.

It does seem that throughout the middles ages, the Karlal maintained their independence. During Mughal era (1550-1730), when the Gakkars were trying to extend their authority in the entire lower Hazara from their base in Khanpur in what is now Haripur District, the leader of Karlal tribe Morcha Kulli Khan at that time was able to murder the Ghakkar chief and retained his tribes independence. Similarly the Turks, whose territory lay to the north, were also never able to extend their authority over this tribe although enjoying suzerainty over large portion of Pakhal Sarkar (an old name for Hazara). In the Durrani period (1740-1800), no attempt was made by Afghan rulers to subdue their territory. However, when the Sikhs captured lower Hazara they tried to gain control over entire lower Hazara including Karlal territory.

In 1822, Ranjit Singh sent a large force under famous General Amar Singh Majitta which was defeated by Karlals with great slaughter. Amar Singh was also murdered by the Karlal. Lepel Griffin, author of a colonial history of Hazara, writes in his book about this battle of Sumandar Khata. From 1822 to 1845 Karlal tribe fought many battles with Sikhs and were able to retain their independence. In 1844 once again Lahore Darbar sent a large force under Diwan Mulraj and Hari Singh to subdue Karlal country. Taking advantage of the difficult geographical terrain of their country, the Karlals were able to defeat Sikh army at place called Nah and killed more than 150 Sikh soldiers.

During the British period at the time of mutiny in 1857, the Karlal tried to revolt against the rule of East India Company, however, British were able to imprison Karlal chief Sardar Hassan Ali Khan and many mutineers of this tribe were hanged along with some Dhund tribesmen (Mutiny Reports 1857 of Hazara District). Subsequent to that, the Karlal remained fairly quite throughout the rest of the British period ending in 1947.

According to some sourdes, the Karlal make up 30% of the population of the district of Abbottabad, concentrated in the Galyat region bordering Murree and Azad Kashmir. The Karlal together with the Dhund, who are their neighbours to the south, speak a dialect of Hindko called Dhundi-Kariali, which is quite distinct from other Hindko dialects.

Sarrara

The next tribe I will look at are the Sarrara, who closely connect themselves to the Dhund, a tribe found mainly in the Murree hills. Some traditions make the Sarrara a branch of the Dhund, like the Dhund, the Sarrara claim to be Abbasi Arabs.

A strong tribal tradition, make their ancestor Sarrara one of twelve son of Akber Gai Khan, the ancestor of both Dhund and Sarrara tribe. Akber Gahee Khan was son of Zarab Khan who said to have come to Kashmir as general of the army under the command of Qutab Shah, the supposed ancestor of the Awan tribe. On signing a treaty with King of Kashmir and marrying his daughter he was on way back when he went to a saint in Kahuta, who asking him to pray for a child of him. The saint asked for promise of staying at the place as a reward for his prayer. The prayer of the saint led to the birth of a boy named as Akber Gahee Khan. This Akber Gahee Khan had twelve sons, namely:

Kahonder Khan ( forefather of Dhund)
Tanoli Khan (forefather of Tanolis in area of Tanawal and Amb Durband)
Chajjar Kanal
Salal
Agar Khan
Kool or Koor
Hakim Khan
Sarrara
Hans Khan
Molam Khan
Dilhawas
Barra Hazaria

The legend seems to suggest a close connection with the Dhund, and the Sarrara customs and traditions are close to the Dhund. Like the Dhund, they are hill farmers, speak the Dhundi-Kariali dialect of Hindko.
However, another tradition refers to their ancestors having come some time ago from Pakpattan in the Punjab. The tribe is classed as Sahu and inter marry on equal terms with Dhund.
The Sarrara are only found in the Boi tract between the Thandiani range and Kunhar river in the Abbottabad District. They are found mainly in Pattan Kalan and other villages such Chamiali, Bandi Sarrara, Darer, Batangi, Sialkot, Kotlian, in Kukmang Union Council.

Katoch, Malik, Rathore, Thakkar and Safial tribes

In this post I shall look at four Chibhali tribes, namely the Katoch, Malik, Rathore, Thakkar and Safiaal. While Katoch and Rathore are clearly of Rajput origin, the status of the Maliks, and their sub-group the Safial is more complicated. Finally, the Thakkar actual form a distinct caste, which can be called quasi-Rajput. What unite all these tribes is traditions of migration during the Mughal period, i.e. between the 16th and 18th Centuries to the Pir Panjal region. I will ask the reader to look at my post on the Sohlan and Kahlotra to get a further background on the Chibhali community.

