Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1891 Census of India

In 1891 the total Rajput population was 1,983,299 of which Muslims were 1,559,977. I would also ask the reader to look at my other posts such as Muslim Rajput clans of British Punjab according to the 1901 Census of India.

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 297,343 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Khokhar 137,883 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot, Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Gurdaspur
Chauhan 132,116 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe, in central found mainly in Lahore, Amritsar and Jallandhar
Sial 106,146 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Gondal 62,071 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Shahpur
Panwar 54,892 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe; a smaller grouo also found in Jhelum
Kharal 51,586 Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Joiya 47,773 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Janjua 36,970 a western group in Rawalpindi and Jhelum and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Ghorewaha 34,192 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Manj 26,983 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Wattu 24,150 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Bahawalpur to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Sulehri / Sulehria 24,345 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Naru 22,680 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana – by early 20th Century, several Naru were settled in Faisalabad and Sahiwal in the canal colonies
Tomar / Tonwar 21,691 Modern Haryana (especially Rohtak and Panipat), Ambala, and in the Bahawalpur Stater
Bariah also pronounced as Varya 19,463 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Ranjha 18,490 Jhelum / Chakwal
Taoni 17,730 Ambala – a Ranghar grouping
Manhas / Minhas 16,026 From Rawalpindi to Hoshiarpur – a Muslim Dogra grouping
Dhudhi 11,286 Sargodha, Jhang, Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Bhakral 11,207 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Jatu 10,837 Modern Haryana (especially Hissar and Gurgaon), Ambala, and Rohtak. They are a Ranghar tribe
Satti 10,799 Rawalpindi
Dhanyal 8,524 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Khichi 7,845 Sargodha, Jhang and Sahiwal
Mekan 7,733 Sargodha (Shahpur District), Jhang and Rawalpindi
Chib 6,673 Gujrat, a Muslim Dogra clan
Mandahar 4,022 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and Hissar. They are a Ranghar tribe
Khanzada 3,471 Gurgaon – a branch of the Jadaun clan
Tiwana 3,120 a western group in Kushab and eastern group in Patiala
Raghubansi / Raghuvanshi 3,060 Ambala – a Ranghar clan
Kanial 2,725 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Katil 2,461 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Pundir 2,117 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar group with villages near the Yamuna river
Bargujar 2,046 Gurgaon – a Ranghar tribe found in Rewari
Kethwal 1,849 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Jadaun 1,353 Gurgaon and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Bagri 1,186 Hissar and Firuzpur, in areas bordering Bikaner. Rajasthani immigrants
Rathore 1,067 Hissar, Firuzpur and Bahawalpur, in areas bordering Bikaner. Rajasthani immigrants
Chandel 912 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Patiala and Ludhiana
Khoja 841 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Jaswal 558 Hoshiarpur
Gaurwa 546 Gurgaon – Ranghar group
Atiras 477 Patiala State
Pathial 470 Kangra and Hoshiarpur
Luddu 258 Hoshiarpur
Guleria 248 Hoshiarpur
Dhanwal 214 Sahiwal and Okara
Dadwal 147 Hoshiarpur
Pathania 138 Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Katoch 101 Hoshiarpur
Miscellaneous clans 299,166 throughout Punjab

 

List and Population of Muslim Rajput clans of the Rawalpindi Division According to 1901 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Rajput clans and their population in the Rawalpindi Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1901 Census of India. Please also read my introduction for the 1911 Census to give you some background. Almost all the population that professed to be Rajput were Muslim, with exception of Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, which was home several Bhao and Chib Rajput villages, who had remained Hindu. In 1901 Rawalpindi Division comprised the following districts; Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Gujrat, Shahpur, and Mianwali.. In 1902, Attock was seperated from Rawalpindi and seperate figures were produced. However, the 1901 data on Rawalpindi includes the Attock figures/

In terms of choice of calling oneself Rajput or Jat, this as much depended on the status of a tribe within the village they inhabitted. For example, the Kanial in Jhelum District declared themselves to be Jat, while in Rawalpindi as Rajput. However, in Gujrat the boundary between Rajput and Jat was somewhat more rigid, with those calling themselves Rajput were Dogra clans that had accepted Islam such as the Bhao, Chib, Minhas and Narma.

Rawalpindi District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 122,317, of which 121,420 (99%) were Muslims.

Tribe Total
Adrah 909
Alpial 9,395
Badhan 272
Baghial 5,769
Bains 152
Baria 106
Bhakial 404
Bhakral 10.819
Bhao Ragial 153
Bhatti 36,268
Budhal 152
Chatha 500
Chauhan 3,029
Chib 309
Dalal 133
Dhamial 2.967
Dhanial 3,935
Dhudhi 196
Gakhar 690
Gaharwal 194
Gangal 178
Gondal 168
Hafial 197
Hon 1,496
Janjua 3,815
Jasgam 129
Jatal 1,451
Jodha 368
Jodhra 1,802
Johar 407
Kahut 178
Kalial 773
Kangra 222
Kanial 2,435
Kanial Chauhan 470
Kassar 122
Kawar 487
Ketwal 2,251
Khakha 106
Khatril 722
Khel 234
Mair 235
Mangral 331
Marrial 167
Minhas 3,974
Mial 699
Nagial 3,036
Nagral 918
Nagrawal 580
Narma 158
Naru 241
Panwar 125
Ranial 1,345
Sainiwal 408
Salhal 271
Saswal 174
Sasral 1,292
Satral 146
Satti 326
Sial 388
Sudhan 227
Thathaal 4,134
Taranda 162
Tonda 162

Please note most Gakhars declared themselves to be Gakhar and in 1901 numbered 13,665. Similarly most Janjua, Satti and Sudhan declared themselves as such and numbered 8,361,17,094 and 2,291.

Jhelum District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 57,567, of which 57,316 (99%) were Muslims.

Tribe Total
Bhakral 702
Bhatti 10,664
Chauhan 5,140
Chib 254
Gakhar 475
Gondal 2,592
Jalap 949
Janjua 8,881
Kanial 107
Mair-Minhas 15,692
Mandahar 210
Minhas 723
Mekan 729
Panwar 649
Ranjha 869
Sial 477

Please note that some Gondal and Ranjha declared themselves to be Jat, and interestingly in the 1911 Census all the Gondal declared themselves as Jat. While the Mekan tribe declared themselves to be Rajput in 1901 Census and Jat in 1911. What is surprising is the omission of the Sohlan, who are an important tribe found along the Jhelum and Mirpur borders. The Gakhar population in 1901 was 10,572, almost all whom barring the 475 declared themselves simply as Gakhar, and not Rajput.

Attock District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 25,611, of which 25,590 (99%) were Muslims.Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Alpial 9,180
Bhatti 3,553
Chatha 5,395
Chauhan 502
Janjua 1,153
Jodhra 1,700

Gujrat District

The total Rajput population in the District was 23,711, of which those who were Muslim were 22,328 (94%). Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Bhatti 1,784
Chauhan 79
Chib 9,349
Janjua 1,063
Minhas 723
Narma 748
Panwar 111

The omission of the Bhao, who an important Kharian tribe is a mystery.

Shahpur District (Sargodha District)

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 73,177, of which72,096 (99%) were Muslims.Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Bargujar 176
Bhatti 7,205
Chauhan 1,463
Chib 311
Dhudhi 1,506
Gondal 25,535
Janjua 4,293
Jhammat 2,266
Joiya 3,004
Khichi 833
Mekan 6,577
Minhas 406
Noon 1,213
Panwar 48
Ranjha 8,907
Sial 2,679
Tiwana 2,971
Wattu 266

Mianwali District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 6,136, of which 6,003 (98%) were Muslims.Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Bhatti 590
Chauhan 197
Chib 204
Dharwal 175
Gaurwa 384
Gondal 173
Janjua 598
Joiya 1,174
Kanial 327
Khichi 514
Mekan 134
Naru 407
Panwar 426
Sial 193
Wattu 215

Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this post, I make reference to the 1901 Census of India, which gave a breakdown of the larger Muslim Rajput clans of British Punjab. The whole Province of Punjab had a 24.4 million population in 1901, of which the Muslim Rajputs numbered 1,505,586. In 1901, the Punjab comprised five administrative divisions — Delhi, Jullunder, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi — and a number of princely states. During the course of the Census, those districts that lay across the Indus which formed the Peshawar Division were formed into a new province named the North West Frontier Province. Geographically, the province was a triangular tract of country of which the Indus River and its tributary the Sutlej formed the two sides up to their confluence, the base of the triangle in the north being the Lower Himalayan Range between those two rivers. Moreover, the province as constituted under British rule also included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Kashmir and Tibet. On the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, which was divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna and Tons separated it from the United Provinces.

In present-day India, it included the regions of Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and Himachal Pradesh (but excluding the former princely states which were later combined into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union). While in present-day Pakistan, it included the regions of Punjab, Islamabad Capital Territory and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (until 1901).

My post on the Rajputs of Punjab gives more details as to the origin and distribution of the various Rajputs tribes.

