Tarar and Ranjha Jats

In this post, I will look at the two tribes of Jat status, that are found between the Chenab and Jhelum rivers, with the Tarar also found further east, across the Chenab in Hafizabad district. My post on the Gondal Jats gives a bit information on the Jats of this region.

Below is a breakdown by population of the larger Jat tribes of Gujrat District, which included Mandi Bahaudin for the 1911 Census of India.

Tribe Population
Waraich 41,557
Gondal

23,355

Tarar

14,365

Totle 4,192

Langrial

3,736
Sahi

3,736

Sandhu

3,442

Hanjra

2,751

Cheema 2,572
Thathaal 1,930
Bangial 1,679
Sial 1,511
Heer 1,451
Dhotar 1,355
Sipra 1,084
Mangat 1,075
Kang 1,032
Virk 1,030
Chadhar 976
Ghumman 846
Chauhan 726
Dhillon 692
Badhan 662
Sarai 631
Bains 596
Bagril 586

The absence of the Ranjha from 1911 Census was clearly an omition, as the Ranjha are a major tribe of what was then the Phalia tehsil of the old Gujrat District. I would ask the reader to look at my post on Warriach as well, which gives further information on this region. After the Warriach and Gondal, the Tarar were the third and Ranjha were the fourth largest tribe in the Jech Doab. The central and southern regions of the Jech are entirely inhabitted by the Jats, but as we move north, the region is largely Gujjar, indeed Gujrat means land of the Gujjars, until we reach the hilly region, most of which was in Jammu and Kashmir State, that we found the Chib and other Rajputs. Indeed most of the Jat clans have stories of finding the region inhabitted by the Gujjars, who they expelled. According to the traditions of many of the Jat tribes of the Chenab valley, they accepted Islam at the hands of the Sufi saint Daud Bandagi Kirmani (1513-1575),  who came from the Multan Province. Such traditions are common in particular among the Bajwa, Basra,  Chatha, Cheema, Dhothar,  Goraya, Ghumman, Hanjra, Maan, Tarar, Sandhu, Sahi, Virk, Waraich and Waseer. Whatever the circumstances, most of the Jat of this region were Muslim by the time of the arrival of the British in the mid-19th Century.

Map Showing the Doabs of Punjab. Source Wikepedia

Tarar

I start off this post by looking at the Tarar tribe of Jats. The Tarar consider themselves and are considered Jat by others. So who exactly are these Tarars? According to their tribal traditions, their ancestor was Tarar, was a Rajput originally from Bikaner in Rajasthan, who took service with Mahmud of Ghazna, and converted to Islam. His elder son Lohi is said to have stayed behind in Bhatner (now Hanumangarh in Rajasthan), inheriting the family lands, while Tarar settled in what is now Gujrat district.

The Mandi Bahaudin Tarar claim descent from Bhatti, third in descent from Lohi, who, with his ten sons, settled at Jokalian. Three sons are said to have disappeared, going south; the remaining seven founded many villages south of Jokalian, in the Phalia tehsil of Mandi Bahaudin and in the Hafizabad district. The seven subdivisions of the Tarar claim descent from the seven sons. There are said to be a total of 83 Tarar villages in this region.

The Hafizabad Tarars have slightly different origin story. Here there ancestor was Banni, third in descent from Tarar. Banni settled in Jokalian, it is possible that Bani and Bhatti are one and the same person. One of his sons, Amrah left Phalia and settled in what is now Hafizabad district, founding the village of Amrah. In Hafizabad, they are now found in sixty two villages, all whom claim descent from Amrah. This origin myth does seem to suggest that the Tarars are certainly one of the oldest of the settled Jat tribes. Most of their villages are found near the banks of the Chenab river, which does suggest a pastoral background.

The Tarar had remained Hindu until the time of the Mughal Emperor Akbar (October 1542– 27 October 1605). According to a local tradition common among the Gujranwala Tarar, Akbar  sent a military expedition against them as a condequence of thir constant challenges to the Mughal ruler., The Tarar were defeated and Kaulo Tarar, the head of the Tarar Jat tribe was killed. His wife was pregnant, at that time fled to the jungles of his area, where she took refuge. Here she met a Fakir, who said that she was destined to bear a son and would be well, but advised her to bring him up in the true faith, he was named Mohammed Mirza. With the passage of time the Tarar Jat clans, descendants of Kaulo Tarar grew in numbers, and their possessions increased. The district flourished during Mughal rule, from the days of Akbar. The authorities built wells which were scattered over the whole country, and villages lay thickly dotted about the southern plateau, now a barren waste of grass land and scrub jungle. Their remains may still be found in the wildest and most solitary reaches of the Bar. With the breakdown of Mughal Empire, Sultan Muhammad a Tarar chieftain created a mini state that was destroyed by Ranjit Singh in the late 18th Century.

In Hafizabad District, Tarar villages include Beri Wala, Vanike Tarar, Kolo Tarar, Sindhowan Tarar, Rasoolpur Tarar, and Muzaffar Tarar While in Mandi Bahauddin district, most Tarar villages are found in Mandi Bahauddin and Phali tehsils. In Phalia Tehsil there villages include Adda Pahrianwali, Agroya, Bahri, Bhagat, Bhekho, Bherowal, Bhoa Hassan, Bumbi, Burj Ghanian, Chak Abdulla, Chak Kamal, Chak Mitha, Charound, Chayto, Dhaboola, Dhal, Dharekan Kalan, Dhola Khurd, Dhunni Kalan, Dhunni Khurd, Ghanian, Ghoghanwali, Gujjan, Haigerwala, Jago Kalan, Jokalian, Haigerwala, Kala Shadian, Kot Hamid Shah, Kot Sattar Sharqi, Kuthiala Sheikhan, Ladher, Lakhia, Mailu Kohna, Mangat, Mano Chak, Melu, Mureed, Pejo Kot, Pindi Kaloo, Raike, Randiyali, Saida Sharif, Sainthal, Sarang, Sohawa Dilowana, Sulaiman, Tariqabad, Thatha Alia, Thathi Mureed, and Thatti Shah Muhammad. In Mandi Bauddin Tehsil and include Balhar, Chak Basawa, Chak Shabaz, Chak Mano, Barri Tarar, Kala Shadian, Kot Pundiwala, Lak, Ghanian, Rattowal, , Shaheedanwali, Takhat Mal Tarar and Wasu.   Outside the core Tarar area, there are also several Tarar villages in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District such as Dhudhi Thal, Kot Umer and Sherpur. In Chakwal District they are found in Dhok Virk.

Distribution of Tarar by District According to 1911 Census of India

District Population
Gujrat 14,365
Gujranwala 4,841
Shahpur (Sargodha) 1,716
Jhelum 745
Lyalpur (Faisalabad) 514
Lahore 170
Total Population 22,351

 

The Tarar of Lyalpur were largely settlers from Phalia, brought in by the British to settle the Bars of Punjab in the late 19th Century, while those of Lahore claimed descent from an ancestor who left Amrah in last days of Mughal rule (around 1700s).

Ranjha

The other tribe I am looking at in this post is perhaps the most famous of the Jat tribes, that of the Ranjha. They are famous on account of the fact that Deedo Ranjha, the hero of the famous Punjabi legend of Heer Ranjha belonged to this tribe. Despite being refered to as Ranjha, the actual name of this folk hero was Deedo, with Ranjha being the name of the tribe. So who exactly are these Ranjhas. The answer is far from simple, with several traditions. Early British writers on Punjab ethnography suchSir Denzil Ibbetson classified them as Bhatti Rajputs. Howver, others such Horace Arthur Rose did note claims to Arab or even Qureshi ancestry. According to this tradition, the Ranjha are descended from Abu Jahl, uncle of the Prophet Mohammed, as such are of Qureshi ancestry. Ikrama’s son by name of Jagis is said to have settled in Ghazna, in Afghanistan. A descendent of Jagis by the name of Duranah accompanied Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna to the Kirana Bar. Ranjah, the son of Durranah founded the town of Nasirpur, near present day Sargodha. Ranjah and his three sons Khamb (said to be the ancestor of the Khamb tribe), Chuha and Jhal, divided the Bar among themselves. When the Gondal are said to have arrived, a hundred years later, both the tribes co-operated in pushing the Gujars out of the Kirana Bar.

There he settled, and by marrying other Jat clans, the Ranjha became Jat. By the early 20th Century, traditions of descent from Abu Jahl were dropped in favour of emphasising his son Ikrama bin Abi Jahl. Ranjha writters began to refer to a Sultan Mohammad, who was said to be a commander in the army Muhammad Bin Qasim, the Arab conqueror of Sindh. While Mohammad Bin Qasim was recalled back to Damascus, Sultan Mohammad stayed on in Sindh, marrying a local girl. The only problem with this legend is that Ranjha are seen by others as Jats, and indeed intermarry with other Jat tribes such as the Gondal and Tarrars, their neighbours. While groups claiming Qureshi descent very rarely marry Jats.

In addition to the Ranjha proper, the Gudgor and Khamb are branches of the Ranjhas, that have now evolved into distinct clans. However, as I say on the post on the Khamb, they also have separate origin myths. The Ranjha are found in the eastern uplands of Sargodha, Mandi Bahauddin and Gujrat districts, with a smaller number are also found in Jhelum and Gujranwala districts

Villages Kirana Bar Mandi Bahaudin District

In Mandi Bahauddin District, the Ranjha are found in the villages of Bhindar Kalan, Bohat, Bosaal, Chak Fateh Shah, Dhok Jori Madhre, Ratowal, Khamb Khurd, Mianwal, Pandowal, Kotali Mastani, Nain Ranjha, Ghang, Sajan, Sahbowal, Bhojuwal, Khairewal, Burg Agar, Bhukh, Ghanni Ghanna, Chak Mian,Kot Sher Muhammad, Musa Kalan, Kot Hast Khan, Musa Kurd, Hamber, Walayt wala, Ghut Kurd, Chut Kalan, Noorpur Kehna, Khamb Alam, Ghar Lakhan, Chak chut, Burg Hassan, Burg Ghanian, Raan, Bherowal, Takhar Miana, Fatehwala, Wariyaam and Wasu. Thatha Hust, and Thatha Ameer. In Malakwal Tehsil, Ranjha are found in Ajjowal, Khai, Kot Pindiwala and Makkewal. While in Phalia Tehsil, they are found in Agroya, Anhay Sharif, Bhinder Kalan, Chayto, Dhal. Dharekan Kalan, Dhola Khurd,  Dhoul Bala, Dhoul Zairen, Furkhpur Kohna, Ghoghanwali, Kadher Gharbi, Khamb Kalan, Khamb Khurd, Kot Rehm Shah, Lakha, Madhary, Mianwal Ranjha, Thakkar Kalan, Thatti Bawa, Thatti Shah Muhammad and Noorpur Katvi

Villages Kirana Bar Sargodha District

While in Sargodha, District, their villages include Badar (in Bhera Tehsil), Ran, Rahimpur, Garhi Kala, Mela, Kot Sher Mohammad, Wah Miana, Midh Ranjha, Buccha Kalan, Mela, Dhingran-aali, Chak 88SB, Kot Fazal Ahmed and Jholpur.

