Hans and Khagga tribes of Pakistani Punjab

In this post, I will look at the history and origin of the Hans and Khagga tribes. The homeland of both tribes is located in the Neeli Bar, and I would ask the reader to look at my post on the Arar tribe, which describes the region in greater detail. The Hans are found further east then the Khagga in the Sutlej valley. Both these tribes claim an Arab origin.

Hans

The Hans claim to be of Quraishi origin and were one of the many tribes that occupied the upland of the Neeli Bar before the start of colonization of the Punjab by the British Imperial authorities in the 19th century. The Quraishi, or Quraish are the Arab tribe to wich the Prophet belonged too. According to Hans traditions, their ancestors left Arabia and settled in the Bar during the period of Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. Their ancestors had initially settled in Afghanistan, and from their moved to Punjab, where they settled in Pukka Sidhar in what is now Pakpattan District. For the next 5 centuries, the Hans were simple land-holders, living a little to the north-west of the city of Pakpattan. However, small numbers of Hans were found as east as Fazilka. They were a classic tribe of Bar nomads, raising cattle, and moving along the Sutlej. During the rule of the Mughal Emperor Shahjahan (5 January 1592  – 22 January 1666), the town of Malka Hans was founded by Malik Mohammad Hans, and became the most important centre of the tribe, replacing Pakka Sidhar.

 

The fortune of the Hans changed the during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. A Hans by the name of Shaikh Qutub Hans, a learned men and apparently a teacher of some of the nobility at the court of the Emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi, obtained a grant of several villages from the Emperor in what became known the taluka Qutbabad.  Shaikh Qutub became powerful, owing to his ability and influence at court, and wealthy, as the Para, Sohag and Dhadder streams flowed through his lands. Aurangzeb, as the gratitude to the Shaikh created a tappa or tract of the Hans which formed the parganas of Kabula and Alamgirpur, the modern Okara District.

 

Mughal authority began to decline shortly after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, and in the Bar, the local chieftains became independent. Like other Bar nomads, Shaikh Qutub’s descendant made themselves independent and about 1764 Muhammed Azam was chief of the clan. He seized as much of the country round Malika Hans as he could, but in 1766 the Sikhs overran it and took him prisoner by treachery. His brother is said to have called in the Bahrwal Sikhs to assist him, promising them half his territory, but instead of helping him against his rival, the Chishti diwan of Pakpattan, they put down cow-killing and the call to prayer, and so he called in the help Dogars, one of the larger tribes along the Sutlej, who lands lay directly north of the Hans. The combined Dogar and Hans force drove out the Sikhs. But about this time the streams which watered his lands had dried up and he was unable to resist the Sikhs when they returned, and he had to seek refuge with the diwan of Pakpattan. The Hans land fell under  Sikh rule, when Maharaja Ranjit Singh of the Sikh Empire seized Pakpattan in 1810, removing the political autonomy of the Chishti Diwan. With the arrival of the British in 1848, the Bar was opened for canal colonization. Most of the Hans land became part of the Montgomery District.

Waris Shah and Heer Ranjha

During the rule of the Muhammad Azam, Waris Shah arrived and lived in Malika Hans. He is said to have written Heer Ranjha in the town. The poem in some way is a tribute to the culture of the Bar nomads, such as the Hans.

Distribution and Villages

 

They are now found as propritors a few villages in Okara District. There are also isolated settlements of the Hans in Muzaffargarh and Layyah districts.

 

In Dipalpur Tehsil of Okara District, the villages of Hans Uttar Wali and Hans Hitharwali are important settlements of the tribe.

 

In Pakpattan District, Pakka Sidhar, Malka Hans, Bakka Hans, Hamma Rath and Chak 35 SP are important centres of the tribe.

 

In Layyah District, the villages of Chak No. 280/TDA, Chak No. 387/TDA, Chak No. 356/TDA, Chak No 151 TDA LAYYAH, and Ghulam Haider Kalluwala

In Multan District, the village of Azam Hans near the town of Qadirpur Ran, is an important settlement of the tribe.

In Lodhran District, the village of Mallan Hans.

In Kot Addu Tehsil of Muzaffargarh District, the village of Hans is an important centre of the tribe.

Khagga

Moving now on the Khagga, who also claim a Hashmi Qureshi background. According to their traditions, they are descended from Khawaja Shah Jalal Din Muhammad Awais Jaafri Quraishi Hashm also known as Khawaja Awais Khagga. He was a disciple of Shaikh Muhammad Iraqi, a saint of Awaisi chain of Sufis. He is believed to have arrived in Multan during the times of Hazrat Sadruddin (son of famous Sufi Hazrat Baha-ud-Din Zakariya) and died in the year 700AH/1300AD.

Khagga is said to mean a particular kind of fish; and the name was given to Shah Jalal-ud-Din by his spiritual teacher on the occasion of his rescuing a boat overtaken by a storm. There is also a traditions, that during the period of Sikh rule (late 18th and early 19th Century), if anyone was distressed they could take refuge in the home of any Khagga. One has to understand that this was a time of great number of tribal feuds, and it was almost necessary to have someone who could be brought in as an arbitrator.

The Khagga are mostly found in south-west Punjab, with concentrations in FaisalabadBahawalpurVehariMultanMuzaffargarhKhanewalSahiwal and Pakpattan districts. In Sahiwal and Pakpattan districts are said to have come from Multan in the 19th century after the invasion of Ranjit Singh.

Important Khagga villages include Moza Ahmad Shah Khagga, Moza Akbar Shah and Moza Noor Shah Khagga in Sahiwal, Chak Shahana, Bherowal, Pakka Majeed (near Mian Channu) and Vehniwal in Khanewal. Other Khaga villages include Moza Allam Shah Khagga in Faisalabad District, Chak 418 TDA in Layyah District, Chak Shah Khagga in Pakpatan District and Basti Patal, Bastti Kot Saleemwala and Basti Shahwala, all near the town of Kot Addu in Muzaffargarh District.