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 249,302 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Chauhan 114,529 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe
Khokhar 108,239 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Sial 104,658 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Joiya 61,438 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Panwar 55,068 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe
Gondal 36,088 The Gondal Bar (Mandi Bahaudin, Gujrat and Sargodha), also in Rawalpindi
Naru 34,152 mainly in what is now India Punjab – Jallandhar and Ludhiana
Ghorewaha 33,295 mainly in what is now India Punjab – Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Ludhiana
Sulehria / Sulehri 28,577 Sialkot and Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Wattu 25,544 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Janjua 23,619 A western group found in Rawalpindi and Jhelum, and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Baria, also pronounced Varya 21,991 Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Patiala State
Mandahar 21,764 Mainly Karnal and Panipat – a Ranghar group
Manj 20,736 Amritsar, Firuzpur and Jalandhar
Jatu 18,861 Hissar, Sirsa and Rohtak – a Ranghar
Taoni 18,384 Ambala and Patiala State – a Ranghar tribe
Tomar/ Tonwar 18,365 Hissar, Karnal and Rohtak – a Ranghar tribe
Mair-Minhas 15,697 Chakwal
Minhas/Manhas 13,471 from Rawalpindi in the west to Hoshiarpur in the east – a Muslim Dogra group
Dhudhi 11,764 In Sahiwal, mainly in the new districts of Vehari and Okara
Ranjha 11,764 Gujrat, Jhelum and Mandi Bahaudin
Bhakral 11,577 Rawalpindi and Jhelum/Chakwal
Chib 10.697 Jhelum and Gujrat – Muslim Dogra sub-group
Khichi 9,769 Between Ravi and Sutlej – now Vehari, Pakpattan and Sahiwal
Alpial 9,395 Attock and Rawalpindi
Mekan 8,915 Sargodha and Jhelum
Tiwana 6,326 A western group in Khushab and eastern group in Patiala
Khoja 6,326 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Baghial 5,769 Rawalpindi
Noon 4,866 Sargodha, Multan and southern Punjab
Thathaal 4,134 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Gujrat
Dhanial 4,037 Murree Tehsil of Rawalpindi
Raghubansi 4,032 Hissar and Sirsa – a Ranghar group
Dahya 3,637 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Kanyal 3,271 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Nagial 3,036 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Dhamial 2,967 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Jhammat 2,550 Sargodha, Multan and South Punjab
Gaurwa 2,521 Gurgaon, Delhi and Rohtak – a Ranghar tribe
Kethwal 2,355 Rawalpindi – Murre Tehsil (now Kotli Sattian)
Katil 2,170 Sialkot and Gurdaspur – A Muslim Dogra sub-group
Jodhra 1,802 Attock and Rawalpindi District
Bargujar 1,502 Gurgaon and Delhi – Ranghar tribe
Hon 1,496 Rawalpindi
Lar 1,494 Multan and South Punjab
Jatal 1,451 Rawalpindi
Pundir 1,427 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Atiras 1,416 Patiala State
Ranial 1,345 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Sasral 1,292 Rawalpindi
Nissowana 996 Jhang and Sargodha
Jalap 949 Jhelum
Nagral 919 Rawalpindi
Adrah 909 Rawalpindi
Bhon 853 Sargodha
Kalial 773 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Chandel 752 Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana
Narma 748 Rawalpindi and Gujrat
Satti 744 Rawalpindi – Murree
Khatril 722 Rawalpindi
Mial 699 Rawalpindi
Gakhar 690 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Targar 653 Multan and South Punjab
Rathore 587 Firuzpur and Hissar
Nagralwal 580 Rawalpindi
Jamra 548 Dera Ghazi Khan
Satraola 546 Hissar – a Ranghar group
Chatha 500 Rawalpindi
Kowar 493 Rawalpindi
Luddu/td>

491 Hoshiarpur
Kanial Chauhan 470 Rawalpindi
Sainiwal 439 Rawalpindi
Rath 410 Sahiwal and Okara
Johar 407 Rawalpindi
Bakhial 404 Rawalpindi
Jodha 368 Rawalpindi
Joota 367 Jhang
Bosan 340 Multan
Chadhar 334 Jhang
Mangral 331 Rawalpindi
Fattiana 318 Sahiwal
Pathial 311 Hoshiarpur
Maral 307 Jhang
Tanwari 273 Multan
Badhan 272 Rawalpindi
Salhal 262 Rawalpindi
Khel 234 Rawalpindi
Sudhan 227 Rawalpindi
Kangra 222 Rawalpindi
Dharwal 202 Mianwali
Hafial 197 Rawalpindi
Gaharwal 194 Rawalpindi
Kahut 178 Jhelum / Chakwal
Gangal 178 Rawalpindi
Saswal 174 Rawalpindi
Marial 167 Rawalpindi
Kathia 166 Sahiwal
Taranda 162 Multan
Tonda 156 Rawalpindi
Bhao Ragial 153 Rawalpindi
Bains 152 Rawalpindi
Budhal 152 Rawalpindi
Dalal 133 Rawalpindi
Satral 146 Rawalpindi
Jasgam 129 Rawalpindi
Matra 121 Multan
Kassar 113 Jhelum / Chakwal
Katoch 112 Kangra
Khakha 106 Rawalpindi
Jaswal 89 Hoshiarpur
Bagri 82 Firuzpur
Pathania 69 Gurdaspur
Ladhar 47 Rawalpindi
Jaral 47 Kangra
Kilchi 46 Rawalpindi
Thakkar 36 Gurdaspur
Guleria 11 Gurdaspur

 

Population of Muslim Rajput clans of East Punjab According to the 1911 Census of India

In this post, I give a breakdown of the clans that were registered as Muslim Rajput for the region that now forms of the Indian state of Punjab by the 1911 Census of India. Almost 90% of the Muslim Rajput population belonged to just five clans, namely the Bhatti, Chauhan, Ghorewaha, Manj and Naru.

Jalandhar District

The main Muslim Rajput clans were:

Tribe Total
Bhatti 6,186
Chandel 482
Chauhan 999
Ghorewaha 9,124
Manj 7,154
Naru 5,259
Varya 488


Ludhiana District

The main Muslim Rajput clans in the district were:

Tribe Total
Barial 633
Bhatti 1,531
Chauhan 1,197
Ghorewaha 3,132
Manj 5,074
Naru 1,453
Panwar 528
Varya 1,324

Firozpur District
The main Muslim Rajput clans in the district were.

Tribe Total
Bhatti 20,930
Chadhar 541
Chauhan 3,114
Dhudhi 1,208
Johiya 10,837
Kharal 5,638
Khichi 332
Khokhar 4,854
Manj 1,436
Naru 1,453
Panwar 4,993
Sial 1,007
Wattu 9,732

Hoshiarpur District
The main Muslim Rajput clans of Hoshiarpur District were:

Tribe Total
Bhatti 3,693
Chauhan 674
Ghorewaha 9,321
Janjua 38
Jaswal 160
Khokhar 1,178
Luddu 340
Manhas 436
Manj 1,465
Naru 15,817

Patiala State
The main Muslim Rajput clans of Patiala State were:

Tribe Total
Atras 956
Bhatti 3,420
Chandel 136
Chauhan 4,512
Ghorewaha 1,677
Jatu 169
Janjua 465
Johiya 514
Khokhar 495
Luddu 340
Mandahar 1,260
Manj 833
Mayen 802
Naru 561
Panwar 1,353
Rathore 455
Tonwar 3,348
Varya 9,941

List and Population of Muslim Rajput clans of Ambala Division

Below is a list of Muslim Rajput clans and their population in the Ambala Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1911 Census of India. This region now forms part of the modern state of Haryanain India. These clans referred to themselves as Ranghars. In 1911, the Ambala Division consisted of four districts,Ambala, Hissar, Rohtak, and Gurgaon.

The appearance of a particular tribe as Rajput in the list does not in itselfconfirm that the tribe is Rajput or otherwise. Identity may change with time, and some groups in the list may nolonger identify themselves as Rajputs. This list simply gives an historical distribution of Muslim Rajput tribes in thehistoric British colonial province of Punjab, a number of years prior to the partition of Punjab. As Muslims, the Ranghar community immigrated to Pakistan at partition.

Ambala District

 

The main Muslim Rajput clans of Ambala District were as follows:

 

 

Tribe Ambala Tehsil Kharar Tehsil Rupar Tehsil Naraingarh Tehsil Jagadhri Tehsil Total
Bhatti 839 183 109 138 147 1,416
Chauhan 8,529 779 493 6,381 6,151 22,833
Dahya 79 1,991 1,462 71 17 3,620
Ghorewaha 51 955 1,889 48 6 2,949
Jadaun 43 1 2 46
Mandahar 354 7 164 525
Naru 396 33 117 15 561
Pundir 101 164 265
Raghubansi 168 314 40 1,549 64 2,135
Taoni 1,015 4,711 1,348 1,212 245 8,531
Tonwar 576 55 184 182 200 1,197
Varya 839 183 109 138 147 1,416

Gurgaon District

 

The main Muslim Rajput clans were as follows:

 

Tribe Gurgaon Tehsil Rewari Tehsil Palwal Tehsil Nuh Tehsil Firuzpur Tehsil Total
Bargujar 303 159 314 27 2 805
Chauhan 1,092 2,873 179 74 3 4,221
Gaurwa 475 475
Khanzada 3,439
Jadaun 119 119
Jatu 125 333 12 12 482
Panwar 221 463 80 86 850
Tonwar 17 2 5 241 265

Hissar District

 

The main Muslim Rajput clans of Hissar District were as follows:

 

 

Tribe Hissar Tehsil Hansi Tehsil Bhiwani Tehsil Fatehabad Tehsil Sirsa Tehsil Total
Bhatti 308 177 244 1,374 4,991 7,094
Chauhan 1,709 2,769 2,140 1,191 3,120 10,929
Jatu 1,951 4,759 2,245 679 10 9,644
Johiya 589 46 77 236 3,837 4,785
Jora 10 2 822 834
Kharal 2 64 774 840
Mandahar 68 314 108 127 617
Mahaar 8 6 2 776 792
Qaimkhani 973 412 602 178 55 2,020
Panwar 365 1,350 1,523 178 2,820 6,236
Rathore 39 5 484 6 534
Satraola 4 503 35 6 544
Sakhri 8 74 661 743
Tonwar 276 57 304 637
Wattu 88 2,761 2,849
Warha 664 664
Varya 43 61 459 26 589