Villages Jhelum/ Chakwal

Outside the Kirana Bar, opposite the bank of the Jhelum River, are several Ranjha villages in Jhelum and Chakwal districts. Almost all the Ranjha villages in Jhelum are found in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, which situated across the river Jhelum from Sargodha. There main villages are Baghanwala, Daulatpur, Chak Mujahid Shumali, Dhudi Thal, Ghowra, Maira Ranjha, Pinanwal, Sial, Sammanwal  and Thil. Outside Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, Ranjha are also found in the village of Ranjha near Dina. In Chakwal District, the Ranjha are found in the villages of Munday, Ranjha and Sutwal.

Other Ranjha Villages

Kot Ranjha in Gujrat District, Ado Rai and in Kamoke in Gujranwala District. In Dera Ghazi Khan District, the Ranjha are found in Basti Ranjha and Rakh Ranjha.

Distribution of Ranjha by District According to 1911 Census of India

District Jat Rajput
Shapur (Sargodha) 7,536
Jhelum 579
Total Population 7,536 579

Warraich/ Waraich Jat

In this post, I will look at the Warriach, the largest Muslim Jat clan according to the 1901 Census, and the second largest according to the 1911 Census, the last that tabulated the Jat clans. The Warraich  clan is concentrated in Gujrat and Mandi Bahaudin districts, in an area intermediate between the high  central plateau and the lowlands of the Chenab, both in the  Gujrat and the Phalia tehsils. Depending on the region, Warraich can also be pronounced as Baraich, Braich, Araich, and Varaich, depending on which Punjabi dialect is being used. They are also known as Chungh. In this post, I shall focus on the large Wariach community found in Gujrat and Mandi Bahaudin, where there customs were very similar to the other tribes such as the Gondal, in that they are a Muslim and followed a pastoral lifestyle. In East Punjab, the Wariach were and are largely Sikh, with a about 20% following Islam. The Muslim Wariach of Indian Punjab are now found scattered throughout Central Punjab in Pakistan.

Like most tribes, there are various theories as to the origin of the Warriach. According to Captain Hector McKenzie, the first British officer to administer Gujrat, the Warriach Jats were divided into two main tarafs, or sections, Abu and Jeo. His account of this division is as follows:

A Jat being killed in battle near Thanesar, his wife became a outcaste, took refuge in a tree, gave birth to a son and died. Raja Jaipal, when outhunting discovered the child, gave it protection. The tree under which it was found was a bargat: the most appropriate name for the child was therefore baraicha; the name of Waraitch was accordingly given to the boy. When he grew up to manhood, the Raja gave him his daughter in marriage,  and having no son was succeeded by him, and his descendants for three generations in his raj. Waraitch was a mighty man, worthy of his good  fortune. His descendants, therefore, continued to distinguish their family  by his name, Adversity came, then they fled to the Punjab, and settled  down as tillers of soil. Sixteen generations later, two men, named Abu and Jeo,  attained a pre-eminent position among the clans, and became Muslim, and  since their time there have been two tarafs or sub-divisions in the clan — one  composed of the descendants of Abu, and the other of Jeo

In another version, this time written by Captain Nisbet, author of the first Gazetteer of Gujranwala, which describes that Warraich was the son of one Mutta, who came  from Ghazni and settled in the Gujrat district, from where the tribe  spread to Gujranwala. While Captain Waterfield author of the second revised settlement report of Gujrat District gave a very different account. He wrote that the clan traces  its connection with Raja Karan of the Mahabharat. Twenty-seven generations, or 500 years previously, Warraich, the founder of the clan, came from the city of Kistah to Delhi,  and became an important courtier of the Sultan Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah, and settled in the village of Taika, in the district of Hissar. He had five sons; among them, these three, Wadrah, Shahajrat and Tejrah, received permission of the Sultan to settle in Gujranwala. They called their village  Tarka Ladda. Gradually they expanded to control over 80 villages, and, crossing  the Chenab settled in Gujrat. Around the 1300s, in the time of Sultan Mahmud Tughlak (reign: 1394 – February 1413 CE), Jaits, a descendant of the eldest Wadrah, became famous. During one of the invasions of Amir Timur (9 April 1336 – 17–19 February 1405), he met Jaits in Multan, where he joined him with his family and dependents, and, coming to terms with Nawab Sayad Khan, one of the confidential followers of Taimur, attached himself to his army. They reached Kunjah, and there met and fought a local Raja called Jaspal, and defeated him, and took possession of the country. For his services it was made over to this Jaits, in order that he might colonise it and collect the revenue. On  the death of the Khokhar chieftain Malik Jasrat of Manawar by poison at the hand of his wife, the daughter of Mandeo, a Dogra chieftain, who the latter  descended from Jammu to take possession of the country. He was opposed by Jaits, but they came to terms, and agreed that the Tawi and Chenab should divide their territories; Jaits retaining the southern and western sides, Mandeo, the northern and eastern. Jaits remained in possession until his death, when his jagir was confiscated, and his son succeeded him ; about that time one- fourth of the area was cultivated, the rest was jungle. New villages were then founded by different members of the clan. Hariya and Gunia, two sons of Jaits, became the most powerful; Kardal and Hambo never acquired any position. From Hariya, descend the Jis Waraich, and from Gunia the Abu Waraitch. The Emperor Akbar is said to have formed the Waraitch into two tappas,  called after Abbo and Jis, who were given the position of chaudhry.

However, according to another British colonial historian Sir Lepel Griffin, the tribe migrated to Punjab during the reign of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna and settled in Gujrat, in present day Pakistan. In his“ Punjab Chiefs” (pages 410 — 11), Griffin gives two versions, — one substantially the same as that given by Mackenzie, the other an amplification of the  Ghazni story. In this version, however, it was not Warraich, but a  remote ancestor, named Shah, who was the first of the family to settle  in India. He is said to have accompanied Sultan Mahmud in his invasion of India in A. D. 1001, and to have been present at  the battle fought with Jaipal, the last Hindushahi ruler. Impressed with the fertility of the country around Gujrat, Shah settled near the  Gujar village of Kulachar, where for 350 years his family lived  in obscurity, until in the person of Waraitch, son of Mattu, it  rose to the surface, and expelling the Gujars expanded by  degrees to its present importance. This rise is said to have occurred during the rule of the Emperor Akbar.

According to the Epigraphica Indica, Volume I, page 29, a rock inscription at Chamak Harsati Balaghat mentions that “Bharhaich” Jats performed ten asvamedha yagnyas (Sanskrit “Horse sacrifice”) and, constructed ten ghats in Varanasi. Whether the reference to the current tribe is difficult to confirm. In terms of distribution, the complete absence of Wariach in Uttar Pradesh probably suggest that connecting the Wariach with the inscription would be incorrect.

According to a tribal tradition – Waraich, a Jat, had five sons who settled in the Chenab valley raising cattle. Three of brothers moved to Gujrat and the other two moved to Gujranwala. In or about the tenth century A.D. they moved down to the Jhelum River in large numbers and settled down there. Until the thirteenth century AD they continued to fight with Gujjar tribes. Today these Waraich occupy a very compact area comprising 360 villages in a region called Jatat. During the period of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, a certain Haria leader of these Waraich converted to Islam founding a village later called after him Hariawala. With the conversion to Islam, the Wariach of the Jhelum and Chenab valley converted to Islam. However, in the Gujranwala Bar, there remained several villages of Sikh Wariach until partition of Punjab in 1947.

In another tradition, Waraichs are the progeny of three brothers, Haria, Gunia and Kurtal, who were rulers of Bahraich principality (in what is now eastern Uttar Pradesh state of India). During Sher Shah Suri’s conquest of Bengal, they captured his treasure en-route to the province. It was believed that the Shah would not succeed in his campaign however to their surprise, Sher Shah conquered Bengal and established his rule over a large part of Northern India. Following their defeat these Waraichs left Bahraich and travelled westwards. They settled upon finding suitable grazing grounds on the banks of the Chenab river. This new home was on the lands previously used by Gujjars for grazing cattle. This settlement led to rivalry between the Waraich Jats and the established Gujjars. The Wariach eventually defeated the Gujars, and made themselves masters of Gujrat, in Punjabi a word meaning land of the Gujjars.

Both these traditions make reference to two facts, one that the centre of the tribe is Gujrat, and secondly, they original rulers of this region were the Gujjars.

They now occupy 141 villages in Gujrat (including Mandi Bahaudin district) and 84 villages in Gujranwala. By the 18th Century groups of Wariach had crossed the Jhelum and settled in the Pind Dadan Khan plain, while other groups moved settling in Sialkot and Gurdaspur. A significant number of this second group became Sikh.

Wariach Population According to the 1901

With regards to the Hindu Warraich, most were followers of the Sultani sect, and by the mid-twentieth century had converted to Sikhism. Today most Wariach are either Sikh or Muslim.

District / States

Muslim

Sikh

Hindu

Total

Gujrat 37,813  138  212 38,163
Gujranwala 8,106 1,537 1,425 11,068
Sialkot 4,368  468  678 5,514
Chenab Colony 3,703  616  215 4,534
Amritsar  492  1,893  32 2,417
Patiala State 11   631  1,653 2,300
Lahore 1,162 524  28 1,714
Gurdaspur 809  307  325 1,436
Malerkotla State 388 842 1,230
Ludhiana  98  109  616  823
Ambala  12  447  180  639
Jalandhar  33  165  272  470
Shahpur  443      443
Jhelum

 

 388      388
Rawalpindi  347      347
Firuzpur 180   105  18  303
Bahawalpur State  287      287
Nabha State    53  114  220
Multan  216      216
Montgomery  149   149
Karnal 26 57 21 104

Other Districts

 

 

Total

58,936 7,483 6,652 73,071

Tribes of the Thal: The Muslim Aheer/Ahir of Punjab

In this post, I return the tribes that inhabit the Thal desert region, located in western Punjab, and look at the Aheer or sometimes written as Ahir. The Thal is a vast arid region which is located between the Jhelum and Sindh rivers near the Pothohar Plateau, with a total length from north to south 190 miles, and a maximum breadth of 70 miles (110 km) and minimum breadth 20 miles. The desert covers the districts of Bhakkar, Khushab, Mianwali, Layyah, Muzaffargarh as well as Jhang, from the left bank of the river Jhelum. It is the last remaining desert region in the Doabs of the Punjab, the others now have been arable through a vast networks of canals. As an arid region, the tribes that inhabit it are largely pastoral. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the Bhachars, which gives some background on the ethnology of the Thal region.