 

 

Khichi Chauhans of Punjab

In this post, I will look at the clan of the Khichi Chauhans, a tribe that was centred and still found in the Neeli Bar region. The Neeli Bar is a geographical region in Punjab, Pakistan. It consists of the uplands between the rivers Ravi and Satluj. “Bar” is the name given to areas in Punjab which were thick forests before the arrival of the modern canal irrigation system. Its soil is very fertile, as this plain is formed by the mud that has been collected by rivers flowing from the Himalayas. This region consists of the districts Sahiwal, Okara and Pakpattan . In my post on the Kathia, I give a bit more on the conditions and history of the tribal communities found in this region of Punjab. The Khichi family of Mailsi, are often referred to as the classic feudals of Punjab, having dominated local politics of Mailsi for the last seventy years since independence from the British. The current Member of the Punjab Assembly is for Mailsi is Muhammad Jahanzeb Khan Khichi. However, most present day Khichi are largely farmers.

Khichi, sometimes spelt Khichee, are a branch of the Chauhan clan of Agnivanshi Rajputs (please look at posting on Tribes of Potohar for a definition of Rajput). I shall start off by giving some brief information on the Chauhans. The Chauhan kingdom became the leading Rajput state in Northern India under Prithviraj III (1165–1192), also known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai Pithora . The Chauhan state collapsed after Prithviraj was defeated by Mohammed of Ghor in 1192 at the Second Battle of Tarain, but the Chauhans remained in Ajmer as feudatories of Mohammed of Ghor and the Sultans of Delhi until 1365, when Ajmer was captured by the rulers of Mewar, finally ending Chauhan rule. This also led to the dispersal of the Chauhans, with some migrating towards Punjab. The Chauhan kingdom collapsed after Prithviraj was defeated by Mohammed of Ghor in 1192 at the Second Battle of Tarain, but the Chauhans remained in Ajmer as feudatories of Mohammed of Ghor and the Sultans of Delhi until 1365, when Ajmer was captured by the rulers of Mewar. According to Khichi tribal traditions, the descend from Manak Rai, a semi-mythical Chauhan ruler of Ajmer. Manik Rai was said to be the brother of Dula Rai, the Chauhan king of Ajmer. In 684 CE, he fled from Ajmer after Dula Rai was killed by their enemies, and regained control managed of the area around Sambhar Lake with the blessings of the goddess Shakambh. The Khichi claim descent from Ajai Rao, the second son of Manik Rai, the legendry seventh century ruler of Sambhar in Rajasthan.

While the main Chauhan state was extinguished by 1365, cadet branches such as the Khichi, split up, some groups nmoving to the central Indian region of Malwa such as Asalgarh in Nimar. After being driven from Asalgarh, the Malwa Khichi founded the principality of Khilchipur, which lasted till the end of British rule in India and formed part of the Bhopal Agency under the administration of the Central India Agency. Another branch moved to Gagraun, in central Rajasthan, where they became tributaries of the Jhala Rajputs. The Khichi of Chota Udaipur state claim descent from this branch of the Khichis.

The Khichi of Punjab have slightly different origin story. According to their traditions, they claim descent from a Khichi ruler of Ajmer. Driven out of Delhi by one of the Sultan of Delhi, his descendants Sisan and Vidar migrated to Multan. The Khichis then fought with the Joiyas, then paramount in the region, expelling them from the Sutlej valley near the where the town of Mailsi is located. At sometime following their settlement in the Neeli Bar, the tribe converted to Islam. According to tribal traditions, they founded the villages of Shitab Garh, Sargana, Sheer Garh, Haleem Khichi, Aliwah, Tarki, Omar Khichi, Dhoda, and Fadda. One of their tradition refers to their conversion at the hands of the Sufi Bahaudin Zakaria of Multan. They then established a state based in the town of Mailsi, which finally conquered by the Sikhs in the 18th Century. Another branch established a state near the town of Gugera. Mailsi however remains the centre of the tribe. In addition to Punjab, branches of the Khichi tribe are still found in Rajasthan, especially in Jaisalmer, in India, who have remained Hindu, and have very similar origin stories as the Khichi of Punjab.

Groups of Khichi began migrating northwards, and the largest concentration of the Khichi are found in the Bhera Bar, a portion of the Kirana Bar located near the town of Bhera in Sargodha District. Khichi villages include Khichi Jagir, and Daulutpur Khichi in the Sahiwal Tehsil of Sargodha District, Khichi in the Talagang Tehsil and Khichi in Chakwal Tehsil of Chakwal District, and Khichi in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District. According to the 1901 Census of India, the Khichi were distributed in the following districts.

Khichi Rajput Population According to the 1901 Census of India

District Population
Chenab Colony 1,870
Multan 1,563
Montgomery 1,342
Bahawalpur 921
Shahpur 838
Jhang 733
Firuzpur 717
Mianwali 514
Other Districts 1,632
Total Population 10,130

Most of the Khichi population is still concentrated in the regions where they were found in 1901. The Khichi of Multan District were found near the town of Mailsi, which is now in Vehari, while the bulk of the Mianwali Khichi were found in the Bhakkar Tehsil, which is now a separate district.
Major Khichi Villages By District

Bhakkar District

1) Basti Cheena,

2) Chah Khichi

3) Khichi Kalan,

4) Khichi Khurd

5) Jhok Khichi

6) Wadhay Wali

Layyah District

1) Chak 459 TDA

2) Chak 465 TDA

Chiniot District

Chani Khichi

Faisalabad District

Chak106JB Khichian,

Shakeel Ahmed Khichi,

Chak 275 Mudooana

Hafizabad District.

Dera Mian Ali Khichi

Khanewal District

Khichiwala

Mandi Bahauddin District

1) Chakori

2) Sanda

Sargodha District

Chak No. 132 NB (Silanwali Tehsil),

Chak No. 139 SB (Silanwali Tehsil)

Okara District

Dholi Khichi,

Jawaya Khich

Nota Khichi

Sialkot District

Rahimpur Khichian

Khichi of Mailsi Region

But the greatest number of Khichi villages are still found in Mailsi region of Vehari District and include Sargana, Aliwah, Fadah, Halim Khichi, Umar Khichi, Shergarh, Shatabgarh, Tarki, Kilanj, Dhamakki, Dhodan and Jiwan Khichi. The Khichi have dominated the local politics in Vehari District, providing many of the members of the National Assembly.