Rohtak District

 

Here are the main Muslim Rajput clans of Rohtak District:

 

 

Tribe Rohtak Tehsil Jhajjar Tehsil Gohana Tehsil Total
Chauhan 4,597 603 1,345 6,545
Jatu 1,146 350 515 2,011
Panwar 9,868 173 5,689 15,730
Tonwar 29 29

Karnal District

 

Here are the main Muslim Rajput clans of Karnal District

 

Tribe Karnal Tehsil Panipat Tehsil Kaithal Tehsil Thanesar Tehsil Total
Bhatti 105 40 163 180 488
Chauhan 15,401 1,054 4,894 5,967 27,316
Jatu 303 159 314 29 805
Mandahar 8,877 2,593 8,823 564 20,857
Panwar 771 282 302 144 1,499
Pundir 555 165 720
Taoni 15 223 504 742
Tonwar 827 743 2
,455
6
,548
10,573
Varya 136

 

Population of Muslim Rajput clans of Faisalabad, Multan and South Punjab according to 1911 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Rajput clans and their population of the Multan Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1911 Census of India. In 1911, the Multan Division consisted of five districts, LyalpurMontgomeryMultanMuzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan. The appearance of a particular tribe as Rajput in the list does not in itself confirm that the tribe is Rajput or otherwise. Identity may change with time, and some groups in the list may no longer identify themselves as Jats. This list simply gives an historical distribution of Muslim Rajput tribes in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a number of years prior to the partition of Punjab.

 

Multan District

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans of Multan District[4]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 12,307
Daha 991
Dhudhi 1,138
Joiya 2,383
Khuhi 1,148
Langrial 3,886
Minhas 168
Meun 76
Panwar 442
Sial 26,393
Taraqar 710

Bahawalpur State

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans found in Bahawalpur State[5]

Tribe Total
Bhatti 5,052
Chauhan 5,463
Dhudhi 1,806
Joiya 17,791
Khichi 911
Panwar 7,757
Rathore 275
Sial 6,281
Tonwar 637
Wattu 2,849
Warha 664

Dera Ghazi Khan District

Here is a list of the main Rajput clans of the district. [6]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 7,272
Jamra 1,455
Joiya 1,500
Panwar 849
Sial 2,781

Lyalpur District (Faisalabad District)

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans of the district. [7]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 5,830
Chauhan 1,455
Kharal 8,043
Khichi 851
Khokhar 856
Manhas 342
Naru 647
Sial 4,166
Sulehria 809
Wattu 2,497

Jhang District

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans found in Jhang District:[8]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 5,949
Chadhar 3,284
Chauhan 492
Jhap 1,559
Kala 747
Khokhar 2,091
Sial 41,008

 

 

Muzaffargarh District

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans found in Muzaffargarh District[9]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 5,342
Chauhan 564
Joiya 1,502
Panwar 695
Sial 5,341

Rajputs of Punjab

In this post, I will give a brief overview of the Rajput community in Punjab. The term Raja putra means the son of a Raja or king in Sanskrit. In Punjab, the Rajputs can be loosely divided into five territorial groupings.  According to the 1911 census in British India, the total Rajput population in the Punjab was 1,635,578, of which 1,222,024 (74.5%) were Muslim, 388,744 (24%) were Hindu and (24,810) (1.5%) were Sikh.  Each Rajput tribe claims to belong one of three lineages, and I shall start off by giving a brief description of each of these.

Lineages

The Suryavanshi lineage, claiming descent from Surya. The Sun Dynasty is oldest among Kshatriyas. The first person of this dynasty was “Vivaswan,” who by the meaning of his name is considered to be “Surya.” Ikshvaku was the first important king of this dynasty. Other important kings were Kakutsth Harishchandra, Sagar, Dileepa, Bhagiratha, Raghu Dashratha and Rama. The poet Kalidasa wrote the great epic Raghuvamsa about the dynasty of Raghu including the great king born in the Sun Dynasty.

The Chandravanshi lineage, claiming descent from Som which literally means “Moon.” This Lunar Dynasty is also old but younger than the Sun Dynasty. Som was the first king of this dynasty. Other important kings were Pururawa, Nahush, Yayati, Dushyant, Bharata, Kuru, Shantanu and Yudhishthir. Yadu was the eldest son of Yayati and Yadavs claim descent from Yadu. Krishna was also born in this dynasty of Yadu. Harivamsa gives details of this dynasty.

The Agnivanshi lineage claims descent from four persons who were born from fire or by the influence of Ved Mantras.” According to Puranic legend, as found in Bhavishya Purana, a yagna was held at Mount Abu, at the time of emperor Ashoka’s sons. From the influence of Mantras of the four Vedas, four Kshatriyas were born. They were: 1. Pramar (Paramara), 2.Chaphani (Chauhan); 3.Chu (Chalukya); 4.Pariharak (Pratihara). But since fire cannot produce warriors, it should be understood that these four persons were either reconverted into Hinduism or revitalized to fight against invaders. They could not be of foreign origin because India was fighting against Indo-Greek kings at that time. Pusyamitra Sunga and his son Agnimitra were Brahmins. They are known for reviving Hinduism. This theory of origin has produced much controversy; however, only four clans out of many Rajput clans are considered to be Agnivanshi. Some scholars also count Nagavanshi and Rishivanshi. The Yaduvanshi lineage, claiming descent from the Hindu god Krishna, are in fact a major sect of the Chandravanshi.

The aforementioned three patrilineages (vanshas) sub-divide into 36 main clans (kulas), which in turn divide into numerous branches (shakhas), to create the intricate clan system of the Rajputs. The principle of patrilineage is staunchly adhered to in determining one’s place in the system and a strong consciousness of clan and lineage is an essential part of the Rajput character. As the 1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica states, this tradition of common ancestry permits an indigent Rajput yeoman to consider himself as well-born as any powerful landholder of his clan, and superior to any high official of the professional classes. Authoritative listings of the 36 Rajput clans are to be found in the Kumārpāla Charita of Jayasimha and the Prithvirāj Rāso of Chandbardai.

 

Divisions Among the Rajputs of Punjab

The first grouping inhabited the territory that extended from the Yamuna valley to the Ghaghar, roughly what is the modern state of Haryana. Almost three quarters of them had converted to Islam, and these were referred to as Ranghar. They belonged mainly to the Chauhan and Tomar sub-divisions, which gave Delhi its most famous Rajput dynasties.

Next came the Rajputs of the south-west of Punjab, roughly the Seraiki speaking region comprising the modern Bahwalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan and Multan divisions. These tribes were hardly distinguished from the Jat clans in their neighbourhood, and for the most part belonged to the Bhatti of Jaisalmer and Bikaner, and their Panwar predecessors. The Rajput clans of the south-west had converted to Islam in their entirety. The third group comprised the Rajput clans of the Salt Range, and the Pothohar Plateau, who were split into numerous clans, either descended from the Yaduvanshi dynasty of Kashmir, the famous Raja Salvahan of Sialkot, or the numerous Panwar tribes occupying the hills along the Jhelum River. Like the Rajputs of the south-west, these tribes had almost entirely converted to Islam. The only exception were some members of the Chib and Bhao tribes, found in Kharian, many of whom had remained Hindu, and maintained close relations with the Dogras of Jammu.

 

The fourth group comprised the Rajputs of the the Punjab Hills, the modern territory of Himachal Pradesh, Gurdaspur District and Hoshiarpur District. These tribes are perhaps the most ancient of the Rajput tribes of Punjab, the Katoch being the most famous, and were almost entirely Hindu, with only some clans of the lower Shivalik hills, such as the Sulehria and Katil, converting to Islam. The principalities of the Punjab Himalayas, were some of the oldest states in India.

 

The final grouping were the Rajputs of central Punjab, roughly the area of the Sandal Bar, Manjha, Malwa and Doaba. The Bhattis, Kharals and Sials predominated in the Sandal Bar, the Bhatti predominated in the Bhattiana region, the modern districts of Firozpur and Sirsa, and the Ghorewaha, Manj and Naru were found in the Sikh tract, who had held their own against the dominant Jatt Sikh of the region.. In Amritsar and Lahore , the Rajputs were mainly Bhatti And Khokhar, with a sprinkling of Panwar and Chauhan. The Rajput clans were predominantly Muslim in this region, except along the borders with Rajasthan, where there were communities of Hindu Rajputs, such as the Shaikhawat and Rathore. I shall now look into detail at of the five groupings.

Rajputs of South Western Punjab
The term Rajput is very rarely used on its own by the tribes that are indigenous to south west Punjab. In the Bahawalpur Division, the distinction between tribes of Jat status and Rajput status is blurred. Tribes such as the Soomra, Samma, Daher, Kharal, Marral and Ghallu are sometimes refereed to as Jat, and sometimes as Rajput. The exceptions being the Johiya and Wattu, who in popular estimation are always considered Rajput. Along the left bank of the Indus, from Rahim Yar Khan District to Mianwali District, the term is rarely used by the tribes, with the notable exception of the Tiwana and Noon of the Thal Desert, and the Bhachar of Wan Bachran, in Mianwali. It is only when one reaches the Salt Range, that term Rajput comes into common usage. In the lands across the Indus, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Rajput disappears completely, and their place is taken by the Baluch and Pashtun. In the Dera Ghazi Khan District, the only indigenous tribe that calls itself Rajput, are the Jamra, who use the title Jam, indicating Sindhi ancestry. Across the Indus, in Muzafargarh, the Khera Sial, Dhanotar and Panwar are the only tribes that claim Rajput tribes. In Bahawalpur District, the Samma and Soomra are the principal Rajput tribes.