 

 

The Aheer, are found throughout the western districts of the Punjab, In the Thal region, they are found mainly in Khushab District, concentrated in the headquarters in Khushab. The Khushab Aheer, are often in the news in Pakistan, due mainly to their active participatiojn in politics, having produced Malik Nasim Aheer, a former interior Minister under General Zia. This article will not concentrate on that family, but will be a general description of the tribe. Urdu sources, which often dismissed by those who either have no knowledge of the language, or pretend they don’t, will be the main basis of this summary. My main source shall be Aqvam-i Panjab by SultÌan Shahbaz Anjum.

 

So who are the Aheer, and the answer is not that simple, in fact with regards to tribal origins, it never is. The name Ahir, which is actually pronounced as Aheer, is used for a large caste cluster found throughout North India, many of whom prefer to call themselves Yadavs. An obvious conclusion would be therefore to conclude the Aheer of the Thal, and others parts of western Punjab, are one and the same as the Ahir. According to the author of the Tehreek Aqwam e Punjab, the Aheers claim descent from Qutab Shah, the ancestor of the Awan and Khokhar tribes, and deny any connection with the Ahir of North India. Denzil Ibbetson, the colonial ethnographer, in his account of the 1881 Census of Punjab, argued that Aheer and Heer was one in the same tribe. There is a single exception, the famous Malik family of Khushab connects itself with the Roas of Rewari. Those who spoke dialects of Lahanda, such as Seraiki or Thalochi tended to refer to themselves as Aheer, while those found in central Punjab refered to themselves as Heer. The Heer, a large Jat clan found throughout central Punjab, stretching from Gujrat to Patiala, together with the Bhullar and Maan clans, claim to be the nucleus of the Jat ethnic group, all other tribes were said to be latter incorporated into the Jat. There is a further division as the Heer can be either Muslim or Sikh, while the Aheer are always Muslim. The 1917 District Gazetteer of Shahpur District, which then occupied most of the Thal, simply refers to the Aheer as ordinary Musalman tribe like their neighbours.

 

I will briefly here go over the origin myths of the Ahir in Punjab. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the Ahir population in British Punjab were found chiefly in the south-east namely in the districts of Dehli, Gurgaon, and Rohtak and the PEPSU States bordering upon these districts. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the distribution of the Ahirs in Punjab at the turn of the 20th Century. These Ahirs were entirely Hindu, and included among them were the family of the Roas of Rewari, which I will come to latter in this article. However, separated from these were communities of Aheer found in the Sindh Sagar Doad, the land between the Indus and the Jhelum-Chenab, who were entirely Muslim. Both groups of Ahir were pastoral caste, with their name said to be derived from the Abhira, an ancient community mentioned in the Mahabharat. In Punjab, most of the Hindu Ahir belong to the Yadubans sub-divisions, which claims to be descended from Krishna.

 

The Aheer of Khushab

 

The landowning Ahirs of Khushab and Sahiwal in present day Sargodha district claim descent from the Raos of Rewari, a Ahir principality in present day Haryana. Until the arrival of the British in the mid 19th Century, the Aheer were practical rulers of the region around the town of Khushab. However, as the power of the Tiwanas rose, the Aheer were reduced to simple zamindars. Thisfamily connects themselves with the Rewari state, based in present day Haryana. The state of Rewari was established by an Ahir  chieftain, Rao Nandram, during the reign of Farrukhsiyar, the Mughal emperor of Delhi. The emperor pleased with military support he received from Nandram, gave him a jagir of 360 villages around Rewari and legitimized Nandram‟s supremacy over the region by conferring upon him the title of chaudhari. He belonged to the Yaduvamsi sub-caste of the Ahirs and to the Abhiriya clan. According to Khushab traditions, they decend from a nephew of Nandram. The jagir was expandedby Rao Gujarmal who got mansab of  5,000 zat and sanad from the emperor Muhammad Shah. Rao Gujarmal built many forts and issued his own coin, but later the kingdom came under the control of Marathas for a brief spell  The last Rao, Tula Ram played an important role in the 1857 mutiny against the British. He proclaimed independence and assumed the title of Raja, and supported the rebels at Delhi and on 16 November 1857 he fought a losing battle against the British at Narvane. After his defeat, he went to Iran and Afghanistan to raise an Army, but died in Kabul on 2 September 1863. The British confiscated the estate of Rao Tula Ram and this marked the end of Ahir Kingdom.

 

So I started off this article by asking the question, who are the Aheer, and the only fact that be confirmed is that they were once a large pastoral tribe, occupying the northern portion of the Thal, whose chiefs or Maliks in the 19th Century confirmed ownership of their lands, which helped to transform them into large landowners in what became Khushab.

 

 

Villages in Thal

In Khushab District, there villages include Aheerpur, Rakh Baghoor, Aheer Jagir, Rahdari and Girote near Khushab city. Staying within the Thal, but outside Khushab, important Aheer villages include Aheeranwala, Aba Khel, Ahheranwala, Jandanwala and Wandhi Aheeranwali near Pai-Khel, all in Mianwali District, while across the Jhelum, in Sargodha District, there are several Aheer villages near the town of Sahiwal, such as Ahir Fateh Shah and Ahir Surkhru, and Lakseem near Kot Momin.  In Mandi Bahauddin District, Chak Nizam near the town of Malakwal is an important village. Finally in Bhakkar District, they are found in Aheeranwala and Wadhaywala.

Outside the Thal,

 

The Aheer are found in Rawalpindi, Lodhran, Khanewal, Sahiwal and Faisalabad districts In the canal colonies of central Punjab, Aheers from the Thal, like many others have settled in chaks, or settlements, with important ones being Chak 142J.B (Khai Aheeran), Chak 235JB (Haiboana), Langrana and Mouza Lodhran in Chiniot District, Chak 452 JB (Aheeranwala) in Jhang District, Chak 7 (Aheeranwala) in Mandi Bahauddin District, Chak 77/12-L in Sahiwal District. In southern Punjab, the Aheer are found in scattered settlements in Khanewal District in villages near the towns of Kabirwala and Qadirpur Raan, and in Lodhran District, their most important villages being Basti Aheer and Jhok Aheer.

Isolated from other Aheer settlements are the villages of Ahir and Bher Ahir in the Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi. These Aheer claim Rajput status, and have customs similar to other groups Rajput groups.

 

Distribution of Muslim Ahir in Punjab by District According to 1911 Census of India

 

District Population
Shahpur (Sargodha & Khushab districts) 1,017
Mianwali 843
Chenab Colony (Faisalabad) 345
Multan 234
Jhang 167
Other districts 195
Total Population 2,801

 

Khichi Chauhans of Punjab

In this post, I will look at the clan of the Khichi Chauhans, a tribe that was centred and still found in the Neeli Bar region. The Neeli Bar is a geographical region in Punjab, Pakistan. It consists of the uplands between the rivers Ravi and Satluj. “Bar” is the name given to areas in Punjab which were thick forests before the arrival of the modern canal irrigation system. Its soil is very fertile, as this plain is formed by the mud that has been collected by rivers flowing from the Himalayas. This region consists of the districts Sahiwal, Okara and Pakpattan . In my post on the Kathia, I give a bit more on the conditions and history of the tribal communities found in this region of Punjab. The Khichi family of Mailsi, are often referred to as the classic feudals of Punjab, having dominated local politics of Mailsi for the last seventy years since independence from the British. The current Member of the Punjab Assembly is for Mailsi is Muhammad Jahanzeb Khan Khichi. However, most present day Khichi are largely farmers.

Khichi, sometimes spelt Khichee, are a branch of the Chauhan clan of Agnivanshi Rajputs (please look at posting on Tribes of Potohar for a definition of Rajput). I shall start off by giving some brief information on the Chauhans. The Chauhan kingdom became the leading Rajput state in Northern India under Prithviraj III (1165–1192), also known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai Pithora . The Chauhan state collapsed after Prithviraj was defeated by Mohammed of Ghor in 1192 at the Second Battle of Tarain, but the Chauhans remained in Ajmer as feudatories of Mohammed of Ghor and the Sultans of Delhi until 1365, when Ajmer was captured by the rulers of Mewar, finally ending Chauhan rule. This also led to the dispersal of the Chauhans, with some migrating towards Punjab. The Chauhan kingdom collapsed after Prithviraj was defeated by Mohammed of Ghor in 1192 at the Second Battle of Tarain, but the Chauhans remained in Ajmer as feudatories of Mohammed of Ghor and the Sultans of Delhi until 1365, when Ajmer was captured by the rulers of Mewar. According to Khichi tribal traditions, the descend from Manak Rai, a semi-mythical Chauhan ruler of Ajmer. Manik Rai was said to be the brother of Dula Rai, the Chauhan king of Ajmer. In 684 CE, he fled from Ajmer after Dula Rai was killed by their enemies, and regained control managed of the area around Sambhar Lake with the blessings of the goddess Shakambh. The Khichi claim descent from Ajai Rao, the second son of Manik Rai, the legendry seventh century ruler of Sambhar in Rajasthan.

While the main Chauhan state was extinguished by 1365, cadet branches such as the Khichi, split up, some groups nmoving to the central Indian region of Malwa such as Asalgarh in Nimar. After being driven from Asalgarh, the Malwa Khichi founded the principality of Khilchipur, which lasted till the end of British rule in India and formed part of the Bhopal Agency under the administration of the Central India Agency. Another branch moved to Gagraun, in central Rajasthan, where they became tributaries of the Jhala Rajputs. The Khichi of Chota Udaipur state claim descent from this branch of the Khichis.

The Khichi of Punjab have slightly different origin story. According to their traditions, they claim descent from a Khichi ruler of Ajmer. Driven out of Delhi by one of the Sultan of Delhi, his descendants Sisan and Vidar migrated to Multan. The Khichis then fought with the Joiyas, then paramount in the region, expelling them from the Sutlej valley near the where the town of Mailsi is located. At sometime following their settlement in the Neeli Bar, the tribe converted to Islam. According to tribal traditions, they founded the villages of Shitab Garh, Sargana, Sheer Garh, Haleem Khichi, Aliwah, Tarki, Omar Khichi, Dhoda, and Fadda. One of their tradition refers to their conversion at the hands of the Sufi Bahaudin Zakaria of Multan. They then established a state based in the town of Mailsi, which finally conquered by the Sikhs in the 18th Century. Another branch established a state near the town of Gugera. Mailsi however remains the centre of the tribe. In addition to Punjab, branches of the Khichi tribe are still found in Rajasthan, especially in Jaisalmer, in India, who have remained Hindu, and have very similar origin stories as the Khichi of Punjab.