Khokhar Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this post I will give the distribution of the Khokhar population according to the 1901 Census. As the table shows, most of the Khokhar were found in the river valleys of the Jhelum, Chenab and Sutlej. I will ask the reader to look at my posts on the Bandial and Bhachar as well as the Khokhar of UP, which gives some background to this community.

District / States Population
Shahpur 24,351
Bahawalpur State 16,540
Jhang 16,398
Multan 11,606
Chenab Colony 8,511
Montgomery 8,093
Mianwali
4,573
Dera Ghazi Khan 4,199
Muzaffargarh
4,020
Jhelum
3,865
Gujrat
1,638
Lahore  1,503
Firuzpur  1,169
Sialkot  784
Other Districts  4,713
Total Population 107,943

 

Baloch Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

In this post, I will look at the distribution of the Baloch community in Punjab. as should expected, the majority occupied territory that bordered Baluchistan, such as Dera Ghazi Khan and Baloch Trans-Frontier.

There were infact two distinct groups of Baloch in Punjab, a larger Seraiki speaking group, with the Trans-Frontier Baloch actually speaking Balochi, found throughout South West Punjab, with Mianwali (present day Mianwali and Bhakkar districts) and Shahpur (present day Khushab and Sargodha) forming the northern boundary, Jhang, Lyalpur and Montgomery forming the eastern boundary of the region. This was home to 90% of the Baloch group. A second cluster, about 10% lived in and around Delhi, the present day Haryana state. These Baloch were Haryanvi speaking, and the Baloch colonies here dated from the 15th Century. The city of Lahore, as capital of Punjab, was home to large urban community, which formed the third sub-group among the Baloch of Punjab.

 

District / State Population
Dera Ghazi Khan 168,322
Muzaffargarh 76,586
Bahawalpur State 64,832
Mianwali
27,295
Multan 24,488
Baloch Trans-Frontier 22,369
Chenab Colony 17,433
Shahpur 12,995
 Jhang
12,971
Montgomery 12,024
Lahore 5,288
Firuzpur 3,388
Gujranwala 3,274
Jhelum 2,338
Rohtak 2,314
Gurgaon 2,241
Patiala State 1,382
Delhi 1,240
Hissar 1,151
Karnal 1,094
Rawalpindi 915
Gujrat 906
Faridkot 517
Other Districts 2,480
Total Population 467,843

Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1891 Census of India

In 1891 the total Rajput population was 1,983,299 of which Muslims were 1,559,977. I would also ask the reader to look at my other posts such as Muslim Rajput clans of British Punjab according to the 1901 Census of India.

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 297,343 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Khokhar 137,883 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot, Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Gurdaspur
Chauhan 132,116 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe, in central found mainly in Lahore, Amritsar and Jallandhar
Sial 106,146 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Gondal 62,071 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Shahpur
Panwar 54,892 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe; a smaller grouo also found in Jhelum
Kharal 51,586 Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Joiya 47,773 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Janjua 36,970 a western group in Rawalpindi and Jhelum and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Ghorewaha 34,192 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Manj 26,983 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Wattu 24,150 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Bahawalpur to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Sulehri / Sulehria 24,345 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Naru 22,680 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana – by early 20th Century, several Naru were settled in Faisalabad and Sahiwal in the canal colonies
Tomar / Tonwar 21,691 Modern Haryana (especially Rohtak and Panipat), Ambala, and in the Bahawalpur Stater
Bariah also pronounced as Varya 19,463 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Ranjha 18,490 Jhelum / Chakwal
Taoni 17,730 Ambala – a Ranghar grouping
Manhas / Minhas 16,026 From Rawalpindi to Hoshiarpur – a Muslim Dogra grouping
Dhudhi 11,286 Sargodha, Jhang, Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Bhakral 11,207 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Jatu 10,837 Modern Haryana (especially Hissar and Gurgaon), Ambala, and Rohtak. They are a Ranghar tribe
Satti 10,799 Rawalpindi
Dhanyal 8,524 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Khichi 7,845 Sargodha, Jhang and Sahiwal
Mekan 7,733 Sargodha (Shahpur District), Jhang and Rawalpindi
Chib 6,673 Gujrat, a Muslim Dogra clan
Mandahar 4,022 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and Hissar. They are a Ranghar tribe
Khanzada 3,471 Gurgaon – a branch of the Jadaun clan
Tiwana 3,120 a western group in Kushab and eastern group in Patiala
Raghubansi / Raghuvanshi 3,060 Ambala – a Ranghar clan
Kanial 2,725 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Katil 2,461 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Pundir 2,117 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar group with villages near the Yamuna river
Bargujar 2,046 Gurgaon – a Ranghar tribe found in Rewari
Kethwal 1,849 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Jadaun 1,353 Gurgaon and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Bagri 1,186 Hissar and Firuzpur, in areas bordering Bikaner. Rajasthani immigrants
Rathore 1,067 Hissar, Firuzpur and Bahawalpur, in areas bordering Bikaner. Rajasthani immigrants
Chandel 912 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Patiala and Ludhiana
Khoja 841 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Jaswal 558 Hoshiarpur
Gaurwa 546 Gurgaon – Ranghar group
Atiras 477 Patiala State
Pathial 470 Kangra and Hoshiarpur
Luddu 258 Hoshiarpur
Guleria 248 Hoshiarpur
Dhanwal 214 Sahiwal and Okara
Dadwal 147 Hoshiarpur
Pathania 138 Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Katoch 101 Hoshiarpur
Miscellaneous clans 299,166 throughout Punjab

 

Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1911 Census of India

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 208,664 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Chauhan 109,533 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe, in central found mainly in Lahore, Amritsar and Jallandhar
Khokhar 93,012 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot, Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Gurdaspur
Sial 91,211 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Joiya 49,486 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Panwar 44,924 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe; a smaller grouo also found in Jhelum
Wattu 34,696 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Bahawalpur to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Naru 29,665 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana – by early 20th Century, several Naru were settled in Faisalabad and Sahiwal in the canal colonies
Ghorewaha 26,203 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Janjua 25,621 a western group in Rawalpindi and Jhelum and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Sulehri / Sulehria 25,512 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Mandahar 24,703 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and Hissar. They are a Ranghar tribe
Manj 20,633 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Bariah also pronounced as Varya 17,893 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Tomar 16,686 Modern Haryana (especially Rohtak and Panipat), Ambala, and in the Bahawalpur Stater
Mair-Minhas 15,075 Chakwal
Kharal 14,521 Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Jatu 13,825 Modern Haryana (especially Hissar and Gurgaon), Ambala, and Rohtak. They are a Ranghar tribe
Manhas / Minhas 10,382 From Rawalpindi to Hoshiarpur – a Muslim Dogra grouping
Awan 9.555 Two groups of Awan registered themselves as Rajput, those of Sonepat and near Delhi – who were a Ranghar tribe, and smaller group in Gurdaspur and Sialkot. All Awan declared themselves as Awan
Taoni 9,273 Ambala – a Ranghar grouping
Alpial 8,986 Attock – a branch of the Manj Rajput tribe
Chib 8,360 Gujrat, a Muslim Dogra clan
Jodhra 8,085 Attock District
Dhanyal 7,909 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Dhudhi 6,730 Sargodha, Jhang, Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Baghial 6,715 Rawalpindi
Dhamial 5,973 Rawalpindi
Bhakral 5,744 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Bhakral 5,744 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Khichi 4,774 Sargodha, Jhang and Sahiwal
Langrial 3,886 Multan, Sahiwal and Okara – northern branch in Rawalpindi/Jhelum and Gujrat – most northern Langrial declared themselves as Jat
Chadhar 3,825 Jhang District – outside Jhang most Chadhars registered themselves as Jat
Dahya 3,620 Ambala District – a Ranghar clan
Khanzada 3,662 Gurgaon – a branch of the Jadaun clan
Kalial 3,662 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Dahya 3,620 Ambala District – a Ranghar clan
Kathia 2,900 Sahiwal and Okara
Kanial 2,317 Rawalpindi
Mangral 2,309 Rawalpindi
Nagrial 2,220 Rawalpindi
Kalyar 2,177 Sargodha – most Kalyar declared themselves to Jat
Raghubansi 2,135 Ambala – a Ranghar clan
Katil 2,104 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Gaharwal 2,069 Rawalpindi
Nagyal 2,038 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Qaimkhani 2,020 Hissar – essentially a Rajasthani tribe, a branch of the Chauhan
Rawat 1,971 Malerkotla State
Thathaal 1,618 Rawalpindi
Mekan 1,584 Sargodha – most Mekan declared themselves as Jat
Jhap 1,559 Jhang
Jamra 1,455 Dera Ghazi Khan
Tiwana 1,347 a western group in Kushab and eastern group in Patiala
Matyal 1,347 Rawalpindi
Jatal 1,310 Rawalpindi
Rathore 1,148 Hissar, Firuzpur and Bahawalpur, in areas bordering Bikaner. Rajasthani immigrants
Khuhi 1,148 Multan
Warha 1,288 In Hissar a Ranghar group, also found along the Sutlej in Firuzpur and Bahawalpur State
Dogar 1,300 Sahiwal and Okara – most Dogar registered themselves as Dogars and numbered 68,473
Jalap 1,172 Jhelum – a branch of the Khokhar tribe
Nagrawal 1,143 Rawalpindi
Ramial 1,120 Rawalpindi
Ghangar 1,002 Rawalpindi
Daha 991 Multan, Sahiwal and Okara – a branch of the Panwar
Badpyar 988 Delhi with villages near the Yamuna river – a Ranghar clan
Pundir 985 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar group with villages near the Yamuna river
Atiras 965 Patiala State
Kural 961 Rawalpindi
Phularwan 935 Sahiwal and Okara – a second group in Sialkot
Baghela 923 Sahiwal / Okara
Mukhmdal 852 Gujrat – a Chib sub-clan
Jora 834 Fazilka, Hissar and Sirsa
Attar 821 Sargodha
Mial 817 Rawalpindi
Hon 811 Rawalpindi – a branch of the Panwar tribe
Bargujar 805 Gurgaon – a Ranghar tribe found in Rewari
Mayen 802 Patiala State
Mahaar 792 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Bahawalpur to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa – most Mahaar declared themselves as Jat
Adrah 792 Rawalpindi
Kala 747 Jhang
Sakhri 743 Hissar – a Ranghar clans, sub-division of the Jatu
Taraqar 710 Multan
Bhao 706 From Kharian to Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Rath 706 Sahiwal / Pakpattan
Sarral 698 Rawalpindi
Luddu 680 Hoshiarpur
Gaurwa 644 Gurgaon – Ranghar group
Kethwal 642 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Doli 639 Sahiwal / Okara
Barial 633 Ludhiana District
Chandel 618 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Patiala and Ludhiana
Sohlan 606 Jhelum
Noon 599 Sargodha and Multan – a branch of the Bhatti tribe
Agan 569 Gurdaspur – Muslim Dogra clan/td>
Dhanwal 569 Sahiwal and Okara/td>
Jandran 551 Sahiwal / Okara
Bains 548 Rawalpindi – the majority of the Bains registered themselves as Jats
Ranjha 579 Jhelum / Chakwal
Ratial 549 Rawalpindi
Mughal 544 Rawalpindi
Satraola 544 Hissar – a Ranghar tribe
Bhan 519 Sargodha
Chatha 420 Rawalpindi
Jawal 288 Delhi – a Ranghar clan
Jadaun 165 Gurgaon and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Jaswal 160 Hoshiarpur
Meun 76 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Pathania 71 Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Jaral 58 Kangra
Gondal 31 Rawalpindi – almost all the Gondals declared themselves as Jat, except a few in Rawalpindi

 

Population of Muslim Rajput clans of Faisalabad, Multan and South Punjab according to 1911 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Rajput clans and their population of the Multan Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1911 Census of India. In 1911, the Multan Division consisted of five districts, LyalpurMontgomeryMultanMuzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan. The appearance of a particular tribe as Rajput in the list does not in itself confirm that the tribe is Rajput or otherwise. Identity may change with time, and some groups in the list may no longer identify themselves as Jats. This list simply gives an historical distribution of Muslim Rajput tribes in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a number of years prior to the partition of Punjab.