 

Katoch

In this post, I will start off by looking at the Katoch, and more specifically the Muslim Katoch of the Banihal and Doda regions of Jammu. The clans of the Chibhal like the Chib and Bhawpal are also branches of the Katoch clan, but the Chibhali are separated from Muslim Katoch by the Pir Panjaal mountains. Unlike the Chibhali groups who have strongly been influenced by Punjabi culture, the Muslim Katoch of Doda have strong Kashmiri influence.

The name Katoch is possibly derived from the words kot and ouch, meaning high status defenders of forts. Katoch themselves claim to belong to the Chandravanshi kshatriya lineage. Their traditional area of residence was the Trigarta Kingdom, the modern Jalandhar. The dynasty is considered to be one of the oldest surviving royal dynasty in the world. They first find mention in the mythological Hindu epic, Mahabharata and references are found is in the recorded history of Alexander the Great’s war records. According to clan traditions, it was in in 4300 BC when Rajanaka Bhumi Chand founded Katoch dynasty and he also made famous Jawalaji Temple. The state of Kangra in Himachal Pradesh was founded circa 1390 by Megh Chand. Other branches of the Katoch as the Jaswal and Guleria provided several petty rulers in Himachal Pradesh.
Groups of Katoch emigrated from the Kangra region during the rule of Aurengzeb. This migration was largely as a result of continuous conflict between the Mughals and the Hill Rajahs. The Katoch initially settled in Bhaderwah in Doda region. Conflict with rulers of Bhaderwah led to migration to Banihal and Doda. Most of these then converted to Islam in the 18th Century, as they had settled in a region which is largely Muslim. Most Muslim Katoch are bilingual, speaking both Bhaderwahi and Kashmiri language. Like most Muslims in Doda, Kashmiri culture has had a deep impact on the Katoch.

Malik

The Malik are a large tribal cluster found mainly along the slopes of the Pir Panjal, with a large concentration in the Darhal valley in Rajouri.

The Malik describe themselves as soldiers having been brought into Poonch region by the Mughal Emperor Akbar to guard the passes into Kashmir from the Punjab. These soldiers were probably of fairly diverse origin, with those of the Darhal valley claiming to be Rajput. According to tribal traditions, there name Malik was given to them as title by Akbar. They were required to defend the passes that led into Kashmir, and appear in the field for the Emperor whenever required. In return they were given villages and lands.

 

Malik, literally meaning a king was one of the used by local aristocrats throughout North India, more formally known as Zamindars under both the Mughals and the British. The earliest form of the name Malka was used to denote a prince or chieftain in the East Semitic Akkadian language of the Mesopotamian states of Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldea. The Northwest Semitic mlk was the title of the rulers of the primarily Amorite, Sutean, Canaanite, Phoenician and Aramean city-states of the Levant and Canaan from the Late Bronze Age. Eventual derivatives include the Aramaic, Neo-Assyrian, Mandic and Arabic forms: Malik, Malek, Mallick, Malkha, Malka, Malkai and the Hebrew form Melek.

The Malik as a tribe are now found mainly in the Darhal Valley with scattered settlements in Poonch (both Indian & Pakistani administerd), Jammu and few are also found in the Kotli and Mirpur Districts of Azad Kashmir. According to the 1931 census, their male population numbered 19,000.

The Rathore

 

The Rathore of the Poonch region have clear traditions of migrations from the Marwar region of Rajasthan. I shall start off my giving a general description of the history of the Rathore and then to look specifically at the Rathore of Poonch.

The Rathore were rulers of Jodhpur, historically called Marwar and latter extender their rule over Bikaner. Reference can be made to “khyats” (traditional accounts) written down in the seventeenth century, which refer to the fact that the Rathores were originally feudatories of the  Ujjain based GurjaraPratihara dynasty, and may perhaps have been domiciled in the vicinity of Kannauj in the heyday of that dynasty. Pratihara-ruled Kannauj was sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1019 CE, which ushered in a chaotic period for that area. A family known to us as the Gahadvala gained control of Kannauj and ruled for nearly a century; their best-known ruler was Raja Jaichand, their last king. The Gahadvalas were displaced from Kannauj by the invasion, in 1194 CE, of Muhammad of Ghor. It is said that Sheoji, a surviving grandson of Jaichand, made his way into the western desert with a group of faithful followers, finally settling in the town of Pali in Marwar, which was ruled by another branch of the Pratiharas. Sheoji is regarded as the patriarch of the entire Rathore clan and all Rathores trace their patrilineage back to him. The tradition finds supports from a number of inscriptions found in the vicinity of Kannauj that mention several generations of a Rashtrakuta dynasty ruling there for two centuries. A very similar account is also mentioned in the “Rashtrayudha Kavya” of Rudrakavi, finished in 1595, who was the court poet in the court of the Rathore king, Narayana of Mayurgiri.