Groups of Khichi began migrating northwards, and the largest concentration of the Khichi are found in the Bhera Bar, a portion of the Kirana Bar located near the town of Bhera in Sargodha District. Khichi villages include Khichi Jagir, and Daulutpur Khichi in the Sahiwal Tehsil of Sargodha District, Khichi in the Talagang Tehsil and Khichi in Chakwal Tehsil of Chakwal District, and Khichi in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District. According to the 1901 Census of India, the Khichi were distributed in the following districts.

Khichi Rajput Population According to the 1901 Census of India

District Population
Chenab Colony 1,870
Multan 1,563
Montgomery 1,342
Bahawalpur 921
Shahpur 838
Jhang 733
Firuzpur 717
Mianwali 514
Other Districts 1,632
Total Population 10,130

Most of the Khichi population is still concentrated in the regions where they were found in 1901. The Khichi of Multan District were found near the town of Mailsi, which is now in Vehari, while the bulk of the Mianwali Khichi were found in the Bhakkar Tehsil, which is now a separate district.
Major Khichi Villages By District

Bhakkar District

1) Basti Cheena,

2) Chah Khichi

3) Khichi Kalan,

4) Khichi Khurd

5) Jhok Khichi

6) Wadhay Wali

Layyah District

1) Chak 459 TDA

2) Chak 465 TDA

Chiniot District

Chani Khichi

Faisalabad District

Chak106JB Khichian,

Shakeel Ahmed Khichi,

Chak 275 Mudooana

Hafizabad District.

Dera Mian Ali Khichi

Khanewal District

Khichiwala

Mandi Bahauddin District

1) Chakori

2) Sanda

Sargodha District

Chak No. 132 NB (Silanwali Tehsil),

Chak No. 139 SB (Silanwali Tehsil)

Okara District

Dholi Khichi,

Jawaya Khich

Nota Khichi

Sialkot District

Rahimpur Khichian

Khichi of Mailsi Region

But the greatest number of Khichi villages are still found in Mailsi region of Vehari District and include Sargana, Aliwah, Fadah, Halim Khichi, Umar Khichi, Shergarh, Shatabgarh, Tarki, Kilanj, Dhamakki, Dhodan and Jiwan Khichi. The Khichi have dominated the local politics in Vehari District, providing many of the members of the National Assembly.

Jat Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this, my final post on the distribution of castes in Punjab, according to the 1901 Census of India, I will look at the distribution of the Jats. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the Major Muslim Jat clans, which gives some more background on the caste in Punjab. The Jats were the largest single caste, and more then any other caste grouping, the Jat are associated with the Punjab.

 

Punjab 1909.jpg

Colonial Map of Punjab Source Wikepedia

In 1911, the Jats population was close to 5 million. They were found in almost every district, with the exception of Jubbal (Simla Hill States) being the only district/ state where no Jats were returned. Pandit Harikishan Kaul, author of the 1911 report wrote the following:

 

Throughout the rest of the Province, the ubiquitous Jat is found in larger or smaller numbers. They are somewhat scarce in the Attock District and the Himalayan Natural Division, the proportion being lowest in Attock, Nahan, Mandi, Suket and Chamba, while the strength is small in Kangra and Simla. The principal Jat tracts are Rohtak (34 per cent.), Ludhiana  (35 per cent.), Mianwali (34 per cent.), Muzaffargarh (36 per cent.), Multan (31 per cent.), Loharu (43 per cent.), Maler Kotla (32 per cent.), Faridkot (36 per cent.), Jind (34 per cent.), Nabha (30 per cent.), and Patiala (29 per cent.). In other words, the Jats are found in abundance on the banks of the Indus and in the east  central tract consisting of the Phulkian States and Ludhiana, the zone spreading out towards Firuzepur and Hissar, on the one hand, and Jalandhar and Amritsar on the other. The central Punjab has a fairly large Jat element, ranging from 27 to 24 per cent, in the Lyallpur, Gujrat, Shahpur, Gujranwala and Sialkot Districts.

 

In 1901 many Jats from centre and east of the province were settling in canal colonies established by the British. In the Chenab Colony, which according Pandit Harkishan Kaul was:

the premier canal colony of the Province is that irrigated by the Lower Chenab Canal. It comprises the whole of the Lyallpur and Jhang districts and the Hafizabad and Khangah Dogran Tehsils of the Gujranwala District.

The Chenab Colony was the largest colonisation project in the Punjab, beginning in 1892 and ending in 1905. Jat were the single largest community of migrants, as the 1911 census report points out:

 

The Jats who represent over 23 percent of the total number of immigrants are the most useful body of peasants. They consist of 57 percent Muhammadans, 40 percent Sikhs and 3 percent Hindus. Most of the Muhammadan Jats (21,377) have come from Sialkot, and the Montgomery, Multan, Shahpur, Gujrat, Gurdaspur, Amritsar and Lahore districts have also furnished large numbers of them. Sikh Jats are chiefly immigrants from Amritsar (15,830); the other units which have sent large numbers being Ambala, Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar, Ludhiana, Gurdaspur, Sialkot and Patiala.Sialkot has also sent in the largest number of Hindu Jats(1,250) and Ambala, Hoshiarpur and Jullundur have contributed about 500 persons each.

In 1901 Census, we can already see that the Chenab Colony was now the 5th highest in terms of number of Jats in the province. The Jhelum Colony, which was settled between 1902 and 1906, was was situated in the Shahpur district, and had its headquarters in the newly founded town of Sargodha. The 1901 census therefore does show this second focus of Jat migration. The 1911 Census report picked up on the Jat migration to the Jhelum canal:

The largest caste among the immigrants is that of Jats who have come chiefly from Sialkot (10,696), Gujrat (10,657), Jhang (6,205), Gujranwala (4,461) and Jhelum(2,898).They are mostly Muhammadans, work as cultivators and cattle-breeders.

 

In 1901, there number was still around 5 million. In terms of religious make up, a big change that has happened since the 1901 census is the decline of Hinduism in the next decades of the 20th Century in the Majha, Doaba and Malwa regions. Most of these Hindu Jats were followers of Sakhi Sultan Sarwar, a Sufi saint whose shrine is in Dera Ghazi Khan. Almost all these Punjabi speaking Hindu Jats are Sikh now. I would ask the reader to look at the book Spatializing Popular Sufi Shrines in Punjab: Dreams, Memories, Territoriality. which has some good information on the Sultanis. David Gilmartin’s book Blood and Water: The Indus River Basin in Modern History, is an excellent recent history of the settlement of the Bar, in which the Jat played an important role.

 

District / States

Muslim

Hindu

Sikh

Total

Patiala State 19,794

 

206,658 258,718 485,170

 

Sialkot 162,403
61,243

 

32,497 256,143

 

Firuzpur 29,393

 

 39,357 179,021 247,771

 

Ludhiana  25,890  76,886  131,963 234,739

 

Chenab Colony 150,602

 

19,139 60,518  230,259
Amritsar 38,545 10,101 179,675  228,321

 

Rohtak 1,913 215,126 59  217,098

 

Gujranwala 155,416 22,481 27,970 205,867

 

Hissar 4,540 166,448 24,171  195,159

 

Gujrat 192,000 2,545 530  195,075

 

Bahawalpur State 176,630 13,252 3,258 193,140

 

Lahore 84,568 5,321 101,629 191,518

 

Jalandhar 20,077 84,343 80,824 185,244

 

Hoshiarpur 25,828 92,129 34,655 152,612

 

Gurdaspur 45,528 36,268 60,956 142,752

 

Multan 137,717 325 2,272 140,314

 

Mianwali 137,665  137,665

 

Ambala 11,754 76,049 37,322 125,125

 

Karnal 2,869 109,098 7,558 119,525

 

Dera Ghazi Khan

 

118,701 142 118,843
Muzaffargarh 117,362 117,362

 

Delhi 2,885 110,571 102 113,558

 

Jind State

 

703 71,118 23,394 95,215
Gurgaon

 

921 75,782 50 76,753
Jhelum

 

72,863 146 355 73,364
Nabha State

 

3,592 30,060 34,419 68,071
Shahpur

 

63,650 141 86 63,877
Jhang

 

50,596 20 152 50,768
Kapurthala State

 

13,895 15,142 19,727 48,764
Rawalpindi

 

43,853 320 1,888 46,061
Faridkot State

 

3,581 794 42,085 46,460
Montgomery

 

41,158 674 3,904 45,736
Malerkotla State

 

137 17,078 8,453 25,668
Kangra

 

183 10,964 211 11,358
Kalsia

 

247 6,110 4,280 10,637
Loharu

 

6,619 6,619
Nahan

 

19 161 3,194
Dujana

 

174 2,458 2,632
Bilaspur

 

25 1,325 254 1,604
Pataudi

 

1,594 1,594
Nalargarh

 

19 804 45 868
Suket

 

245 245

Other Districts

Total

1,957,252

 1,594,876 (including 16 Jains)

1,389,530 4,941,658

 

Lilla and Phaphra

In this post, I will look at two tribes, namely the Phaphra and Lilla, who live in close proximity to each other in the Pind Dadan Khan region of Jhelum. Both of them have been called Jat, and here I wish to make a point. Both these tribes claim to an extra sub-continental descent, the Phaphra claim to be Mughal, while the Lilla Qureshi. Yet, the definition of Jat is elastic enough in this region for both these tribes to be included in the Jat category. What makes someone a Jat here is whether other tribes of Jat status will intermarry with them. I would also ask the reader to look at my article on the Jalap, which gives some background on the Jats of the Jhelum region.

Phaphra

Phaphra is small tribe of Mughal status, also found in Pind Dadan Khan plains located north of the river Jhelum.

The tribe claims to be Barlas Mughals, and get its name from an ancestor named Phaphra, who settled in the district in the 15th Century. So who exactly are the Barlas, and I shall briefly look at this group of medieval Mongols. According to the Secret History of the Mongols, written during the reign of Ögedei Khan [r. 1229-1241], the Barlas shared ancestry with the Borjigin, the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors, and other Mongol clans. The leading clan of the Barlas traced its origin to Qarchar Barlas, head of one of Chagatai’s regiments. Qarchar Barlas was a descendant of the legendary Mongol warlord Bodonchir (Bodon Achir; Bodon’ar Mungqaq), who was also considered a direct ancestor of Genghis Khan. Due to extensive contacts with the native population of Central Asia, the tribe had adopted the religion of Islam, and the Chagatai language, a Turkic language of the Qarluq branch, which was heavily influenced by Arabic and Persian. Timur, the ancestor of the Mughal dynasty belonged to the Barlas clan, and therefore that would connect the Paphra with the Mughals.