 

Multan District

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans of Multan District[4]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 12,307
Daha 991
Dhudhi 1,138
Joiya 2,383
Khuhi 1,148
Langrial 3,886
Minhas 168
Meun 76
Panwar 442
Sial 26,393
Taraqar 710

Bahawalpur State

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans found in Bahawalpur State[5]

Tribe Total
Bhatti 5,052
Chauhan 5,463
Dhudhi 1,806
Joiya 17,791
Khichi 911
Panwar 7,757
Rathore 275
Sial 6,281
Tonwar 637
Wattu 2,849
Warha 664

Dera Ghazi Khan District

Here is a list of the main Rajput clans of the district. [6]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 7,272
Jamra 1,455
Joiya 1,500
Panwar 849
Sial 2,781

Lyalpur District (Faisalabad District)

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans of the district. [7]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 5,830
Chauhan 1,455
Kharal 8,043
Khichi 851
Khokhar 856
Manhas 342
Naru 647
Sial 4,166
Sulehria 809
Wattu 2,497

Jhang District

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans found in Jhang District:[8]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 5,949
Chadhar 3,284
Chauhan 492
Jhap 1,559
Kala 747
Khokhar 2,091
Sial 41,008

 

 

Muzaffargarh District

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans found in Muzaffargarh District[9]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 5,342
Chauhan 564
Joiya 1,502
Panwar 695
Sial 5,341

Channar, Ghaleja, Jandran and Maitla tribes

In this post I shall be looking at four tribes, namely the Channar, Ghaleja, Jandran, and Maitla. Other then the Ghalejas, the other tribes are found mainly in the Neeli Bar, in particular its southern edges. They are all of Jat status, and were archetypal Bar nomads, speaking the Jhangochi dialect, which has now merged into modern Seraiki. In terms of distribution, the Channar are found at southern end of the Neeli Bar, mainly in Lodhran district, but extend over the Sultlej river into Bahawalpur, moving slightly to the north we find the Channar, the Jandran even further north in Okara, the Maitla mainly near Multan and at the southern along in Indus in Rahim Yar Khan end we find the Ghaleja.

Channar

I start off by looking at the Channar, a tribe found mainly Lodhran District and Bahawalpur District. There are several origin stories, but perhaps the most interesting connects them with the Pir Channan, a famous Sufi saint of Cholistan.

According to one of the origins myths the Channan are connected with the Jakhars, Kanju, Noons and Utteras. All these five clans assume the title of Rana, and are mythical sons of Rana Rajwadhan, a Bhatti Rajput. Therefore, this suggests that the Channar are Bhatti by origin.

However, in Bhawalpur there is a strong tradition that they are descended from Pir Channar. The question before us is who was this mysterious Pir Channar.The Pir Channar legend starts with the arrival of the Sufi saint Jalaluddin Surkhposh. After arriving in Cholistan, the saint is believed to have stayed in a place now known as Channan Pir. At that time, this area was ruled by a king named Sadharan. Since the King was childless, the royal couple approached the saint who foretold the birth of their son. When the prince was born, his beauty won him the name of Channan, meaning moon in the local language. In a twist of fate, while still a child, Channan started reciting the Kalma. As word spread about the crown prince’s different faith, his political reputation was brought to abrupt end. The King immediately ordered the execution of his son but on the Queen’s intervention the sentence was softened to exile.

Young Channar was left over a mound to fend for himself. A few days later a group of travellers saw him being fed by a deer. On hearing of her son’s fate, the Queen rushed to the desert and started staying with her son. Her defiance enraged the king who renewed his son’s death sentence. From this point the story deviates into many conclusions. Some say when the assassins reached the mound, Channan Pir had disappeared while others believe he grew up to become a saint, enlightening the life of many faithful. Another version, in which the king and saint’s names vary, claims that on witnessing his son’s divine arrangement, the King accepted Channan who made the mound his permanent abode. Regardless of the version’s initial narration, they all conclude with Channan Pir either disappearing, dying and getting buried on the mound, making it a relic of faith for centuries to come. His legacy has survived, with an annual fair held which is a gathering of all the Cholistan tribes.

In Bahawalpur, the Channar are often referred to as the Channun-di, or sons of Channar. However, there other strong traditions that the Pir never married and that the Channars are descended from his seven brothers, sons of Rai Sandhila. Their main clans in Bahawalpur are  Admani, Ram, Wisal, Bhojar, and Bharpal, said by some of the tribe to be the five sons of Channar.

In Lodhan District, important Channar villages includes Chah Anganwala and Kikerwala.

Ghaleja

The Ghaleja tribe gets its name from its ancestor, Ghale, the ending ja means the decendent off in Sindhi. With the Ghalejas, there is some argument as whether Ghale was a Abbasi Arab or a Samma Rajput. The great majority of Sindhis belong to the Samma community, and there are a number of origin myths. One such is quoted by Sadiq Ali Ansari in his work on the Sindhi tribes, that name is a shortened form of Samunhun meaning face to face, i.e. their ancestor came face to face with Islam, or converted to Islam. There are still a great many Ghalejas still in Sindh. The Punjab Ghaleja claim descent from Lal Khan, who migrated from Hyderabad in Sind and settled in the Lamma (Rahim Yar Khan district) and founded Ghauspur, naming it after Gaus Bahu-nd-Din Zakariya of Multan, his religious guide. When this region came under the control of the Abbasi Daudpotras, the Nawab Muhammad Bahawal Khan II assigned a thirteenth of the revenue of Ghauspur to Lal Khan’s descendants. Kaure Khan Ghaleja accompanied that Nawab to the siege of Multan in 1848, and received a considerable jagir in Gauspur for life.

The Ghalejas are divided into (i) the khalis or pure Ghalejas, and

(ii) sixteen sub-septs, being the Yarani, Sada, Lalla, Luthra, Kuddan, Jara, Gehenri, Kekri, Lang, Natham, Chhatani, and Midani.

 

Like other Sindhi Jats, their chiefs add the title Jam to their names.

Jandran

Looking next at the Jandran, who according to their traditions came to the Punjab, accompanying the Mughal Emperor Zahiruddin Babur during his invasion of India (circa mid 15th Century). After the conquest of subcontinent by Mughals, the ancestors of the Jandran were settled in the Neeli Bar. Another tradition however, gives the Jandran a Sindhi origin, the tribe having originated in the Makran region of Baluchistan, and migrating to Punjab in the 15th Century. Despite their claim to Mughal ancestry, the Jandran consider themselves and are considered by others as Jats.