 

The Rajput make a reappearance in the valleys of the Jhelum and Chenab, where the Chadhar and Sial are both tribes of impeccable Agnivanshi pedigree. In the Sandal Bar, the Waseer, Kharal, Wahiniwal and Wattu are all major Rajput tribes, the first two claiming to be Agnivanshi, while the latter two claim to be Chandravanshi, claiming a common origin with the Bhatti. The upper part of the Sandal Bar, and the Bhattiore area of Chiniot District was a stronghold of the Bhatti tribe. Further along the Jhelum River valley, the Khokhar and Bhatti founds in great numbers.

Along the valley of the Sutlej River, the Wattu, Johiya, Baghela, Lodhra and Kathia are the predominant tribes. In and around the city of Multan, the Khokhar and Bhatti clans such as the Mitru, Kanju, Bosan and Noon predominate.

 

Rajputs of the Pothohar Plateau

The Pothohar Plateau and Salt Range is home to a large number of Rajput clans. The Rajputs are the largest ethnic group in the region, and are often referred to as the Rajah. The principal tribes are the Bhatti, Panwar, Minhas and Janjua. Many of these larger clans have splintered into numerous septs.

In terms of distribution, the Bhatti, and their sub-divisions are the most widespread. Important clans of the Bhatti descent, include Jodhras of Attock District, the Hattar of Chakwal and Jhelum districts, the Gungal of Rawalpindi and Jhelum districts, the Nagrial and Nagrwal of Rawalpindi District and the Mamyal of Rawalpindi District. In terms of historical prominence, the Janjua were the historical overlords of the region, until overwhelmed by the Ghakkars. Important Janjua subdivisions include the Dulal, Gaharwal, Jatal, Dhamial and Ranial. The Minhas are an important clan in the eastern half of the Pothohar Plateau, with their sub-divisions, the Mair of Chakwal, the Kanyal and Nagyal of the Rawalpindi and Jhelum districts.
The Panwar are after Bhatti, are the most numerous clan in this region. The Panwar themselves are found in the Pabbi Hills. Important Panwar clans include the Bangial, Dhudhi, Narma, Sohlan, Hon, Baghial and Bhakral. The Bhakral are, after the Janjua are perhaps the most important Rajput clan in Rawalpindi District. The Katoch, a clan found generally in Jammu and Himachal Pradesh, has two sub-divisions, the Chib of the Jhelum Pabbi and the Ratial of Rawalpindi District.
In additions to these clans, there are also a number of other clans, such as the Alpial, a clan of Manj Rajputs, found in Rawalpindi and Attock districts, the Jalap and Khokhar of Pind Dadan Khan, and Chauhan found through out the Pothohar Plateau.
Other Rajput clans in the region include the Mathyal,Sulehria, Langrial, Khingar, Sehngral, Ghik, Malal, Bhutial, Jamsral, Sainswal, Bijnial, Ramial, Hayal, Janjil, Tharjial, Khumbal, Bharial, Hafyal, Salhal,Mangeal, Johad, Adhial, Kurar, Jhottial, Mair-Minhas, Tuh, Chanial, Bhatti-Mehra, Bhatti-Kanjial, Bhatti-Jangal, Bhatti-Badhuer, and Bhatti-Shaikh.

Rajput of Central Punjab
The Rajput of central Punjab historically occupied a region extending from Faisalabad in the west to Patiala in the east. According to the traditions of the various tribes, they are connected with the Rajputs of Rajasthan. Their no historical records giving the account of the migration of the various Rajput tribes into the region. But tradition points the Ghorewaha to be the earliest inhabitants of the region. The Ghorewaha are said to be Kachwaha Rajputs, who emigrated from Rajasthan, during the period of Mohammed Ghori. Their original territory was the Beas Sutlej Doab. Other important tribes of this region are the Manj, Naru, Taoni, and Varya. In the districts of Amritsar and Lahore, the predominant tribes were the Bhatti and Khokhar, while in Sialkot District, the Rajputs of central Punjab met those of the hills. The Bhattis and Khokhars predominated in the plains, while the Sulehria, Minhas and Bhao were found in the hilly part of the district. In the south, the Bhattiana region, covering the modern Firuzpur and Sirsa districts, was home to the Bhatti, and related tribes such as the Dogar, Johiya, Mahaar, Naipal, and Wattu.

Ranghar

Bellow is the orignal article I wrote in Wikepedia, which has been mangled into unrecognition. As the article says, Ranghar doesnot refer to any particular clan of Rajputs, but is a term used to describe any Rajput whose homeland was in the territory that now forms the Indian states Haryana, Delhi and western Uttar Pradesh. The belong to numerous clans, but in general west of the Yamuna the Chauhan and Panwar are the large clans, and in UP the Bhatti and Chauhan are important.

Article

Rangar are a Muslim ethnic group, which is found in Punjab, and Sindh provinces of Pakistan and Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh states of India. Rangar were native to Indian state of Haryana and also found in the Doab region of Uttar Pradesh, as well as Delhi in India. Presently, the Haryana Rangar are now found in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab of Pakistan, while those of western Uttar Pradesh remain in India. The term Rangar is very rarely used by the community itself, who prefer the self-designation Muslim Rajput. The Rangar use the titles of Rana, Rao, and Kunwar, prefixed to their given names, and use Khan as a surname. In Haryana, the Rangar spoke a dialect of their own, called Rangari, which is itself a dialect of Haryanvi, and many in Pakistan still use the language. Those of Uttar Pradesh speak Khari Boli among themselves, and Urdu with outsiders. After independence of Pakistan in 1947, many Uttar Pradesh Ranghars also migrated to Sindh in Pakistan and mostly settling in Karachi. They are entirely Sunni Hanafi Muslims and follow Deobandi and Barelvi schools of South Asia.

The term Ranghar has also been used for closely related Muslim communities, the Pachhada and the Muslim Tagas of Haryana and the Muley Jats. In addition, the Odh community in Pakistan are also often known as Ranghar.

1 History and origin

2 Distribution and present circumstances

2.1 In Pakistan

2.2 In India

2.2.1 Ranghar of Uttar Pradesh

2.2.1.1 In the Doab

2.2.1.2 In Rohilkhand

2.2.2 Ranghar of Delhi

2.2.3 Ranghar of Himachal Pradesh

3 Clans of the Haryana Ranghar

4 Other communities

History and origin

There are various theories as to the origin of the term Ranghar. According to one of the traditions, the name come from the Hindi words rana garh, which means the house (garh in Hindi) of a lord (Rana). There is another definition of Ranghar that it is combination of two words run and garh. Run is said to mean a battle field while Garh means that who fought bravely on the battle field. But the term Ranghar was also somewhat contemptuously applied by the local Hindu community in Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh to any Rajput, who converted to Islam. As such the term Ranghar is rarely used by the community itself.

Different communities of Ranghar had different accounts of their conversion to Islam. Thus in Jind, the local Ranghar claimed descent from a Firuz, who converted to Islam during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. These converted Rajputs kept many Hindu practices, such as keeping Brahmin priests, and practicing clan exogamy. The Chauhan Ranghar of Bulandshahr District have a tradition that their ancestor murdered a Muslim governor, and saved himself by converting to Islam. While the Moradabad District Chauhan claim they converted to Islam, after they had adopted the custom of widow remarriage, an activity proscribed in Hinduism.

The Ranghar were pastoralists, and as such came into conflict with the British imperial authorities, as the British colonial policy favoured settled agricultural communities such as the Ror and Jat, at the expense of these pastoralists. But they were also actively recruited by the British in the Indian army, and were dubbed a martial race.

The Ranghar can be roughly divided into sub-groups, conveniently divided by the Yamuna river. Those to the west of the river remained as pastoralists much longer than the Yamuna Ranghar, who were all settled agriculturist by the start of the 19th century. The partition of India further divided these two groups, with the trans Yamuna Ranghar emigrating to Pakistan, while those of the Doab region remaining in India. They comprise a large numbered of dispersed intermarrying clans. These exogamous groups are made up of myriad landholding patrilineages of varying genealogical depth, ritual, and social status called biradaries or brotherhoods scattered in the various districts of western Uttar Pradesh. The biradari, or lineage is one of the principal point of reference for the Ranghars, and all biradaris claim descent from a common ancestor. Often biradaris inhabit a cluster of villages called chaurasis (84 villages), chatisis (36 villages) and chabisis (26 villages). An example of a chatisa is that of the Chauhan Ranghar of the Agauta pargana of Bulandshahr District. The Chauhan, Bhatti and Panwar form the principal biradaris of the Ranghar, with large communities in Chauhan and Bhatti predominating in Uttar Pradesh and the Tomar and Panwar being found among the western Ranghar.

Distribution and present circumstances

In Pakistan:

After independence of Pakistan, the Haryana Ranghar have settled down mainly in the districts of Lahore, Sheikhupura, Bhakkar, Bahawalnagar, Rahim yar Khan District (specially in Khanpur tehsil)Okara, Layyah, Vehari, Sahiwal and Multan of Punjab. They speak a Haryanvi dialect which is often called Ranghari. Ranghar communities are also found in Mirpur Khas and Nawabshah Districts of Sindh. Recent studies of the Ranghar communities in Pakistan have confirmed that they maintain a distinct identity. They have maintained the system of exogamous marriages, the practice of not marrying within one’s clan, which marks them out from neighbouring Punjabi Muslim communities, which prefer marriages with first cousins. In districts of Pakpattan, Okara, and Bahawalnagar which have the densest concentrations of Rangarh, they consist mostly of small peasants, with many serving in the army, police and Civil Services. They maintain an overarching tribal council (panchayat in the Rangharhi dialect), which deals with a number of issues, such as punishments for petty crime or co-operation over village projects.