As their little historic evidence to connect the Phaphra with the Mughals, there is some scepticism as to their claim of Mughal ancestry. British settlement documents from the late 19th and early 20th Century refer refer to them as a “semi-Jat tribe”. As I have already mentioned, the word Jat in the Jhelum region often means a cultivator. The fact that the Phaphra often intermarry with neighbouring tribes such as the Lilla and Gondal, who are considered as Jat often reinforces the perception that the Phaphra are Jat.

According to Phaphra traditions, they came to this district from the direction of Faridkot, in what is now in East Punjab India. They settled in India around 15th Century, slightly earlier then the Mughal takeover of the Punjab. The Phaphra settled here as agriculturists, getting their name from their leader at that time Phaphra. However some other traditions claim he was called Nittharan. According to a family tree kept by Chaudharies of Gharibwal, the largest landowners among the tribe, gives their genealogy as follows:
Harbans or Shah Ibrahim (a descendent of Timur), Tilochar, Shah, Mal, Phaphra, Pheru, Vatra, Jatri, Harsh or Arif, Tulla, Nado, Hardev, Mahpal, and finally Nittharan.

Nittharan is said to have five sons namely; Gharib, (descendants in Gharibwal), Samman (Sammanwal), Ichhcin (son’s name Sau, descendants in Sauwal), Rao (Rawal), and Dhudhi (Dhudhi, and Qadarpur). Some of the earlier names are clearly Hindu, although this does not itself preclude their claim to Barlas ancestry. But there position in Jhelum society was more akin that of the Jats then the Mughals. Their headmen use the title Chaudhary, and their customs are very similar to the Gondals, the largest Jat tribe in their vicinity. The Phaphra are now divided into two rival clans, the Dhudhial, from the village of Dhudhi Paphra and Sadowalia from those who belong to the village of Sadowal.

The Paphra occupy a compact area of about 25 square miles at the foot of the Salt Range, east of Pind Dadan Khan in Jhelum District .The main Mughals Phaphra villages are Chak Danial, Chak Shadi, Chakri Karam Khan, Dewanpur, Dhudi Paphra, Ghareebwal, Jutana, Karimpur, Kaslian, Kot Phaphra, Kot Shumali, Rawal, Sidhandi, Sammanwal, Sadowal, Saowall, Shah Kamir, Qadirpur, Thil, Warnali, and Warra Phaphra, all in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District. In Chakwal District they are found in Dhok Virk and Jotana. Mohra Phaphra is a lone Phaphra village in Rawalpindi District. Across the Jhelum, in Mandi Bahauddin District the Paphra are also found in villages of Phaphra, Chak No 29 and Nurpur Piran.

Lila

The next tribe I will look are the Lila, who are also found above the Jhelum in Pind Dadan Khan District.

According to their tribal traditions, they originally located in Arabia, being relations of the Prophet on his mother’s side. This would make the Lila’s Qureshi by origin. They then left Arabia under the leadership of an individual named Haris, who migrated to India, with a band of 160 men and settled at a place called Masnad in Hindustan, which they say still exists as a small town or village, though its exact situation is not known. This happened in the time of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. However, the Lilla did not stay long in Masnad, and moved to Multan. There they became disciples of the pir Ghaus Shah. The Pir warned them that they would prosper as long as they remained united, but that any disagreements within the tribe would lead to their ruin.

Accompanied by Ghaus Shah, the tribe settled in Shahidiwalian, near present day Gujranwala. After they had been settled there for some time the locals of the place began to get tired of the trouble they caused, and made complaint to the Emperor at: Delhi, who ordered that they should be moved on.

The local governor was ordered to expel them and succeeded in dividing the tribe into two factions, which fought a pitched battle. The defeated party dispersed and its descendants are now found near the Chenab, mainly in what’s now Mandi Bahaudin District, while the others, weakened by the struggle, migrated to the Pind Dadan Khan plain, led by Lilla Buzurg, whose is considered the ancestor by all the present Lillas. When Lilla arrived at their present location, the tract was then occupied a tribe of Hal Jats. As I have already mentioned in the section on the Hal, the Lillas proceeded exterminated this tribe, barring one pregnant woman, who had managed to escape. According to the tribal traditions of the Awan, who villages border those of the Lilla, they were first settle the area by the Jhelum, which was a swamp.Despite the claim to Qureshi ancestry, the Lilla are considered as Jats by their neighbours and intermarry with other tribes of Jat status such as the Gondal, Jethal, Phaphra and Wariaches.

The four ancestral villages of the tribe are Lilla Bhera (also known as Mainowana), Lilla Bharwana, Lilla Hindwana, and Lilla Guj, which are said to be named after their founders, Maino, Bharo, Hindo, and Guj. Each of these villages are named after their founders, Maino, Bharo, Hindo, and Guj. The tribe holds about 40 square miles of territory between Pind Dadan Khan town and the Salt Range in the Jhelum District, and form the majority in the villages of Chak Hameed, Jalalpur Sharif, Lilla Handwana, Lilla Goj, Lilla Bhera (also known as Mainowana) and Rawal in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. There also a second cluster of Lilla villages on the banks of the Jhelum River in Khushab District, such as Kotla Jagir, Mohibpur and Waheer. While in Mandi Bahauddin District, they are found in Bohat, and further south in Sargodha District, they are found in Bhikhi Khurd, descendants of the second group of Lillas who dispersed to the Chenab.

Badhan / Wadhan, Hayal, Kanjial and Rachyal tribes

In this post, I will look at four tribes, namely the Badhan, Hayal, Kunjial and Rachyal, who are found mainly in the southern region of Azad Kashmir, and neighbouring districts of Punjab namely Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Gujrat and Sialkot. All these are some sub-clans within the larger Jat community. In Indian administered Kashmir, the Jat are found in Rajouri and the Mendhar Tehsil of Poonch. I will use this post to give a brief description of the Jat population within the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Most of the Jat population was found either in the Duggar Region, about 15% or in the Chibhal Region the remaining 85%. Although the Chibhal region, took its name from the Chib clan of the Rajputs who were the traditional rulers of this area, the Jat population was almost twice that of the Rajputs. The Chibs converted to Islam in mid-17th Century, and other Rajput sub-castes followed suit. It is very likely that most of the Jat also converted at that time. However it is worth pointing out that the Jat and Rajput tribes tended to have a common origin, with CLAIMS TO Rajputhood based mostly on whether a clan had achieved political power or not. Outside Mirpur and Bhimber tehsils, there were several Jat communities in Rajouri (then part of Reasi) and Poonch. Separate from these, were the Jats of the Jammu and Kathua (Duggar) region, who were Punjabi speaking, belonging mainly to the Badhan, Bajwa, Kahlown, Nagra and Randhawa clans, and were really an overspill of the Jats of Sialkot and Gurdaspur. Most of the Muslim Jat villages were located in Ranbir Singh Pura and Bishnah tehsils of Jammu and Samba districts. Below is a breakdown of the total Jat population according to the 1931 Census:

District

Muslim

Hindu

Sikh

Total

Jammu

9,258

7,014

506 16,778

Kathua

175

1,549

47

 1,771

Udhampur

100

152

   252

Reeasi

2,443

27

12

 2,482

Mirpur

103,095

14,460

4,951

122,506

Poonch Jagir

4,808

65

   4,873

Other Districts

204

131

103

438

Total

120,083

23,371

5,619

149,073

As the 1931 census shows, most of the Jat population numbering about 122,506, of whatever religion were found in the old Mirpur District, where the Jats formed more than a third of the total population of 344,747. Most of these areas now forms part of Azad Kashmir, except the area around Nawshera, traditionally part of Bhimber Tehsil, which is now under Indian administration. Most of the Hindu and Sikh Jat population was found in the Deva-Batala area, now part of the modern day district of Bhimber. The division of the Chibhal region in 1948 led to the migration of the Hindu and Sikh population, while the Muslim Jats left the area around Nowshera that came under Indian control. Similarly, the Muslim Jats of Jammu and Kathua also immigrated to Pakistan. There is still a small Muslim Jat population in Rajouri and Mendhar in Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir.

The Jat of Jammu and Kashmir are further sub-divided into numerous clans called gots or gotras. Technically members of a Jat got are supposed to be descended from a traditional common ancestor by agnatic descent, i.e. through male line only. Another interesting thing about the various Jat tribes in Chibhal is that there name often ends in al, which is patronymic, for example, the sons of Kals, are the Kalyal and so on, very similar to the Arabic Bin or Slavic ovich or ov. The aals started off as clans of a larger tribe, so the Kanjial are a branch of the Janjua, who have now evolved into a separate tribe. Unlike the Jats of the Punjab plains, where one large clan often has several villages, in the Chibhal we have numerous clans often occupying the same village. In my other posts, I have looked at and posted about Jat tribes that have a presence in the Chibhal, such as the Bangyal, Gujjral,, Kanyal, Kalyal, Bhakral (or Pakhreel), Matyal, Nagyal and Thathaal.

Badhan

I start off this post by looking at the Badhan, sometimes pronounced as Wadhan, also known as Pakhai, who are generally considered as a Jat tribe, but have also claimed to be Rajput. Like many Punjabi tribes, there are several traditions as to the origin of the tribe. There are in fact two origin stories, one connected with eastern Badhan, those found in Gujrat, Sialkot/Narowal, and historically in Jammu and Gurdaspur, and the western group found in Sudhnoti, Kotli, Jhelum and Rawalpindi (mainly Kahuta). Under the various censuses carried by the British in the early 20th Century, the Badhan of central Punjab generally registered them themselves as Jats, and this included those of Jammu, while in Pothohar and Mirpur/Poonch, most Badhan registered themselves as Rajputs.
I shall off by looking at the traditions of the eastern Badhan first. Among many Sialkot Badhans, Jats, that they were a branch of the mythical Saroa Rajputs and descended from Kala, a resident of Jammu. However, a more common traditions was that the Badhan, there ancestor was descended from of Gillpal (Gilpal), son of a Rajput King, Pirthipal, Raja of Garh Mithila and a Waria (Baryah) Rajput by a Bhular Jat wife. This would make the Badhan a branch of the Gill tribe, and indeed the Sikh Badhan Jatts of Gurdaspur and Jammu do not marry the Gills, as they consider themselves to be a branch of the Gills. Judge or Juj was the second son of Gillpal, was the ancestor of Badhan Gills. The tribe gets its name from Badhan, the great grandson of Juj.
The western Badhan have an entirely different tradition. According to them, there ancestor Badhan was a Janjua Rajput of Kahuta, who settled among the Sudhans. In fact, in the Sudhnoti region of Poonch, the Badhan are often confused with the Sudhans, and a few Badhans actually claim themselves to be a branch of the Sudhans. In Sudhnoti, the occupy several villages near the Jhelum river. A smaller section also claims to be Qutabshahi Awans. What is clear is that in this western region, the Badhan occupy a quasi-Jat status, while among the eastern group, a claim to be Jat is generally accepted.