In terms of distribution, starting with Okara, they are found in Jandran Kalan and Jandran Khurd, in Sargodha at Jandran, in Khushab at Rahdari and in Jhelum at Pindi Saidpur. There are other Jandran settlements in Jhang, Khanewal, Vehari, Lahore, Lodhran, Hafizabad, Gujranwala and Faisalabad districts.

Maitla

Maitla or Metlo, somtime spelt Metla, are a tribe of Jats status. According to tribal traditions, they descend from Maitla, a Dogra Rajput, who converted to Islam during the rule of Firuz Shah Tughlaq, and settled in Sialkot. Like the Lodhra looked at in a different post, the Maitla then migrated to the Neeli Bar, settling in an area that now forms the boundary between Khanewal and Multan district, practising pastoralism. With the rise of the Multan nawabs and their allies the Dahas, groups of Metla began to migrate westward into the Derajat and southward into Sindh. In Sindh, the Maitla, or Maitlo as they are known are settled in Larkana District. They are one of a number tribes, collectively known as Serai or those from the north found in Sindh. Other important Serai tribes include the Joiya, Kharal and Sial. These Serais were invited to settle in Sindh during the period of Kalhora rule (18th Century), and the Maitlo still speak the Seraiki language.

The Maitla tribe has also produced a number of important Sufis, such as Dada Gajjun Darvesh Maitla, whose shrine is located near the city of Khanpur in Rahim Yar Khan district, and Karim Bakhsh Maitla alias Baba Haq Ali who is buried in historical at Pattan Munara near Rahim Yar Khan.

Despite the 18th Century dispersion, most Maitla are still found in Jahanian Mandi Tehsil of Khanewal district, in particular the village of Kotwala. Outside this core area, Maitla are in the districts of Jhang, Sargodha, Multan, Muzaffargarh, Layyah, Bhakkar, Vehari, Lodhran, Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar, Gujranwala, Sheikhpura, Faisalabad, Mandi Bahauddin, Hafizabad, Jhelum, Narowal, Sialkot, Okara, Sahiwal, Rajanpur, Dera Ghazi Khan and Rahim Yar Khan in the Punjab and Ghotki, Sukkur, Khairpur, Naushahro Feroze, Sanghar, Larkana, Dadu and Badin in Sindh. In Sargodha District, important Maitla villages include Chack 53 SB (Rajewala) and Chak 87.

Langrial, Lodhra and Manais tribes

In this post, I shall look at the tribes that are found mainly in the Neeli Bar, that is the area between the Ravi and Sultlej. The region now covers what is Pakpattan, Vehari and Lodhran districts. Among the three, the Langrial have spread fair widely, and are found as far north as Rawalpindi. While the Manais and Lodhra are fairly localized, and interestingly both are of Minhas Rajput ancestry.

Langrial

The next tribe I will look at are the Langrial, a tribe of both Jat and Rajput status. What can be said with some certainty that origin of the Langrial can be said to create confusion. More then any of the tribes looked at the Langrial have several and often conflicting theories about their origin. Unlike the Bar tribes like the Naul and Nonari, the Langrial are fairly widespread, stretching from Vehari is south Punjab to Attock. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Langrial have a number of different traditions as to their origin, depending on the region it inhabits.

Let’s start off with the Multan Langrial, who claim descent from a Brahmin of Bikaner, by name of Charan, who was converted by to Islam by a Sultan Soomra, and adopted the name Abdullah. His descendent Ghias-ud-Din settled in the Pothohar region, from where, one of the Langrials, named Shah Jam Meer son of Sultan Ghias-ud-Din became king of Kashmir, and his descendents still reside there. However, there is no record in history of Langrial rule over Kashmir, there are however settlement of Langrial in Bhimber district situated on the foothills of the Pir Panjal Mountains, so it perfectly possible the tribe began in this region. Groups of Langrial are then said to have moved to Jhang and took some country from the Sial, who eventually expelled the Langrial, forcing them to settle in Multan.

According to another tradition, also prevalent in Multan, they are Quraishi Arab, who held sway over Thatta in Sindh under one Ghiasudin, who from the lavishness of his public kitchen (langar in Sindhi and Seraiki) acquired the nickname Langrial. Ghiasudin was said to be a contemporary of Mohammed of Ghor, the 12th Century Muslim conqueror of North India. Ghiasudin accompanied the Sultan to Delhi with him. The Langrial are then said to have travelled to Kashmir, then to Shahpur in Punjab, and eventually Goryala, near Jhang . From there they went to Kamalia, but were forced to migrate to Kamannd, and ousted the Hans tribe ( I hope to look at this tribe in a latter post) who held this country. Interestingly, before traditions refer to a Ghiasudin, and also reference to the originally settlement being Rawalpindi.

While in Sialkot, the Langrial claim descent through Rai Daram, a Dogra from the Chibhal country. Jasu, 15th in descent from the Rai Daram converted to Islam , and left the Chibhal region and settled in Sialkot in the time of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. His descendants than contracted marriages with neighbouring Jat tribes, and as such became Jats. A final tradition gives the Langrial Mughal ancestry, who acquired the name Langrial from their ancestor the Barlas warlord Tamerlane, who is known in Farsi as Taimur-e- Lang. When a descendant of Tamerlane, Babar conquered India, a good many Barlas (see my note of the Phaphras) settled in India. After the collapse of Mughal authority in Punjab, and the rise of the Sikhs in the 18th, some Barlas families tried to conceal their identity by calling themselves themselves as Lang-Ayal (meaning “the family of Ameer Taimur Lang”) , the word Lang-Ayal later evolved into Langrial with the passage of time. However, this last traditions seems to be least convincing, as we find little evidence of the prosecution of the Mughals in the 18th Century. A final tradition, restricted to the Langrial of Attock District makes them a clan of the Jodhra tribe.