Most Ranghar are now bilingual, speaking Punjabi and Sindhi, as well as still speaking Ranghari. A large number of Ranghars are also found in the capital city of Islamabad. They speak Urdu with Ranghari accent.

In India

In India, the Ranghar are found in western Uttar Pradesh and Delhi

Ranghar of Uttar Pradesh

The Ranghar of western Uttar Pradesh have by and large remained in India, with only a small trickle migrating to Pakistan. This community is endogamous, and divided into three broad categories, the Agnivanshi, the Chandravanshi and Suryavanshi, which are again divided into several biradaris or gotras. The community is distinct from other neighbouring Muslim communities, in that follow the custom of gotra exogamy, the practice of not marrying among one’s father’s or mother’s clan. The community’s primary function has remained agriculture. Animal husbandry and poultry are also secondary occupations. Like their Pakistani counterparts, the Uttar Pradesh Rangarh also have a tribal council. Offences that are dealt by the tribal council include adultery, elopement, disputes over land, water and theft. They are entirely Sunni, and town of Deoband is in the centre of Rangarh territory, and many Rangarh are now Deobandi.

In the Doab

The community in mainly distributed in the Doab region, a tract of land between Ganges and Yamuna rivers, which forms the western part of the state of Uttar Pradesh. There main clans are the Pundir, Chauhan, Bargujar and Bhatti. Starting with Saharanpur District, their northern most settlement, their main distribution by clan is as follows; the Chauhan are found mainly in Saharanpur and Nakur, the Pundir are found mainly in the Katha tract. Other clans include the Jadaun, Bhatti, Tomar and Rawat, almost all of whom live in Saharanpur Tehsil, while the Panwar and Bargujar are found in Deoband Tehsil. The Ranghars of the village of Kunda Kalan played an important role in the events of the 1857 Indian Mutiny.

In Muzaffarnagar District, the main clans are the Chauhan, with smaller numbers of Bargujars, Panwars, Tomars and Bhattis. They are confined to the Kairana and Budhana tehsils. The only other family of importance are Sombansi of the village of Ainchauli, who are said to have come from Awadh. In neighbouring Meerut District, their main clans are Chauhan and Tomar. The three main villages of Panwar are Jasad Sultan Nagar, Zainpur (Dewli Khera) and Gotka in Sardhana Tehsil of Meerut district. The Pundir of Bajhera village are one of the important Rajput families in Ghaziabad district. Other clans include the Bargujar, Bhatti, Bhale Sultan and Sisodia. The Sisodia have nine villages in the district, while the Tomar have eight in Hapur and three in Baghpat (now a separate district). In total, they have forty-five villages in total.

In Bulandshahr District, they belong mainly they belong mainly to the Chauhan, Bhatti and Bargujar clans, while there are also considerable number of Panwar, Bais, Tomar and Bhale Sultan. The Bargujar are further divided into five clans, the Lalkhani, Ahmadkhani, Bikramkhani, Kamalkhani and Raimani. The Lalkhanis have consider themselves distinct from other Rajput communities, having held large estates such that of Chhattari State and Pahasu State.[16] In Aligarh district there are also a number of Ranghar settlements. They are found mainly in Khair and Aligarh tehsils. There main clans are the Chauhan and Bargujar, including the famous Lalkhani family. The Chauhan Ranghar of Aligarh trace their descent from Rana Sengat, whose great grandfather was Chahara Deva, the brother of Prithviraj Chauhan. There are also a considerable number of Gehlot in Hathras, Rathore in Khair, Bais in Atrauli and Khair and Bhadauria in Atrauli.

In Mathura District, the Ranghar are found mainly in the tehsils of Mathura, Chhata and Mahaban. They belong for the most part to the Bhale Sultan biradari, with a smaller number of Chauhan and Jaiswar. These Bhale Sultan trace their ancestry to the Solanki rulers of Gujarat. According to the traditions of the Mathura Bhale Sultan, they descend from a Kirat Singh, and played an important role in the history of the district during Muslim rule. The district is also home to Jaiswar clan, and the Jaiswar Ranghar are said to have been converted to Islam during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. They trace their descent to the town of Jais in Awadh, and their ancestor Jas Ram was a leper who came to Mathura as a pilgrim, and was miraculously cured. He settled down at Bhadanwara in Mat tehsil. In addition to the clans already referred to, this district and neighbouring Agra district are also home to a community known as the Malkana. Unlike the Ranghar, the Malkana community is of a more mixed origin. Those in Mathura found mainly in and around the town of Sadabad are for the most part Gaurwas and Jats. This distinction also reinforced by the fact that there is no intermarriage between the Malkana and recognized Ranghar clans such as the Bhale Sultan.

In Agra District, the Ranghar communities are found mainly in trans Yamuna tract of this district. They belong for the most part to the Kachwaha clan, found in villages in and around the towns of Fatehabad[disambiguation needed] and Kiraoli. This community are also found near Etmadpur and near the city of Agra. There is also settlements of Chauhan Ranghar in Firozabad District, who claim a connection with the famous family of Mainpuri Chauhans. Other than these two clans, there are small number of Tomar, Panwar and Sikarwars found scattered throughout the district. The Sikarwar are said to have given the name to Fatehpur Sikri, the legendary capital of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. Most of the Sikri Sikarwars were converted to Islam during the 16th Century. Like Mathura, Agra is also home to a large number of Malkanas. They are found mainly in six villages near the town of Kiraoli. The Kiraoli Malkana trace their descent from a Jat, while other Malkanas such as those in Etmadpur claim to have originally been Panwar, while those in Fatehabad claim to have been Parihar, and those in Kheragarh to have originally been Banias. Like in Mathura, the two Rajput groupings do not intermarry. The Ranghar groups are by and large fairly orthodox, while the Malkana have preserved a lot more of their Hindu traditions.

In Etah District, there main clans are the Bhatti, Chauhan and Bhale Sultan. The Chauhans are descended from the famous Chauhan family of Mainpuri. They are found mainly in Aliganj and Kasganj. The Bhattis are found mainly in Azamnagar tehsil, with Bhargain being their most important settlememt. While the Bhale Sultan are found mainly in Mohanpur, and are related to the Bhale Sultan of Bulandshahr District.

Here is a list of the Ranghar clans tabulated for 1891 Census of India.

Northern Doab

Tribe

Saharanpur District

Muzaffarnagar District

Meerut District

Bulandshahr District

Total

Bargujar

64

1,092

147

 4,006

Bhale Sultan

27

4,790

 4,817

Bhatti

443

343

576

2,455

 3,817

Chauhan

7,766

4,056

6,730

7,236

25,788

Gautam

106

 106

Gehlot

8

165

376

1,304

 1,853

Jadaun

413

38

 451

Jaiswar

58

 58

Lalkhani

2

170

3

127

 302

Panwar

313

486

885

567

 2,251

Pundir

7,267

3,875

15,680

79

 26,901

Tomar

62

32

3,016

607

 3,717

Meerut District has now been divide into three districts, Baghpat, Ghaziabad and Meerut. Similarly Aligarh District too has been divided into Hathras and Aligarh.

Southern Doab

Tribe

Aligarh District

Mathura

District

Agra District

Etah District

Etawah

District

Total

Bargujar

9

140

9

106

 264

Bhale Sultan

3

 3

Bhatti

49

49

2,671

 2,769

Chauhan

2,604

416

154

943

173

 4,290

Gehlot

1,391

173

26

14

32

 1,636

Jadaun

151

81

 232

Jaiswar

1,000

 1,000

Lalkhani

43

 43

Malkana

1,000

4,546

28

 5,574

Panwar

210

2,686

 2.896

Pundir

89

 89

Tomar

210

38

43

26

57

 374

In Rohilkhand

The Muslim Rajputs of the Rohilkhand region are also referred to as Ranghar. They belong mainly to the Bhatti and Chauhan clans. Starting with Moradabad District, the Ranghar are found mainly in Sambhal, and Bilari. The Chauhans are concentrated in Sambhal, the Rathore in Thakurdwara and Bilari. Other clans are the Bargujars of Sambhal, the Katehria in Moradabad, and Sombansis found in the entire district. In addition, the district is also home to a large colony of Khokhar Rajputs, who settled in the district during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Babar. They are said to have come originally from Sialkot in Punjab, where they are still are a large and important Rajput tribe. In the neighbouring Jyotiba Phule Nagar District, the Ranghar are found mainly in the tehsils of Hasanpur and Amroha. The Gaur are found mainly in Hasanpur, the Bargujars in Amroha,the Katehria of Hassanpur, the Bhatti in Hassanpur, and the Tomar in Hasanpur and Amroha.

In Bijnor District, there main clans are the Chauhans found in Dhampur, Nagina and Bijnor tehsils, Panwar and Bhatti in the western part of the district, and Sisodia in Dhampur.[26] The Ranghar in Rampur District, for the most part belonged to the Katehriya and Bhatti clans. They are pretty evenly distributed all over the district.[22]

The Ranghar in Bareilly District are found mainly in Bareilly, Baheri and Nawabganj. In terms of importance, the Jadaun of Aonla are perhaps to the most prominent family in the district. Other clans include the Chauhan, Sombansi and Bhatti. The village of Thiriya Nizamat Khan is an important Bhatti settlement in Bareilly District.[23]

In Badaun District, the main Ranghar clans are the Bargujar, Bhatti, Chauhan and Panwar. The Chauhan are found mainly in Bisauli, Dataganj and Badaun. In numbers, they are the largest clan. The Bargujar are found mainly in Dataganj and Gunnaur, and belong to the Lalkhani family, while the Panwar are found in Gunnaur. Kakrala is an important Bhatti village in Badaun District.