 

In Rawalpindi, there are several Badhan villages such as Parhali (in Tehsil Kahuta) and Rawat. In Sudhnuti, important Badhan villages include Basari, Rakar, Neeryan, Sahr Kakota, Noursa, Hamrata, and Kohala.

Distribution of Badhan in Jammu and Kashmir by District According to 1911 Census of India

The bulk of the Badhan population was found in the Poonch Jagir. However, the figures for Mirpur are slightly misleading, as many of Badhan in Mirpur registered themselves as Jats.

District Population
Reeasi 79
Mirpur 1,393
Poonch Jagir 4,607
Muzafarabad 505
Total Population 6,596

 

Distribution of Badhan who declared themselves as Jat in Punjab by District According to 1901 Census of India

 

District Population
Rawalpindi 246
Jhelum 248
Total Population 494

 

Hayal

The Hayal are little known tribe, found entirely in Kallar Syedan Tehsil, who claim Chaughtai Mughal ancestry. They are found in the villages of Burra Haya, Hayal Pindoral and Mohra Hayal. In Mirpur District, Hayyal, who classify themselves as Jats, are found in the villages of Kangra and Chappar.

Kanjial

The Kanjial are found mainly in Gujrat, Bhimber, Mirpur and Jhelum districts. According to tribal traditions, there ancestor was a Ghalla, a Janjua Rajput, who had three sons, Bhakari, their ancestor, Natha (ancestor of the Nathial) and Kunjah (ancestor of the Kunjial). However, some traditions make Rai Kunjah to be a Bhatti.
In Mirpur, Kanjial villages include Andrah Kalan, Khandora and other villages in the Islamgarh Tehsil of Mirpur.

Rachyal

Finally, I will look at the Rachyal, sometimes spelt Richyal, who are a Jat tribe, found mainly in the Kotli and Mirpur districts of Azad Kashmir. Like the Kahlotra already mentioned, the Rachyal are a clan of Dogras, whose roots like in the Chamba region of what is now Himachal Pradesh. There ancestor was a Ranchan Dev, a Hindu Rajput of the Kashyap gotra, who said to have converted to Islam in the 16th Century. Generally, among the Rajputs of the Himachal region, each clan was connected with a Hindu rishi, who was traditional spiritual ancestor. Looking at Kashyapa, he is one of Saptarishi, the seven famed rishis and considered to be author of many hymns and verses of the Rigveda (1500-1200 BCE). It is likely that the Rachyal are branch of the Katoch Rajputs, as they belonged to the Kashyap gotra.

According to tribal folklore, once the Rachyals converted to Islam they were forced out of Chamba and its surroundings and we see them migrating to Sialkot, Sheikhupura, and Jhang areas of Punjab in Pakistan. The tribe then re-entered the Jammu state via Dhuki village through Sarai-Alamgir (near Kharian, Punjab, Pakistan) which lies in district of Mirpur around three hundred years ago. They then moved to Mangla and eventually to a place called Ladna near now Chakswari. From here the Rachyals spread farther west and the estate of Panyam came into existence. Most of the Rachyal are still found either in Chakswari or Panyam, where several of their villages are found such as Pothi,and Chamba. Some Rachyals villages are found further north near Naar, Rajdhani, Poonch and Rajouri.

Tribes and Castes of Mirpur District, Azad Kashmir

In this post, I will give the breakdown of the population of the old Mirpur District of the princely state Jammu and Kashmir, roughly covering the current districts of Mirpur, Bhimber, Kotli, as well as a portion of Bhimber Tehsil which now forms part of the Nowshera Tehsil of Rajouri in Indian administered Kashmir. The results are from the Census of 1931. Ethnologically, Mirpur region has much in common with neighbouring Pothohar, in particular the Gujar Khan Region, with Jat cultivators, a smaller Rajput aristocracy and a group of castes connected with particular occupation often derogatorily refereed to as Kammi. Traditionally, landownership was associated with particular groups, such as the Jat, while the kammi were largely landless. Almost all the population, including the large ethnic Kashmiri population spoke Mirpur Punjabi, aalso referred to as Pahari or Pothwari. This language is extremely close to the Pothwari spoken in Gujarkhan.

The old district formed the heart of the Chibhal region, with the Manawar Tawi, an important source of the Chenab, forming the eastern portion and Jhelum the west, Punjab in the south and Poonch and the Pir Panjaal in the north. This region formed the easiest route into the Kashmir valley along the Bhimber, Rajouri and Shopian route, also known as the Mughal Road. Over 80% of the population was Muslim, and most of the population spoke Pahari. After the first Indo-Pak War of 1948, the district was divided by the armistice line that later became known as Line of Control. There was also an exchange of population, with Nawshera now about 90% Hindu and Sikh, while the Mirpur Division is now entirely Muslim. About one third of the district was Jat, who belonged to all three religions. Most of the larger clans such as the Kalial, Nagyal and Thathaal had sections which belonged to all three religion.

Brief Description of the Muslim Groups

Jats

As I have said more then 80% of the population in the district was Muslim, of whom the Jat formed almost 40% of the districts Muslim population. In Mirpur, Jats still reside in their traditional heartlands of Chakswari, Dadyal, the city of Mirpur and the countryside surrounding Mirpur, which is overwhelmingly Jat. The main Jat villages near Mirpur are Ban Khurma, Chitterpury, Balah-Gala, Kas Kalyal, Khambal, Khroota, Purkhan, Sangot and Dheri Thothal as well as many villages around the Khari Sharif area.The Jat population was in term divided into numerous clans, all claiming descent from a common ancestor. Among the larger clans were Aasar, Bangial, Badhan, Dhamial, Kalyal, Kanjial, Kanyal, Karyal, Khabal, Manjaal, Matyal, Nagyal, Nathyal, Rachyal, Ranyal, Rupyal, Thathaal, Pakhreel and Punyal.

Rajputs

The second largest group were the Rajputs, almost 13% of the total Muslim population. The Chibs were the dominant clan in Bhimber, while the Gakhars (including Sakhaal sub-clan)  in Mirpur and the Mangral in Kotli. Other important clans were the Jaral in Bhimber, Narma and Thakyal in Kotli and the Sahu in Mirpur. Along the Punjab border, next to Jhelum and Gujrat, there were several communities of Bhao, Panwar and Sohlan. The Minhas and Sahoo were largely concentrated in Mirpur tehsil. Included within the Rajputs were the Bains, who were heavily concentrated in the Mirpur tehsil, most of which now forms part the Mirpur District. The Bhatti, who were closer to the Jat in customs, as they tended to be owner-cultivators were seperately enumerated, and in 1931 numbered 1,664. Another quasi-Rajput group were the Badhan, who numbered 532. In the case of the Badhan, it is very likely among them many would have declared themselves as Jats. In neigbhouring Gujrat and Jhelum Districts, the Badhan are simply a Jat tribe.

Major Clans

The 1931 Census of India was the last one that collected information on the various clans of the Rajput community. Below is a list of clans belonging to the Muslim Rajputs:

Tribe Population
Chib 7,376
Mangral 6,827
Ghakkar 5,085
Jaral 3,470
Narma 2,048
Manhas 1,161
Khokhar 1,009
Sao / Sahoo 834
Bains 678
Bhao 569
Chauhan 279
Janjua 218
Salehria/Sulehri 45
Bomba 7
Other Clans 836

 

Gujars

The Gujjars came third, making up almost 10% of the population. Most of these Gujjars were connected with those of northern Punjab, speaking Pothwari and not Gojri, the language spoken by the Gujjars of the rest of the state, including the Kashmir valley. Among the larger Gujjar clans we find the Banya, Bagri, Bajar, Bhumbla, Bjarh, Chandpuri, Chauhan, Chechi, Gorsi, Hans, Kallas, Kasana, Khatana, Khepar, Poswal and Meelu. Important Gujjar villages include Pramekot, Rahimkot, Riat, Dadyal, Bhalot Chowk (Mirpur), Mandi Village (Dadyal),Sahalia (Dadyal) Saliah (Dadyal), Kund (Dadyal), Khoi Ratta, Anderla Kothera, Shaheen Abad, Dakkhana, Phalini, Khor, Ghayeen, Kerjai, Barali Gala, and Nidi Sohana, all in Kotli District.

Bafinda

The Bafinda, whose traditional activity was weaving, differ from the previous three, in that they were not traditionally landowners. The name Bafinda, or Bafand, is derived from the Persian word baften, meaning cotton dresser. When cotton cultivation stopped in Kashmir with the advent of foreign-made fabrics, they largely shifted to carpet weaving but now are engaged in many vocations. In 1931, they were still village artisans, practising there traditional occupation of weaving. There was not a single village in the Mirpur region that did not contain a few houses.

Other Agriculturists

The other large groups associated with agriculture were the Awan, Arain, Maliks and Sudhans, the last two groups were found only in Kotli. The Arain population of Jammu and Kashmir were equally divided between Jammu and Mirpur regions, and they were usually found in most Rajput villages, often working as tenants. The Awan villages such as Mohra Malkan and Ghaseetpur Awan were found mainly near the Jhelum, while a similar number were found in Kotli. While Maliks were found in eastern most part of Kotli, and were said to have been settled in the region on the orders of Emperor Akbar. Finaly, the Sudhan were found along the border with Poonch District, many of whom were claiming a Pathan origin. It is possible that some Sudhan would have declared themselves as Pathan in 1931 Census, thereby inflating the figure for that caste.

Kashmiri Muslims

By the early 20th Century, the district was home to a substantial community of Kashmiri Muslims. By 1931 they numbered 8,554, and in the Mirpur region now formed a distinct caste, in status slightly above the artisan groups, but below the landowning community. Most of them had switched to speaking Pahari, as this was the language of the dominant Rajputs. Its interesting to note that in 1931, only 759 people in the district spoke the Kashmiri language.

Major Clans of the Kashmiri Muslims

The 1931 Census of India also collected information on Kashmir Muslim castes. In Mirpur District, by 1931 these divisions were getting blurred, as there was a high degree of intermarriage between various groups of Kashmiri.

Tribe Population
Mir 2,463
Bhat 1,616
Dar 994
Lone 677
Shaikh 338
Rather 205
Wyene 138
Ganai 111
Paray 76
Magre 41
Tantre 40
Hajjam / Khalifa 14
Khwaja 13
Pandit 8
Other Clans / Kashmiri Miscellaneous 1,820

 

Artisan Castes

About 20% of the district population was made up of castes that were associated with certain occupations such as Tarkhan (carpenters), Jogi (labourers), Lohar (smiths), Nai (barbers), Jheer (water carriers), Darzi (taylors), Khatik (butchers), and Machi (bakers). Slightly seperate from these kammi groups were the Mussali (2,068) and Mirasi (1,235), who like the Chamars and Meghs among the Hindus, were communities of outcastes.