To conclude, as I have already mentioned in earlier posts, the word aal is common patronymic in the Pothohar region, therefore it is like that Langrial are of Chibhali origin, having left their home in Rawalpindi sometime in the 15th Century, eventually settling along the Sutlej in what is now Vehari, Khanewal and Multan districts. Interestingly, there are still a good many Langrial villages in North-West Punjab. For example, in Rawalpindi District, the Langrial consider themselves Rajputs. They occupy several villages near the town in Kallar Syedan Tehsil) including Daryal, Phalina, Choa Saidan, Mohra Bani Wala and Mohra Hiran, and near the town of Mandrah (Gujarkhan Tehsil), such as Makh, Bagh Faqiran, and Darkali Kalan. In Attock District, the village of Langrial, and hamlets nearby are held by the Langrial. Further east in Gujrat and Sialkot districts, the Langrial are a Jat clan, and many are found in village Langrial, and other villages nearby such as Kakrali. That village was site of an important zail during the period of British rule. In total there are 13 Langrial villages in Gujrat District. While in Khushab District they are found in Kaluwala.

 

In neighbouring Bhimber district of Azad Kashmir, they are found mainly in the village of Pindi Jhunjah and consider themselves to be Jat.

In south Punjab, they are found in Vehari, Khanewal, Multan and Muzaffargarh districts. In Muzaffargarh, they are find in two villages Mauza Langrial and Mauza Langarwah and its vicinity there are also Langrials. In Mianwali District, they are found in Pacca Sandanwala.

Langrial Population According to the 1901 Census of India

District Population
Gujrat 4,063
Multan 3,174
Sialkot 595
Other Districts 761
Total Population 8,593

Lodhra

The next two tribes I will look at both have traditions of Minhas Rajput descent. Starting with the Lodhra, the tribe claims descent from Lodhra, a son of Sukhram Dev, a Manhas, Rajpoot whose home was the Jammu region. Lodhra is said to have come to what is now Lodhran District in the 17th Century, and founded the town of Lodhran. The tribe converted to Islam in the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. They were effective rulers of what is now Lodhran District until the rise of the Sikhs in the early 19th Century. They are a very localized tribe, almost all of whom are found in Lodhra District in villages such as Jageer Hoora.

Manais

The Manais, sometimes written as Manes, are a tribe of Jat status, found mainly now in Vehari District. Most Manais are Muslims, although a few are Sikhs. Like most Punjabi tribes, there are several traditions as to the origin of the tribe. According to one such tradition, their ancestor Manais was a descendant of Raja Salavahan of Sialkot, who appears in the ancestry of several Punjabi tribes. Salvahan was said to be a Bhatti, which make the Manais a branch of the Bhatti. However, other traditions make Manais out to be a Minhas Rajput, who left Sialkot, and arrived in the Neeli Bar. Here Manais was converted to Islam by Baba Farid of Pakpattan. Interestingly, unlike other Neeli Bar tribes, sections of Manais remained Hindu, and eventually becoming Sikh. The Minhas tradition is much stronger, and the Lodhra already referred to in this post, also have traditions that connect them with the Manais. The Manais tribe is further divided into four branches or pattis of Manes: Maujo, Malko, Kalso and Kirto, who take their name from sons of Manais

 

Manais territory extends from the Deg River in the vicinity of the city of Sheikhupura, to along the banks of the Sultlej in Vehari District. Their most important settlement is Tibba Sultanpur in Vehari District. Other villages include Dehmunwala, Chaind, Bucheki,Baddhe, Alpae, and Jodhke.

Akera, Gilotar, Lali and Mahni tribes

In this post, I shall be looking a bit south of the Pothohar plateau, and looking at some of the tribes that inhabit the valley of the Jhelum and Chenab rivers. Most claim to be of Jat status, however among the Chadhars and the Kalyars, there are sections which claim to be Rajput. While my first post dealt with tribes that inhabit the desert region of the Thal, this will focus on the tribes that lived in the river valleys and uplands, called the Bar in the various dialects of Punjabi. Most of the Bar now is agricultural land, being cleared in the nineteenth century for the canal irrigation, was a thick barren forest areas which covered parts of central Punjab. The soil of the Bar however was fertile, the plains have been made by the alluvium driven by rivers flowing from the Himalayas. The Bar is further divided into four regions: the Sandal Bar (the area between the Ravi and Chenab rivers), Kirana Bar (the area between the Chenab and Jhelum rivers), Neeli Bar (the area between the Ravi and Sutlej rivers) and Ganji Bar (the area between the Sutlej and dry river bed of the Hakra).

The tribes that I will look at reside mainly in the Kirana Bar region, although with canal colonization, much of their traditional territory is now home to a variety of settlers. Most of the Bar now forms part Chiniot, Jhang and Sargodha districts, Below is a list of tribes that were classified as Jat by 1911 Census of India in the Shahpur (now Sargodha) district:

 

Tribe Population
Gondal 28,623
Ranjha 7,536
Mekan 5,435
Khichi 5,288
Bhatti 4,211
Chadhar 4,001
Waraich 3,483
Lak 3,156
Johiya 2,844
Cheema 2,708
Sujal 2,594
Harral 2,110
Rehan 1,880
Sipra 1,763
Tarar 1,716
Bajwa 1,685
Dhudhi 1,405
Tulla 1,311
Chhina 1,299
Jhawari 1,092
Tatri 1,122
Ghumman 1,065
Khokhar 1,055
Khat 1,055
Talokar 966
Burana 935
Ves 913
Kalera 855
Sohal 810
Parhar 807
Baghoor 807
Dhako 799
Hanjra 790
Bhutta 753
Hattar 739
Jora 718
Kalyar 715
Sagoo 715
Bains 712
Noon 708
Dhal 691
Lali 684
Goraya 652
Langah 638
Kharal 633
Virk 626
Panjutha 596
Sandrana 577
Heer 553
Jarola 550
Marath 548
Nissowana 505
Sandhu 504

 

From the list we can see that the two larger tribes were the Gondal and Ranjha, but in Sargodha, we also begin to see the presence of the some of the better known Jat tribes of central Punjab, such as the Bajwa, Cheema and Sandhu. Many of these latter tribes were actually settlers brought in from Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sialkot districts. Incidentally, the Gondal and Ranjha are also found north of Salt Range in Jhelum district, and I hope to dedicate the later post on these tribes. Reference can also be made on my earlier post on the Hattar, Baghoor and Talokar tribes, with the former found mainly in the north of the Kirana Bar, and latter two in the Thal Desert portion of the old Shahpur District (made of the modern Khushab and Sargodha Districts). One more thing I wish to add, while in Pothohar the addition of the word aal signifies descent, in the Bar, the suffix added is aana. For example the Tiwana, looked in a different fpost, are the children of Teu, while the Nissowana are the children of Nisso and so on. This is especially seen among the clans of the Gondals, such as the Sandrana, sons of Sandra, Salmanas, sons of Salman and so forth.