 

Marwar to Poonch

The Rathores gradually spread across Marwar, forming a brotherhood of landowners and village chieftains, loosely bound to each other by ties of clan and caste. An epoch in the history both of Marwar and of the Rathores was marked by Rao Jodha, a warrior who founded a kingdom that grew to encompass all of Marwar. He also founded the city of Jodhpur in 1459, and moved his capital from Mandore. One of his sons, Rao Bika, with the help of his uncle Rawat Kandhal, established the town of Bikaner in 1488, in the Jangladesh region lying to the north of Marwar; that town was to become the seat of a second major Rathore kingdom.

The various cadet branches of the Rathore clan gradually spread to encompass all of Marwar and later spread to found states in Central India and Gujarat. The Rathore were actually recruited as soldiers in the Mughal Army. In 1596, one such soldier of fortune, Raja Siraj-Ud-Din Rathore, the descendant of Rao Jodha and Rao Suraj Singh, was made by the Mughal emperor Jahangir the new ruler of Poonch. Siraj-Ud-Din and his descendants Raja Shahbaz Khan Rathore, Raja Abdul Razak Rathore, Raja Rustam Rathore and Raja Bahadur Rathore ruled this area up to 1798 AD. The establishment of the Rathore state led to the migration of several Rathore in the Poonch region. Not all the Rathore however converted to Islam, and there are several villages of Hindu Rathore Rajputs found mainly in Bhaderwah and Kishtwar areas of Jammu Province.

 

In Poonch and neighbouring Kotli, there are several MRathore villages such as Forward Kahuta, and Nakar Bandi (about 60 km East of Bagh) in Azad Kashmir

Thakkar

The next community I am going to look at are the Muslim Thakkars. They are found mainly in Reasi, Rajouri, Udhampur and Kishtwar districts of Indian administered Kashmir. In Reasi and Rajouri, the Muslim Thakkar prefer the self-designation Nagvanshi or Nagi.

The community known as the Thakkar came about because the Hindu Rajputs of the Himalaya follow a system known as hypergamy, namely the act or practice of a woman marrying a man of higher caste or social status than herself. For example, those clans designated as Rajputs may exchange wives, while Thakkars groups can give girls in marriage from those of Rajput status, but may not take from. In Himachal Pradesh, a particularly complex system of hypergamy existed, with Thakkars giving girls to Rathi, and Rathi to Kannet. The line between Thakar and Rathi was roughly said to consist in the fact that Rathis did and Thakkars did not ordinarily practise widow-marriage; though the term Rathi was commonly applied by Rajputs of the ruling houses the princely states of what is now Himachal Pradesh and Jammu to all below them.

In Udhampur, Kishtwar and Reasi, the Thakkars over time began to form a distinct caste now, generally intermarrying with themselves. It is among these western Thakkars, that conversion to Islam took place. These communities are found north of the Chibhali groups, and their customs are similar to those of Kashmiri Muslims. Most Thakkar groups give their clan as Nagi or Nagvanshi. Other important Thakkar clans are the Katoch and Sambyal, with the former found mainly in Kishtwar and the latter in Reasi.

 

 

Safiaal

The Safiaal Rajputs, also spelled Sufial and Sufiaal, are sub-group found within the Malik community, found mainly in the Darhal valley of Rajouri. According to their tribal traditions, they are of Malkana Rajput stock, who like other Malik groups came to the Pir Panjaal during the period of Akbar’s rule. The question then is who are or were the Malkana Rajputs.

 

The Malkana are a well known Rajput found mainly in the Agra region of western Uttar Pradesh. The Malkana claimed descent from a number of Hindu castes. Those of Kiraoli, where they occupy five villages, claim descent from a Jat. Other Malkana families in the district claim descent from Panwar, Chauhan, Parihar and Sikarwar Rajputs. In Hathras District, they were found mainly near the town of Sadabad. They belonged to Jat and Gaurwa communities that had converted to Islam. At the term of the 20th Century, the Malkana were a community that was on the religious faultline, as there customs were a mixture of Hindu and Muslim traditions. They kept Hindu names, used the salutation Ram Ram, and were endogamous. But the community buried their dead, practiced circumcision, and visited mosques on special occasions. This eclectic nature of the community led to attempts by both Hindu and Muslim revivalist to target them.

Coming back to the Safiaal, they now have much in common with otherChibhali groups, now speaking the Pahari language, and practices alpine agriculture.