The Bazigar, were an interesting tribe of peripatetic nomads provided entertainment to settled village communities. They were probably undercounted on account of there nomadic lifestyles.

Other Groups

In addition to the groups described, the district was home to castes such as the Sayads and Mughals, traditionally associated with land holding and the Khojas or Punjabi Shaikhs, who were converts from the Hindu Khatri caste. Like the Kashmiri, the Khoja were largely traders and merchants. One final Muslim group that deserves a brief note are the Domaal, a Rajput caste traditionally associated with Poonch. Finally, the Pathans in the district were largely migrants, about 117 in 1931 still spoke Pashto, although the figure was probably higher. Unlike the Kashmiri, the Pathan groups had only recently established themselves in the district. Some of those who resgistered themselves Pathans maybe members of the Sudhan tribe.In 1932, the numbered 1,239.

Major Hindu Communities

Among the Hindus of Mirpur, the Jat, formed a significant elements, with the larger clans being the Aasar, Aassle, Bhatti, Bhangre, Chahal, Gill, Dhoor, Jhal, Kjaal, Nagyals, Nathyal, Ranyal, Pajhaal, Smotra, Thathaal, and Tohre. The Rajputs, mainly Bhao, Charak, Chib and Minhas formed an important element in Bhimber. Three interesting communities that were only found in the region were the Basith, Mahajan and Muhial. The Basith claimed a Rajput status, were generally cultivators and outside Mirpur were only found in Poonch. After the 1948 War, the Basith community was made refugees. The Mahajan or Pahari Mahajan were found in the all the towns such as Koti, Mirpur and Nawshera, and were largely traders. The Mahajan of Mirpur town were a particularly wealthy community. The Muhial Brahmans were the landowners and soldiers of the Pothohar region, and a substantial section found in the Mirpur region. In addition, the district was home to two large Dalit communities, the Megh (weavers) and Chamars.

Major Clans of the Hindu Rajputs

Bellow is the population of the Hindu Rajput clans in the district. The majority belonged to Chib tribe, as was the case among Muslim Rajputs.

Tribe Population
Chib 6,118
Manhas 387
Narma 49
Charak 33
Bhao 17
Chauhan 10
Salehria/Sulehri 10
Jaral 6
Other Clans 836

 

Major Sikh Communities

Mirpur was the western most region that was inhabited by Jatt Sikhs. The Jatt Sikhs and Jat Hindus shared the same clans, and intermarried with each other. The Sikh population of Mirpur differed considerably from those of Poonch and the Kashmir valley, who are largely Brahman. In Mirpur, the Sikhs were divided almost evenly between the Jatts and the Khatri/Arora castes, who were traditionally associated with trade.

 

Religion-wise

 

Religion Population Percentage
Muslim 277,631 80.5%
Hindu 57,594 16.7%
Sikh 9,432 3%
Christian 82
Jain 8
Total 344,747 100%

 

Caste-wise

 

 

Religion Caste or tribe Population
Muslims
Jat 103,096
Rajput 35,534
Gujjar 26,414
Bafinda 9,958
Kashmiri 8,554
Malik 7,512
Awan 6,507
Mughal 6,467
Tarkhan 6,340
Arain 5,776
Sayyid 5,074
Lohar 4,675
Machhi 4,551
Kumhar (Ghumiar) 4,493
Teli 3,988
Hajjam (Nai) 3,783
Sudhan 2,521
Shaikh 2,106
Mussali (Muslim Shaikh) 2,068
Darzi 1,889
Bhatti 1,664
Jhinwar (Jheer) 1,635
Jogi 1,328
Pathan 1,239
Mirasi 1,235
Dhobi 589
Badhan 532
Rangrez 514
Bazigar 345
Sonar 127
Domaal 97
Khatik 94
Khoja 81
Bharai 61
Dervesh 45
Mochi 45
Qalandar 33
Bakarwal 29
Safiada 9
Turk 7
Banjara 3
Other Muslims 6,928
Hindus
Jat 14,460
Brahman 11,685
Rajput 7,475
Chamar 6,014
Khatri 3,641
Mahajan 3,365
Basith (Vashith Rajput) 2,817
Megh 1,573
Brahman Muhial 1,565
Barwala 695
Sonar (Soni) 629
Jhinwar (Jheer) 483
Tarkhan 446
Lohar 291
Kumhar (Ghumiar) 239
Gorkha 234
Sadhu 157
Dom 151
Jogi 143
Arora 129
Labana 127
Nai 106
Chhimba 91
Gardi 51
Chuhra 40
Others 931
Sikh
Jat 4,951
Arora 1,168
Khatri 1,045
Sonar (Soni) 145
Rajput 93
Brahman 68
Kumhar (Ghumiar) 41
Tarkhan 23
Mahajan 16
Jhinwar (Jheer) 11
Megh 10
Christians 82
Jains 8
Total 344,747

 

Sources

Census of Jammu and Kashmir State 1931

1901 Census of the Province of Punjab and adjacent princely States

In this post, I am setting out the results of the 1901 Census of Punjab, which included the present day Pakistani province and the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal and Delhi.

 

Religion-wise

 

Religion Population Percentage
Muslim 12,183,345  49%
Hindu 10,344,469  42%
Sikh 2,102,896  8.5%
Christian 66,591
Jain 49,983
Buddhist 6,940
Zoroastrians 477
Jews and Uspecified 36
Total 24,754,737 100%

 

Fifteen Largest Castes per population in 1901

This section will not break up the largest castes by religion, which will be done in the next section. To give some background, the ten largest castes together accounted for 60% of the population. The largest caste in Punjab were the Jats, who were found in all three religious communities of the Punjab, and accounted for 20% of the total population. The two Dalit groups of the Chuhra and Chamar together accounted for 10% of the population. Most of the population from these two communities had remained Hindu in 1901. Agrarian groups like the Rajput, Arain and Gujar made up together 14% of the population. Among these, the Arain were almost entirely Muslim while the other two castes were largely Muslim.

Caste Population Percentage
Jat 4,946,651 20%
Rajput 1,797,591  7%
Chamar 1,268,434  5%
Chuhra (I have excluded groups that registered themselves as Mussalli or Mazhabi) 1,188,632  5%
Brahman 1,111,675 4.5%
Arain 1,006,784 4%
Tarkhan 680,486 3%
Julaha 656,769 3%
Arora 652,435 3%
Gujar 631,524 3%
Baloch 467,843
Jhinwar 459,177
Khatri 436,472
Awan 421,112
Mochi 414,987

 

Caste-wise

 