The Ranghar of Shahjahanpur District, for the most part belonged to the Chauhan, Katehriya and Sombansi tribes. The former are concentrated in Tilhar, the other two clans are found throughout the district.

Here is a list of the main tribes, as tabulated by 1891 Census of India.

Tribe

Bareilly District

Bijnor District

Badaun District

Moradabad District

Shahjahanpur District

Pilibhit District

Rampur State

Total

Bachgoti

119

119

Bais

15

212

173

400

Bhatti

3,762

514

605

4,881

Bargujar

321

363

156

40

880

Chandel

29

85

114

Chauhan

239

2,100

283

1,228

375

13

2,138

Gehlot

63

13

15

91

Panwar

123

123

Sombansi

197

386

8

591

Tomar

207

70

107

4

388

Ranghar of Delhi

The Ranghar of Delhi are said to have converted to Islam, during the reign of Aurangzeb. The conversion initially is said to have had little effect on the community. Their social customs remained unaltered, their rules of marriage and inheritance remained unaltered, save that they shaved their scalp lock and upper edge of their moustache. The community was historically connected with the Ranghar of Haryana, but their emigration to Pakistan has led to commencement of relations with the Ranghar of the Doab. A good many of the Delhi Ranghar have also emigrated to Pakistan, and are now found mainly in Mirpurkhas District, in Sindh. There main clans are the Badpyar, Bhatti, Chauhan, Panwar and Tomar. According to the 1911 Census of India the main clans were as follows:

Tribe

Population

Bagri

14

Bhatti

326

Chauhan

1,122

Gaurwa

329

Jaswal

28

Jatu

111

Panwar

223

Tonwar

136

The Ranghar in Delhi were found mainly in villages, around the city. Their most important settlement was Okhla, which now been incorporated into the city. The spread of Delhi has led to the incorporation of many other Ranghar villages into the city. There are still a small number of Ranghar villages in the west of Delhi, along the border with Rohtak District. They are remnants of the large communities of Panwar and Chauhan communities in region. Much of the Ranghar land was taken over by the Delhi Development Authority in the 1950s and 60s. This has led to landlessness, and many are now engaged as industrial labourers. There has thus been a marked decline in the fortunes of the Rajputs.[28]

The community is entirely Sunni Muslim, and many are now gravitating towards the orthodox Deobandi sect. They remain endogamous, only rarely marrying out, and then only with other Rajput communities in Meerut, and still maintain gotra exogamy. The traditional tribal council is no longer as effective, as the community has rapidly urbanized.

Ranghar of Himachal Pradesh

In Himachal Pradesh, the Ranghar claim to have immigrated from Karnal, in what is now Haryana some five hundred years ago. The areas inhabited by the Ranghar were part of the historic British province of Punjab. They still speak Haryanvi among themselves, although most educated Ranghars can speak Urdu and Hindi. The community consists of four clans, the Pundir, the Chauhan, the Tonwar and Taoni, and the conversion of these Rajput clans had occurred prior to their immigration. In addition, there are several villages of Bhattis and Ghorewahas in Una district, who although technically distinct from the Ranghar now intermarry with them. These two communities still Punjabi, and are remnant of much larger Rajput found in the historic Hoshiarpur District. Like many other Himachal Pradesh Muslims, a majority of the Ranghar immigrated to Pakistan at the time of the Partition of India in 1947. All the Himchal Pradesh Ranghars belong to the Sunni sect.

Most Ranghar villages are found along the border with Haryana, along the slopes of the Shiwalik mountains, mainly in the districts of Bilaspur, Solan, Hamirpur, and Mandi. This country is hilly, and was historically was forested, and small groups of Ranghar immigrants cleared the jungle and built their settlements. This is seen by the presence of generally of just one gotra in a Ranghar village, with the inhabitants claiming descent from a common ancestor. These settlers were also accompanied by occupational castes such as Nai, Julahas and Telis. A patron client relationship, known as the jajmani system continues to exists with these groups.The Ranghar are still a community of farmers, with animal husbandry being an important secondary occupation. Historically, service in the army and police was important, but this has almost disappeared. Closely related to the Ranghar are the Sunhak community, who are Muslim converts from the Chandel Rajputs.

In the past, the community practiced clan exogamy, but this practice has now declined, and inter gotra marriages do occur. Although living near a number of other communities such as the Bharai, Arain and Rawat, there is no intermarriage with these communities, and they are strictly endogamous. Like those in Uttar Pradesh, the Himachal Pradesh Ranghar have a biradari panchayat, that deals with intra-community disputes. The Ranghars have very effective biradari panchayat system and it exercises effective control over the community.

Population of Major Ranghar clans of Haryana from the 1911 Census of India

The last

census of India to give a breakdown of the clans of the Ranghar community was that of 1911.

Tribe

Total

Awan

7,513

7,513

Badpyar

988

988

Bargujar

805

805

1,416

589

611

2,616

Bhatti

1,416

7,094

488

8,998

Chauhan

22,833

2,676

4,221

10,929

27,316

6,545

74,520

Dahya

3,620

3,620

Gaurwa

475

475

Ghorewaha

2,949

2,949

Jadaun

46

119

165

Jatu

482

9,644

805

2,011

12,942

Jaswal

288

288

Joiya

4,785

4,785

Jora

834

834

Khanzada

3,439

3,439

Kharal

840

840

Mahaar

792

792

Mandahar

525

617

20,857

21,999

Naru

561

561

Panwar

850

6,236

1,499

15,730

24,315

Pundir

265

720

985

Qaimkhani

2,020

2,020

Raghubansi

2,135

2,135

Rathore

534

534

Sakhri

743

743

Satraola

544

544

Taoni

8,531

8,531

Tonwar

1,197

265

637

10,573

29

12,701

Warha

664

664

2,849

2,849

Clans of the Haryana Ranghar

Here is a brief description, with reference of the historic distribution of the Rajput clans of Haryana.

Chauhan

The Haryana Muslim Chauhans all claimed descent from Rana Har Rai, and connect themselves with Prithvi Raj, the last Chauhan Raja of North India. Perhaps the most widespread of the Ambala Division tribe, found in almost every district. In Karnal and Ambala, they were found all along the valley of the Yamuna. In the Rewari Tehsil of Gurgaon District, they formed important communities. According to 1911 Census of India, they numbered 73,604.

Bargujar

The Muslim branch of the Bargujar were found mainly in Jhajjar – Beri, and Rewari tehsil of Gurgaon District.

Mandahar

The Mandahars claim descent from Loa, son of Ram and grandson of Raja Jasrath of Hindu traditions. They converted to Islam in time of the Firuz Shah Tughlaq, Sultan of Delhi, in the 14th century. The tribe was found almost entirely in the old Karnal District, and as well as a few around Samana in Patiala.

Panwar

In Haryana, the Panhwar or Puar were after the Chauhan, the principal tribe. They used Rao as a title. The Ranghar in Rohtak District were almost entirely Panhwar, and acorrding to the 1911 Census of India they numbered 18,352. According to their tradition, the Panwar immigrated from Dharanagri (a place said to be somewhere in Deccan), and intermarried with the Chauhans, who gave them lands around Rohtak and Kalanaur. They have all emigrated to Pakistan, after 1947, and are found in Okara, Kasur and Sahiwal districts.

Pundir

The Pundir were found mainly in what is now Yamunanagar district, along the banks of the Yamuna river. A second settlement was near the town of Thanesar

Jatu

The Jatu are a Tonwar clan, who were settled mainly in Sirsa, Rania, Hissar and Jind districts. They are now found mainly in Okara and Kasur districts.

Raghubansi

The Raghubansi were found mainly in Hissar, Jind and Bhattinda.

Rathore

The Rathore are a Suryavanshi Rajput clan. In Haryana, Muslim Rathore were found mainly in Hissar District.

Taoni

The Taoni claim a connection with the Bhatti Rajputs. They were found mainly in Ambala District.

Tonwar

The Tonwar were found mainly in Delhi, Rohtak, Hissar and Sirsa. The Jatu and Satraola, found in Hissar were clans of the Tonwar.

Other communities

Included within the Ranghar category are the Pachhada, and Tyagi communities from the old districts of Rohtak and Karnal in what is now the Haryana state of India. They are now found mainly in Muzaffargarh and Layyah districts of Punjab.

The term Muley Jat was used to describe Muslim Jat clans settled in the Karnal, Hissar and Rohtak regions of Haryana. They are sometimes included within the Ranghar category, as many are settled in Okara and Sahiwal, among communities of Muslim Rajputs. However, the term Ranghar has historically been restricted to the Rajput community.

The main Mulla clans include the Malik, Godara, Nain, Khatri, Dandiwal, Bacchal, Baidwan and Ahlawat.