In Jhang District (which included Chiniot), the following were the main Jat clans according to the 1911 Census of India:

 

Tribe Population
Khokhar 8,666
Harral 4,988
Chadhar 3,414
Sipra 3,092
Naul 2,136
Kharal 1,792
Johiya 1,721
Lali 1,640
Gilotar 1,497
Mahun 1,471
Lak 1,310
Gujjar 1,265
Rajoke 1,262
Hanjra 1,176
Noon 1,089
Kudhan 1,045
Thabal 1,019
Lana 1,011
Sahmal 994
Nonari 983
Maru 956
Hidan 914
Gondal 900
Marral 826
Awrah 814
Sattar 801
Kanwan 678
Kaloke 638
Ganda 637
Dhudhi 600
Mahra 597
Sial 595
Heer 584
Khichi 581
Gill 588
Juta 544
Kalasan 533

Some of these tribes listed separately are actually clans of the Chadhar, such as the Thabal, Kaloke and Rajoke, while the Sial were listed as both Jat and Rajput, while the bulk of the Chadhar clans were recorded under a single entry under Rajput. In this post, I shall look at the Mahni, a branch of the Sials, who at one time were rulers of an important principality, as well as more localized tribes like the Akera, Gilotar and Lali. All four were pastoralists, raising cattle on the banks of the Jhelum or Chenab rivers.

Akera

The Akera are a very localized clan of Jat status, found along both banks of Jhelum River, just above the town of Kot Khan. According to their traditions, their ancestor Khizar was granted a jagir by the 18th Century Sial ruler, Walidad Khan. Little is known of the their tribal origin, but they are one of number tribes found along the banks of Jhelum river, who claim to have always been their. Their are however traditions of migration from Sindh, and the Akera could be one of the earliest of these migrants. They therefore need to be distinguished from tribes such as the Chadhar, who claim to be Rajput, with strong traditions of migration from Rajasthan or Delhi.

 

 Gilotar

Moving on to the Gilotar are entirely confined to Jhang District, and their villages are situated on the banks of the Chenab river, north of the Chadhars. With regards to their origins, they are considered as Jat, and this is accepted by their neighbours. Their own tradition makes references to their migration from Hansi, in what is now Haryana, to Uch Sharif, where they are said to have converted to Islam at the hands of the Sufi saint Jahaniyan Jahangasht (1307–1383). These Gilotars were said to have belonged to the Ahir caste, but after their settlement in Jhang, they contracted marriages with neighbouring Jat tribes, and as such became Jat.

Their villages are all in Shorkot Tehsil, and the neighbouring Chiniot District. In Chiniot, they are found in Gandhlanwali, Burj Mal,Burj Umer , Chhani Chuhr and Gilotaranwala and in Shorkot their main village is Jhangar Gloteran.

 Lali

The Lali, or sometimes written as Lalee, are a Jat clan, found mainly in Chiniot and Jhang districts. They are one of a number of Jat clans that have lived in the Kirana Bar for centuries, and were historically a pastoral tribe. The Lali have several sub-divisions, the most important being the Miana, Kahana, Wanoka, Lohry, Kawain and Bodhar. The tribe has produced a famous Sufi saint, Mian Muhammad Siddique Lali, who has given them a status of sanctity among the other Bar tribes. Their traditional seat of power was at the village of Kanweinwala, but this was reduced to a petty chieftainship with the arrival of the British. A secondary chieftainship also existed at the village of Jakoky, but was extinguished by the Sikhs. The Lali also founded the town of Lalian, literally the place of the Lali, where a good number are still found.

Outside Chiniot and Jhang districts, and they also have a few settlements such as Aasianwala, Chak No 60 S.B and Chak No 61 S.B in Sargodha District. Within Jhang/Chiniot, important villages include Lalian, Ismailkot, Jallaywala. Kanainwala, Jabana, Jagokay, Wallah, Mumtazabad, Miana Thein, Kahana Mauza Bahuddin, Thata Mian Laala, Wanoka, Dawar, Kot Bahadur, Thatta Mian Lala, Kahana Lali, Judhi Sultan and Mohsinabad.

Mahni

The last tribe I will look at this in this post are the Mahni, who at one time were rulers of an independent principality based around the town of Kheiwa. According to tribal traditions, their ancestor Mahni was the son of Sial. The Sial’s themselves claim descent from the ancient Parmar dynasty of Central India. The Mahnis generally claim a Rajput status, which distinguishes them from the other tribes in this post.

 

The town of Kheiwa was founded by an ancestor called Kheiwa, who gave it his name to the town, a descendant from Sial in the12th generation. Local tradition states the Chenab was then flowing east of the town, therefore the foundation must have occurred some five centuries ago. The Chenab once flowed under the high bank of the Bar, about 16 miles south-east of Kheiwa, and the change of flow is one of the reasons for the decline of the Mahni. At the time of the foundation of the town, the country to the north was held by Marals and Chadhars. As Mahnis increased  in strength ,they began to drive them back further north. Khanuwana was founded in their lands to the north of Kheiwa. The first ruler of the principality really deserving the name was Sahib Khan. Under his rule, the Mahni state extended from Bhowana to Chautala. The independence of the Mahnis was extinguished by famous Sial chief Walidad.From that time the clan appears to have rapidly declined n influence and numbers. There are now no Mahnis in Khiewa. The lands of the village were granted by Dewan Sawan Mal, Ranjit Singh’s viceroy of South Punjab to Bakar ,a chieftain of the Bharwana Sials, whose family now holds it. Popular tradition attributes the decay of the Mahni clan to the curse of a fakir who lived at Chautala. The Mahni are now found entirely in Jhang, and speak the Jhagochi dialect.