Religion Caste or tribe Population
Hindus 10,344,469
Jat 1,594,869
Chamar 1,181,873
Brahman 1,105,952
Chuhra 947,943
Arora 587,128
Rajput 432,341
Kanet 387,308
Khatri  381,576
 Jhinwar (Kashyap)  291,124
Tarkhan / Barhai  238,915
Ahir  202,385
Kumhar 193,278
Ghirath  169,667
Gujar  169,244
Dagi and Koli  129,403
Sunar/Soni (Tank Kshtriya)  154,739
Nai  143,257
Bania 126,285
Faqir 119,076
Lohar 113,100
Mali 111,822
Saini 106,011
Dhanuk 77,343
Chhimba 62,595
Domna 58,230
Julaha 57,472
Kamboh 56,297
Megh 49,449
Mahtam 48,586
Ror 44,771
Rathi 38,473
Jogi and Rawal 34,692
Labana 34,514
Bhat 34,509
Mahajan Pahari 30,575
Bawaria 27,854
Bazigar 27,852
Kori 26,146
Sansi 25,445
Mirasi 24,399
Noongar 23,007
Gadariya 22,386
Gaddi 21,512
Sood 20,420
Batwal
Hali 18,570
Odh 18,179
Dhobi 17,916
Kalal (Kalwar) 17,240
Bishnoi 17,114
Bhatia 16,949
Aheri 13,647
Kayastha 12,439
Khateek 12,286
Jaiswara 12,058
Thori (Nayak) 11,822
Chanal 11,744
Barwala 11,189
Brahman Muhial 10,180
Darzi 9,882
Saryara 9,216
Thakkar 8,750
Taga /Tyagi 8,376
Lodha / Lodhi 7,683
Bharbhunja 7,162
Purbiya 6,295
Chhang 6,209
Gurkha 5,956
Banjara 5,421
Mochi 5,310
Nat 4,099
Bohra 4,076
Nayak 4,037
Ghai 3,950
Rebari 3,889
Teli 3,882
Thathera 3,842
Marechha 3,537
Bahti 3,501
Agari 3,444
Maniar 3,356
Mallaah 3,031
Sirkiband 3,003
Barar 2,958
Dhaugri 2,935
Meena 2,850
Darain 2,785
Kacchi 2,775
Bhanjra 2,621
Reya 2,285
Beldar 2,732
Thavi 2,122
Karal 1,853
Sepi 1,830
Raj 1,701
Kanjar 1,563
Arain 1,596
Bhabhra 1,580
Rawat 1,531
Rehar 1,469
Bangali 1,362
Penja 1,360
Daoli 1,266
Dhusar – Bhargava 1,250
Sewak 1,233
Kanchan 1,208
Hesi 1,154
Bhatra 1,095
Bhojki 1,071
Pasi 1,041
Sehnai 930
Kurmi 913
Shorgir 783
Tamboli 716
Sapela 676
Makh 631
Gandhila 601
Dosali 492
Rangrez 489
Gagra 488
Ghosi 486
Barah 482
Garri / Gayri 480
Bhand 476
Machhi 451
Patwa 449
Hadi 441
Bott (Bhotia) 418
Sangtarash
Kashmiri 386
Bahrupia 382
Kapri 370
Satti 336
Niaria 317
Maratha 310
Saiqalgar 275
Dogra 230
Baghban 191
Dabgar 186
Attar 176
Marwari Bania 136
Chirimar 125
Perna 106
Kikan 100
Lilari 96
Pahari 81
Pujari 76
Pakhiwara 74
Bhil 61
Batera 58
Bari 51
Cheenighar 39
Sikhs 2,102,896
Jat 1,389,530
Tarkhan (Ramgarhia) 147,475
Chamar 76,229
Arora 65,307
Khatri 54,735
Kamboh 43,886
Lohar 30,935
Chhimba 28,856
Jhinwar 25,845
Nai 25,058
Labana 22,884
Chuhra 22,769
Saini 20,480
Sonar 19,235
Mahtam 19,183
Rajput 17,903
Kumhar 15,948
Faqir 10,699
Mazhabi 9,762
Kalal (Ahluwalia) 7,579
Julaha 6,511
Bhatia 6,356
Brahman 5,337
Karal 2,559
Bahrupia 2,377
Banjara 2,023
Bhat 1,948
Gujar 1,870
Mahajan Pahari 1,567
Bawaria 1,285
Bazigar 1,285
Kanet 1,036
Bania 917
Raj 916
Ghirath 895
Brahman Muhial 827
Mali 799
Dhobi 781
Darzi 666
Aheri 627
Saryara 528
Chhang 457
Bhatra 423
Bhabra 398
Thathera 381
Sood 326
Saiqalgar (Sikligar) 285
Ahir 217
Sangtarash 159
Sansi 159
Daoli 102
Nayak 81
Odh 78
Thori (Nayak) 73
Nat 69
Bhand 67
Dogra 64
Makh 55
Niaria 35
Teli 25
Muslims 12,183,345
Jat 1,962,252
Rajput 1,347,347
Arain 1,005,188
Julaha 592,786
Baloch 467,843
Gujar 460,410
Awan 421,112
Mochi 409,677
Kumhar 359,889
Shaikh 321,408
Teli 318,598
Tarkhan 294,096
Pathan 263,897
Faqir 255,864
Sayyad 244,227
Machhi 240,983
Mirasi 222,959
Chuhra 217,805
Nai 207,822
Lohar 206,371
Kashmiri 193,088
Meo 146,652
Jhinwar 142,208
Dhobi 128,487
Qassab (Qasai) 118,644
Khokhar 107,939
Khoja (Punjabi Shaikh) 99,238
Mughal 98,282
Maliar 81,093
Dogar 75,080
Kamboh 73,878
Mallaah 70,223
Bharai / Shaikh Sarwari 65,678
Barwala 62,466
Chhimba 60,051
Mussali / Muslim Shaikh 57,410
Qureshi 52,951
Kutana 49,982
Jogi and Rawal 41,030
Kharal 40,296
Changar 39,354
Ulema 34,099
Pacheda 31,117
Darzi 28,969
Sonar (Tank Rajput) 28,565
Ghakhar 26,259
Dhund (Abbasi) 23,591
Daudpotra (Abbasi) 20,384
Rangrez 20,160
Lilari 20,027
Penja 19,679
Rawat 17,374
Satti 17,094
Mahtam 15,076
Bhatiara 13,942
Jhabel 13,278
Khateek 11,362
Kahut 10,804
Kakkezai 10,793
Raj 10,486
Chamar 10,332
Kanchan 8,984
Odh 8,583
Janjua 8,361
Maniar 7,907
Kalal 7,563
Khattar 7,411
Kunjra 6,913
Nat 6,330
Kanera 5,893
Pakhiwara 5,590
Taga / Tyagi 5,214
Paracha 4,564
Khanzada (Jadaun) 3,971
Banjara 3,728
Harni 3,575
Labana 3,531
Ghosi 3,543
Gaddi 3,294
Bodla 3,184
Noongar 2,894
Ahir 2,816
Khakha 2,765
Sansi 2,536
Bhat 2,487
Aheri 2,449
Gagra 2,433
Ghullam 2,405
Sudhan 2,291
Niaria 2,162
Kathia 2,099
Baddun 1,896
Lilla 1,691
Baghban 1,602
Kehal 1,531
Batwal 1,477
Qalandar 1,449
Bharbhunja 1,385
Thathera 1,374
Perna 1,270
Bhand 1,162
Toba 1,140
Dabgar 1,127
Khumra 1,109
Arab 1,098
Barar 1,025
Kangar 915
Domna 902
Kanjar 889
Garri / Gayri 826
Kayastha 822
Kamangar 783
Kharasia 773
Darugar 728
Marath 689
Gadariya 661
Phapra 632
Turk 563
Bawaria 468
Dogra 448
Bisati 439
Mohipota / Mohipotra 431
Thori (Nayak) 392
Brahman 386
Patwa 363
Karal 350
Chirimar 341
Sirkiband 330
Tanoli 309
Sahnsar 305
Mali 294
Qizilbash 294
Saiqalgar 280
Lodha / Lodhi 268
Bazigar 254
Bangali 252
Attar 216
Pasi 215
Bhatia 213
Jhojha 202
Sattiar 198
Arora 189
Khushabi 185
Saini 180
Kanet 176
Khatri 161
Hijra 157
Bohra 150
Sapela 149
Gandhila 145
Chanal 139
Kamachi 137
Shorgir 124
Tamboli 123
Cheenigar 101
Kapri 99
Sangtarash 81
Tibetan Musalman 79
Nayak 79
Makh 68
Sehnai 68
Bhabhra 65
Qarol 61
Rababi
Bahrupia 37
Ladakhi 32
Rehar 29
Ghok 18
Hazara 12
Jains 49,983
Bania 35,807
Bhabhra 11,249
Faqir 107
Jain Miscellaneous 2,653
Buddhist 6,940
Jad 1,945
Kanet 1,342
Hasir 372
Joba / Jora 233
Chhazang 71
Tarkhan 31
Lanba 22
Chhimba 15
Lonpa 7
Oh 6
Long Changpa 3
Champa 3
Christian 66,591
Zoroastrians 477
Jews and Unspecified 36
Total 24,754,737

 

 

See Also

Kamboh Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

Dogar Population of Punjab and the United Provinces according to 1901 Census

Source

Census of India 1901 [Vol 17A] Imperial tables, I-VIII, X-XV, XVII and XVIII for the Punjab, with the native states under the political control of the Punjab Government, and for the North-west Frontier Province Table XIII Part II A – The Castes and Tribes of the Punjab by Districts and States

Population of Muslim Jat Clans of British Punjab According to the 1891 Census of India

In 1891 the total Jat population was 4,625,523, of which Muslim Jats numbered 1,771,034. I would also ask the reader to look at my posts on the Population of Muslim Jat Clans of British Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India and Population of Muslim Jat Clans of British Punjab According to the 1911 Census of India. Both these posts give a breakdown of the larger Jat clans. The process of counting up clans began with the 1891 Census. However only the 68 largest clans were enumerated separately, the rest simply declared miscellaneous. Deciding whether a clan was Jat or Rajput ended up being an arbitrary process. For example in the 1891 Census, the Gondals declared themselves all as Rajputs. while in 1901 a total of 2,508 declared themselves as Jats, while the majority of 36,088 declared themselves to be Rajput. By the 1911 Census, almost all Gondals, about 62,320 declared themselves as Jats, while a mere 31 declared themselves as Rajputs.

Wariach 54,499 Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sialkot, Lahore and Amritsar
Sidhu 48,668 Hissar, Jallandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Sialkot, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat and Chenab Colony
Sandhu 28,011 Hissar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Montgomery, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Amritsar, Shahpur (Sargodha), Chenab Colony, Jhang and Multan
Tarar 25,619 Lahore, Gujrat, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Jhelum and Chenab Colony
Bajwa 25,255 Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Jallandhar and Patiala State
Gill 19,573 Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Firuzpur, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Bhutta 16,376 Shahpur, Jhelum, Mianwali, Multan and Chenab Colony
Virk 16,052 Gujranwala, Chenab Colony, Gujrat, Dera Ghazi Khan, Sialkot, Lahore and Amritsar
Ghumman 15,044 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Goraya 13,039 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Sipra 11,908 Patiala, Montgomery, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Shahpur (Sargodha), Chenab Colony, Jhang, Multan and Bahawalpur
Dhillon 11,864 Ambala, Hissar, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot Mianwali, and Chenab Colony
Kahlon 10,854 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Kapurthala, Jalandhar and Chenab Colony
Chatha 10,574 Patiala, Lahore, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat and Chenab Colony
Thaheem 10,382 Multan, Bahawalpur, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Chhina 10,058 Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Rawalpindi, Mianwali, Chenab Colony and Dera Ghazi Khan
Langah 9,905 Shahpur, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Mianwali, Multan and Bahawalpur
Bains 8,963 Ambala, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Shahpur, Chenab Colony, Multan and Dera Ghazi Khan
Cheema 8,676 Patiala, Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat and Chenab Colony
Sahi 8,619 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujrat, Jhelum and Sialkot
Randhawa 7,994 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala and Sialkot
Harral 7,869 Gujranwala, Shahpur, Mianwali, Gujrat, Jhang, and Chenab Colony
Langrial 7,811 Sialkot, Gujrat and Multan
Soomra / Samra 7,065 Mianwali, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalpur
Aulakh 5,916 Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Amritsar, and Jallandhar
Dhariwal 5,685 Ambala, Hissar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Maan 5,210 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Sarai 4,496 Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Ambala and Jallandhar
Chahal 4,805 Ambala, Ludhiana, Firuzpur, Amritsar, Lahore, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Bhullar 4,419 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Jalandhar and Lahore
Mangat 3,919 Patiala, Ludhiana, Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sialkot
Hanjra 3,852 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Montgomery, Shahpur, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Chandhar/ Chadhar 3,822 Montgomery, Amritsar, Firuzpur, Lahore, Jhang, Muzaffargarh, Mianwali, Multan, Jhelum, Shahpur and Chenab Colony
Heer 3,662 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Montgomery, Shahpur, Mianwali, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Kang 3,571 Patiala, Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Multan, Muzaffargarh and Chenab Colony
Naul 3,440 Jhang
Lodike 3,233 Gujranwala
Dhotar 2,596 Gujranwala and Gujrat
Deo / Dev 2,336 Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Mianwali and Chenab Colony
Pannun 2,161 Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Atwal 2,040 Amritsar, Ludhiana, Chenab Colony and Jallandhar
Bhangu 1,662 Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Chenab Colony
Sohal 1,648 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Sialkot
Dalal 1,618 Hissar, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Delhi
Marral or Marhal 1,547 Karnal, Patiala and Jhang
Waseer 1,513 Chenab Colony
Bal 1,312 Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana
Mahil 1,081 Ambala, Hoshiarpur and Amritsar
Bahiniwal / Wahiniwal 1,058 Montgomery, Hissar, Rohtak and Firuzpur
Jakhar 1,051 Hissar, Firuzpur, Bahawalpur, Mianwali, Montgomery, and Multan
Sarah 1,027 Firuzpur,
Pawania 982 Karnal, Hissar and Firuzpur
Buttar 916 Dera Ghazi Khan, Ludhiana, Firuzpur, Lahore, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala and Sialkot
Dhindsa 888 Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Nain 726 Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Ahlawat 634 Rohtak
Dahya 432 Ambala, Bahawalpur, Hissar, Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Butta 420 Chenab Colony
Rathi 374 Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Dhankar 203 Delhi and Rohtak
Godara 170 Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Dagar 156 Rohtak and Delhi
Ghatwala or Malik 134 Hissar, Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Phogat 114 Karnal and Rohtak
Gulia 112 Mianwali
Gandhi 97 Mianwali
Deshwal / Deswal 87 Hissar, Gurgaon, Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Sahrawat 27 Karnal, Rohtak and Gurgaon
Miscellaneous clans 1,290,075