Alpial, Gheba, Jodhra, and Khattar tribes

In this post, I shall concentrate on a number of tribes that are found largely in Attock District, a region where Pothohari culture and language gives way to Pashtun cultural norms. The Indus River flows along the western boundary of the district for about 130 Kilometres, dividing the district from the three bordering districts of Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa. As such, identification with a tribe, a common feature of Pashtun cultural traditions, is an important source of identity in this border region. The four tribes that I will look at, namely the Alpial, Gheba, Jodhra,  and Khattar, all claim a non-Pashtun origin, either tracing Rajput ancestry or claiming a Mughal identity. Sources used here include D. Turner “The Attock District: A Detailed and Comprehensive Survey Updating Col Gracroft’s Report”, (1891) and Col. C. Gracroft. “Report on the Races and Tribes of the Attock and Rawalpindi Districts”, (1868). Below are a list of tribes classified as Rajput by 1911 Census of India:

Tribe Population
Alpial 9,180
Chatha 5,335
Bhatti 3,553
Jodhra 1,690
Janjua Chauhan  

Alpial

The Alpial are a Rajput tribe, found mainly in Attock and Rawalpindi districts. According to tribal traditions, the Alpials claim descent from the Manj Rajputs, and their claim to Rajput origin is generally admitted by neighbouring tribes. There ancestor was said to be a Rajah Alp Khan Manj, and the Alpial are the aals or descendents of this Alp Khan of the Manj tribe. I shall now say a little word on the Manj Rajputs. According to the traditions of the Manj, they are in fact Bhatti Rajputs, descended from Raja Salvahan (Salivahana), father of Raja Rasalu, a mythical figure that was said to ruled over much of Punjab, and founded Sialkot. There origin myths also make reference to a Tulsi Das (sometimes called Tulsi Ram), who was converted (to Islam) by the famous Sufi saint, Hazrat Makhdum Shah Jahaniya of Uchh, who died in 1383 A.D. After his conversion to Islam, Tulsi Ram assumed the name Shaikh Chachu, and the Manj had some influence in the valley of the Sutlej, in what is now Ludhiana and Jalandhar districts. Some six hundred years ago (13th Century) Shaikh Chachu and Shaikh Kilchi, are said to haved settled at Hatur in the southwest of Ludhiana, whence their descendents spread into the neighbouring country; and the Jallandhar traditions refer their conquest of the tract to the time of Ala-ud-din Khilji. After the dissolution of the Mughal Empire, the Manj Rais of Talwandi and Raikot ruled over an extensive territory south of the Sutlej, till dispossessed of it by the Ahluwalia Sikhs and later by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Coming back to the Alpials, they appear to have settled in their present locality about the same time as the Jodhras and Ghebas that is about the 15th Century, having first wandered through the country now contained in the Khushab and Chakwal districts before settling down in the southern corner of Fateh Jang. Thereafter, it seems little contact existed between the parent tribe in the Sutlej and the Alpials. According to 1931 census of India, their approximate population was 4,500. The author of the 1929 Attock District Gazetteer had this to say about them:

“ Hard-working and excellent cultivators, generally tilling their own land and working laboriously on their wells, they have taken only a small part in the more lurid history of the district. Socially they rank high, intermarrying freely with the Mughals. They are a bold, lawless set of men, of fine physique, much given to violent crime, sturdy, independent and wonderfully quarrelsome. ”

The Alpials occupy a compact block of villages on both banks of the Swaan River, in the Thana Chountra circle of Rawalpindi Tehsil, Rawalpindi District and the in the Sil Sohan circle of the Fateh Jang Tehsil,Attock District. They own 32 villages in all, the main Alpial villages being Sihal, Chakri, Ghila Kalan, Pind Malhu, Jhandhu Syedan, Dhalwali Mohra, Adhwal, Chak Beli Khan, Chountra, Chak-Dinal, Dhullial, Sangral, Khilri, Malkaal, Parial, Raika Maira, Hakeemal, Koliam Goru, Dhoke Gujri, Lamyran, Ramdev, Tatraal, Jaswal, Dheri Mohra, Kharri Murat, Gangainwala, Kolian Hameed, Chak Majhid, Gangal, Jada, Dhok Chach, Habtal, Bhutral, Dhok Cher, and Jodh.

Gheba
The Gheba are also ound in the District of Attock, and claim to be Mughal. In fact, the tribe is often referred to the Rawal Mughals of Kot Fateh Khan, which is their most important village. The Ghebas have either given their name, or received it, from the Gheb ( a region forming the south east of Attock District) , they explain it as the latter reason and prefer to be known as Mughals. A not improbable conjecture is that they were a small band of broken Rajput families, fleeing from the central Punjab, who joined the Jodhras and settled down on their borders. As regards to the ancestry of the tribe, some traditions refer to the story of three brothers who were born to a Panwar Rajput by the name of Rai Shanker who were named Ghaiyyo, Taiyyo and Saiyyo and from whom descend the Sial tribe of Jhang, Tiwanas of Khushab and Ghebas. Rai Shanker is said to have lived in Daranagar, located in the midway between AlIahabad and Fatehpur, in what is now Uttar Pradesh. According to another tradition Sial was the only son of Rai Shanker and those forefathers of Tiwanas and Ghebas were merely related to Shanker by paternal descent. After their arrival in Punjab, the Ghebas converted to Islam at the hands of the Sufi saint Baba Farid of Pakpattan, and eventually settled in Fatehjanj, expelling the Jodhras, and become effective rulers of the region.. Another tradition makes the Gheba a clan Barlas Mughal (see my post of the Phaphras for more information on the Barlas), who get there name from Mirza Gheba Khan a distant cousin of the Mughal Emperor Babar, who came here with his army during the Mughal invasion of India in 15th century with Zaheeruddin Babar. Therefore it was the Ghebas who gave the area of Gheb its name, and not vice versa. A claim of Mughal origin has now been accepted, the family of the Sardars of Kot Fateh Khan play an important role in the politics of Attock District. Prior to the arrival of the Sikhs in early 19th Century, the Ghebas were effectively independent. They are now considered equal in rank with the Jodhras and Alpials, and intermarriage with the Alpials, Jodhras and Khattars is common.

Like other tribes of this region, the Gheba are further sub-divided into three main muhis (clans), the Rawal, Bhandial and Sihal. The Sardars of Kot Fateh Khan belong to the Rawal branch of the family, and current Sardar is Sher Ali Khan. The Ghebas are found mainly in the western portion of the Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock District, where they occupy solid block of villages reaching to the Kala Chita on the north, to Fateh Jang and Sagar to the east, and almost to the Sil river in the south. There main villages are Kot Fateh Khan, Manjia, Dhurnal, Gullial, Malal, Mari, Shahr Rai Saidullah, Sikhwal and Dhari-Rai-Ditta all in Fatehjang Tehsil of Attock District.

 

Jodhra

We now look at the Jodhra, who account for themselves as being of Rajput origin, and derive their name from Jodhra who was converted to Islam by Mahmud of Ghazni, and who settled initially in Kashmir. They appear, however, to have come to the Attock District about the end of the 15th century as a small band of military adventurers. They possessed themselves of the Sohan (Swaan river) and Sill ” illaquas ” (areas) and much of Talagang. The Awans, the original owners, were not evicted but remained as tenants under the conquering Jodhras, who never themselves cultivated.

The Jodhras became independent chiefs keeping up a large body of armed retainers. Their power was recognised by the Mughals, and Malik Aulia Khan, their first chief known to history, held a revenue assignment of Pindigheb, Talagang and parts of Chakwal. Owing to family feuds and other causes the tribe has lost much of its original prosperity and is now much less well-to-do than its neighbours, the Ghebas, who have been their ancient rivals and enemies. The two tribes now inter-marry and are on friendly terms.

The Jodhras inhabit the south-eastern portion of the Pindi Gheb Tehsil and the valley of the Swaan River extending, on the south, to the border of Talagang of Chakwal District. Almost all the Jodhra villages are found in Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock District and Pindi Gheb Tehsil of Attock District, with a few settlements in the Haripur District of Hazara. Their main villages in Pindi Gheb are Khunda, Domial Ahmadal, Ikhlas, Noushehra, Parri, Dandi, Gharibwal, Ganda Kas, Kamrial, Sidrihaal, Kharauba, Kamalpur Sher Jang, Kanat, Mirwal and Saura. In Fatehjang, they are found in Ahmadal, Chauntra, and Langrial, while there also found in the villages of Baldher, Bandi Sherkhan and Akhoon Bandi in Haripur district. The current chief of the tribe is Malik Atta Mohammad Khan

Khattar
The Khattar are perhaps the most interesting in terms of their exact origin. According to the traditions of the tribe, the Khattar were an Arab tribe that enetered in Spain with Tariq ibn Ziyad. The head of the tribe, Abu Al-Khattar was said to be a popular governor of al-Andalusia, Spain. After the downfall of Muslim rule in Spain, the tribe left and moved to Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, India and north west of Pakistan. The bulk of the tribe is now found in the in Attock and Rawalpindi districts. In due course, the Khattars split up into two major sections, the ‘Kala’ (Black) and ‘Chitta’ (White); of which the Kala Khattars were mostly of mixed Muslim and Hindu population whereas the Chitta section were almost entirely Muslims, and married extensively with various Afghan, Turkish and Kashmiri tribes. The Hayat family of Wah village, from which some of the most notable Khattars have descended in recent times, are from the ‘Chitta’ Khattars, though Wah village itself was founded much later c 17th century, originally as ‘Jalal Sar’ village, renamed ‘Wah’ by the Mughal Emperor Jehangir, and a pleasure garden was later built here by the Emperor Shah Jehangir. A small of Khattar also claim descent from Qutub Shah, the supposed ancestor of the Awan tribe, which would give the Khattar an Alawi Arab ancestry.
Other theories of their descent include:

“ The Khattars are generally credited with a Hindu origin,from Khatris but they are divided in belief as to their descent .Some admit Hindu origin , while those who deny it claim an Arab descent , alleging they are closely connected with Awans . ”

“ In order to meet the generally accepted belief that they were originally Hindus , even those who claim a Mussalman origin admit that while at Bagh Nilab they became Hindu and were reconverted ”

“ Khattar wedding rites used to closely resemble those of Hindus , Brahmans even being present , but they are now solemnised according to strict Muhammadan rules . ”

A further claim is that the Khattars are of Turkic ancestry; which is based on two factors: (a) supposed physical features and temperament (b) their later inter-marriages with Pakhtun/Afghan tribes living mainly in North-West Pakistan, in the Attock and Hazara regions. However, this theory neglects the Khattars’ actual and close genealogical links to various neighbouring tribes and blood kin, of Attock (Pakistan) and nearby areas, such as the Ghebas, Jodhras etc. This confusion, as to the origin, is not unique to the Khattars, in a region where many tribes, have multiple theories as to their origin.

The Khattars now occupy a stretch of land, known as Khattar, on both sides of the Kala Chita Range, and runs in a narrow strip east and west from the Indus, and across the district, in Rawalpindi, where they own, fourteen villages. They own twenty nine villages in Attock Tehsil, forty-three in Fateh Jang Tehsil, and a fair number in Pindigheb Tehsil. Their main villages in Attock District include Dhrek, Bahtar, Bhagowi, Kot Shadi, Thatha , Kutbal and Pind Sultan. The town Wah, as already mentioned, was historically an Khattar settlement. In Rawalpindi District, there villages are mostly in the Kharora Circle, in the present Taxila Tehsil, and include Dhok Phor, Pind Nosheri, Garhi Sikander and Usman Khattar. The Khattar are largely a class of feudal landlords, never really forming a majority of the population in their villages, leaving cultivation to groups they consider inferior.

 

Bhao, Kahlotra, Rachyal, and Sau Tribes

Many of the tribes that I have so far looked at, such as the Kanyal, for example, have traditions that they migrated from the Chibhal region of Jammu and Kashmir, and I shall now look at some of the tribes that still have a presence in that region, in addition to having branches settled in Pothohar. I shall start off by giving a brief descriptions of the Bhao, Kahlotra, Rachyal, Sau and Sohlan tribes. All these tribes are by origin Dogra, and question then arises, who exactly then are the Dogras? They are largely Hindu ethnic community concentrated in the region between Tawi and Chenab river in Jammu and Kashmir, and the word Dogra is said to have arisen from the fact that the cradle of the Dogra people lies between the two lakes of Sruinsar and Mansar. Its derivations is therefore from the word Dwigart Desh (meaning country of two hollows), which was converted into Duggar and Dugra, which then became Dogra. The term Dogra does not refer to a single caste, but is more a linguistic category. For example, included within the Dogra category are groups that identify themselves as Rajputs or Brahman. Most of the Dogra Rajputs follow the Hindu faith, however the region lying to the west of the Chenab River saw the conversion to Islam of most of the Rajput clans. This happened largely as the Rajput population in Jammu was thickest around the Mughal road leading from the plains of western Punjab into Kashmir, through the Bhimber-Rajauri-Shupian route across the Pir Panjal. This was the route historically used by various Muslim armies on their march to Kashmir. The first Rajput chiefs said to have embraced were those of the Khokhar tribe. One of the first to convert was the Khokhar chief Rai, according to the Tabakat-i-Nasiri had embraced Islam in the time of Mohammed Ghori. Manhas and Sulehria Rajputs became Muslims in large numbers on the borders of Jammu in the region called Salahar-Tappa and Manhas-Tappa. Communities such as the Jarral, Sulehria, Mangral, Bhao and Manhas converted in large numbers in the 16th Century. The territory between Tawi and Jhelum, became known as the Chibhal, after the largest tribe in the region, the Chib. With their conversion to Islam, many other clans such as the Bhawpal, Sau and Kamlak also converted to Islam.In the pre-independence period the Muslim Rajput population was more than double that of the Hindu Rajputs.

The 1911 Census of India was the last one that collected information on the various clans of the Pahari Rajput. According to the 1911 Census of India, the main clans were:

Tribe Population
Badhan 6,856
Bains 6,193
Bhatti 4,451
Bhao 592
Bomba 1,462
Chauhan 3,646
Chib 9,665
Domaal 6,953
Douli 3,009
Gakhar 13,825
Janjua 8,062
Jarral 8,506
Khakha 1,391
Khokhar 7,736
Mangral 7,027
Manhas 6,707
Narma 6,617
Sau 2,961
Thakhar 10,451
Other Clans 64,003

 

As this table shows, the largest clan in Chibhal region were the Gakhars, in particular in what is now Mirpur and Kotli Districts. In latter posts I intend to look at the Mangral and Douli tribes, and hopefully time permitting the Bomba and Khakha. Among the tribes to be discussed, the Rachyal stand out as being Jats, although it is quite possible that they are also of Dogra stock.

 

 

 

Bhao

Let start with the Bhao or sometime pronounced Bhau or even Bahu , who are a Rajput clan, found in Punjab, Pakistan as well as both Indian administered Jammu & Kashmir as well as Azad Kashmir. According to the tribe’s tradition, they are Raghbansi Rajputs, originally from Ayodhya in North India. This migration is said to have occurred a thousand years ago, with the Bhoas first migrating to Jammu, where they settled near Akhnur on the banks of the Chenab river. In the 14th Century, small groups began to move into what is now Gujrat District. At the time of their settlement in Gujrat, they also started to convert to Islam.

The name Bhao is said to mean those who inspire fear in the local Dogri language, which is spoken in Jammu. They have said to have acquired this name when the tribe was settling in Jammu, it inspired fear among its enemies, and hence got the name but others say the Bhao were free booters or looters and hence earned the title. However, according to another tradition, the Bhao are branch of the Jamwals, thereby related to the Minhas Rajputs. The ancestors of the both the Bhao and Jamwal were the Dev dynasty that ruled Jammu. The Devs largely remained loyal to the Mughal kings, but a feud within Dev dynasty was deepened with the Mughal agencies exploiting it, and during the late sixteenth century, the Devs virtually split into two factions (Jammu faction of Jammu city-fort, and Bahu faction across the Tawi river), while the actual Mughal supremacy over the region was established. The intra-dynasty feud and the Mughal supremacy were both terminated in Jammu during the reigns of Dhruv Dev (1707–33) and Ranjit Dev (1733–82). The Bahu is a hill located on the outskirts of Jammu. After their defeat, the Bahu Jamwals moved to Akhnur, Bhimber and the Kharian region of the Punjab.

 

The Muslim branch of the Bhao are found in the Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, as well as a few villages in the Bhimber District of Azad Kashmir. The Hindu branch is still found in Akhnur in Jammu District. Historically, Muslim Bhao were also found in Gurdaspur District, but all these Bhao Rajput emigrated to Pakistan at the time of the partition of India. Their customs and traditions are similar to the Chib and Sohlan Rajputs, tribes of Dogra extraction who are there neighbours.

 

 

Kahlotra

Looking now at the Kahlotra, sometimes pronounced as Kalotri, a tribe historically found Naushera and Rajauri tehsils of what was then Riasi District till 1947, with a smaller number found in the south eastern portions of Kotli District. The Kahlotra are sub-group of the Dogra community. Among those clans of the Dogras that converted to Islam, the foremost are the Kahlotra. However, there are still a good many Kahlotra who have remained Hindu. According to some traditions, the Kahlotra are a clan of Suryavanshi Rajputs, while others make them a clan of the Manhas Rajput tribe. The Muslim Kahlotra also played an important role in Adam malia (Non payment of land tax) and Quit Kashmir movement.

 

In 1947, at the partition of India, entire Muslim branch of the Kahlotra tribe migrated from  the Jammu region to Azad Kashmir and Pakistan. A significant number are now settled in villages such as Thoa Khalsa in Rawalpindi District, but are still distinguished from their neighbours by the continuied use of the Dogri language.

 

 

 

 

Rachyal

 

Coming next to the Rachyal, sometimes spelt Richyal, who are a Jat tribe, found mainly in the Kotli and Mirpur districts of Azad Kashmir. Like the Kahlotra already mentioned,the Rachyal are a clan of Dogras, whose roots like in the Chamba region of what is now Himachal Pradesh. According to tribal folklore, once the Rachyals converted to Islam they were forced out of Chamba and its surroundings and we see them migrating to Sialkot, Sheikhupura, and Jhang areas of Punjab in Pakistan. The tribe then re-entered the Jammu state via Dhuki village through Sarai-Alamgir (near Kharian, Punjab, Pakistan) which lies in district of Mirpur around three hundred years ago. They then moved to Mangla and eventually to a place called Ladna near now Chakswari. From here the Rachyals spread farther west and the estate of Panyam came into existence. Most of the Rachyal are still found either in Chakswari or Panyam, where several of their villages are found such as Poth,and Chamba. Some Rachyals travelled further North towards Naar, Rajdhani, Poonch and Rajouri. Today small pockets of Rachyals also have a presence in Pakistan Punjab. There are still some Hindu Rachyals found in the Chamba region of Himachal Pradesh.

 

Sau

I will now look at the Sau, or sometimes pronounced as Shau. They are a branch of the Minhas Rajputs, but of all the Rajputs clans found in Mirpur, they have the least written about them. The word Sau is a corruption of Sahu, or well born, and they claim a higher status from other Minhas descended clans. It is in fact a corruption of word saha which the Sanskrit version of old Persian word Shaha or emperor. In the Pothohar and Chibhali regions, tribes such as the Gakhar and Janjua use the term to describe themselves in distinction from those tribe such as the Kanyal or Nagyal, who are called zamindar. Found now mainly in Mirpur District, in villages such as Chatroh, Jabot, Khirri, Lakhora, Kot Qandu Khan and Unna (near Dadyal), often surrounded by Bains and Jat villages.