List and Population of Muslim Rajput clans of the Lahore Division

The Muslim Rajputs of the old Lahore division in effect belonged to three distinct cultural groupings. Those in the central part of the division, covering roughly most of Gujranwala, Lahore, Amritsar and the Batala Tehsil of Gurdaspur tended to belong to four large tribal groupings, the Bhatti, Chauhan, Khokhar and Naru clans, all of whom had traditions of migration from Rajasthan. Sialkot District and the other three tehsils of Gurdaspur were home to groups of Dogras who had converted to Islam such as the Agan, Bhao, Katil, Minhas and Sulehria, with origins in the Jammu or Kangra regions. Culturally, these groups have much in common with the Chibhalis who have been discussed in my earlier posts. Finally, in the region starting from Sharaqpur tehsil, and including all of the historic Montgomery District was home to the Bar nomads, groups such as the Bhagsanke branch of the Bhattis, as well as the Joiyas, Kathia, Kharals, Sials and Wattu, all of whom were known as the Maharavi aqwam, or the Great Ravi tribes. My posts under the category Tribes of the Bar, look into greater detail on the origin myths of these tribes.

Lahore District

The total Rajput population in the district according to 1931 Census of India was 100,903, of which Muslims numbered 82,054 or 82% of the population. According to 1911 Census of India the main clans in Lahore District were as follows

Tribe

 Lahore Tehsil  Chunian Tehsil  Kasur Tehsil

Total

Awan

433

101

377

911

Bhatti

7,640

7,284

5,062

19,986

Chauhan

1,207

185

180

1,578

Dhudhi

93

199

2

294

Joiya

274

280

289

843

Khokhar

5,398

2,215

786

8,339

Naru

384

213

 

610

Panwar

749

213

740

1,702

Rathore

14

14

 

28

Sulehria

948

46

 

989

 

Amritsar District

The total Rajput population in the district according to 1931 Census of India was 33,904, of which Muslims numbered 27,253 or 80% of the population. According to 1911 Census of India the main clans in Amritsar District were as follows

Tribe

 Amritsar Tehsil  Tarn Taran Tehsil  Ajnala Tehsil

Total

Bhatti

7,755

2,457

6,205

16,417

Chauhan

1,139

23

145

1,307

Manj

450

479

558

1,478

Naru

103

228

958

1,289

 

 

Gujranwala District

The total Rajput population according to 1931 Census of India was 15,607, of which Muslims numbered 10,473 or 67% of the total population. According to 1911 Census of India the main clans in Gujranwala District were as follows:

Tribe

 Gujranwala Tehsil  Wazirabad Tehsil  Hafizabad Tehsil  Khanqah Dogran Tehsil  Sharaqpur Tehsail

Total

Bhatti

268

171

2,099

2,758

4,064

9,388

Chauhan

131

52

10

97

313

605

Gondal

24

       

24

Joiya

 

9

   

2

11

Khokhar

193

96

38

188

1,124

1,637

Wattu

     

1,115

7

1,122

 

 

Gurdaspur District

The total Rajput population in the district according to 1931 Census of India was 91,459, of which Muslims numbered 56,668 or 62% of the total Rpopulation. According to 1911 Census of India the main clans in Gurdaspur District were as follows:

Tribe

 Gurdaspur Tehsil  Batala Tehsil  Shakargarh Tehsil  Pathankot Tehsil

Total

Agan

561

8

   

569

Awan

427

369

236

99

1,131

Bhatti

1,638

4,016

942

3,673

10,269

Bhao

706

     

706

Chauhan

515

525

173

339

1,552

Katil

11

2

2,078

13

2,104

Khokhar

1,189

2,040

381

269

3,879

Manj

313

670

27

201

1,221

Minhas

1,537

90

679

751

3,057

Naru

1,389

250

51

325

2,015

Pathania

 

 

2

 

69

71

Sulehria

311

87

5,465

1,907

7,770

 

Sialkot District

The total Rajput population in the district according to 1931 Census of India was 67,674, of which Muslims numbered 55,098 or 81% of the total population. According to 1911 Census of India the main Muslim clans in Sialkot District were as follows:

Tribe

 Sialkot Tehsil  Pasrur Tehsil  Zaffarwal Tehsil  Raya Tehsil  Daska Tehsil

Total

Bhatti

271

1,880

2,113

1,880

271

7,605

Chauhan

25

115

243

114

373

873

Janjua

656

3

25

121

43

854

Minhas

472

24

335

15

43

869

Sulehria

35

244

14,223

95

103

15,627

 

Montgomery District

The total Rajput population in the district according to 1931 Census of India was 120,212, of which Muslims numbered 112,388 or 93% of the total population. According to 1911 Census of India the main Muslim Rajput clans in Montgomery District were as follows:

Tribe

 Sahiwal Tehsil  Gugera Tehsil  Dipalpur Tehsil  Pakpattan Tehsil

Total

Baghela

919

4

   

923

Bhatti

1,026

1,498

3,014

1,892

7,380

Chauhan

108

92

280

147

627

Dhanwal

559

     

559

Dhudhi

26

4

107

641

778

Dogar

1

27

58

1,214

1,300

Doli

491

 

148

 

639

Jandran

8

   

543

551

Joiya

260

266

861

3,732

5,119

Kathia

2,875

 

12

71

2,900

Khichi

77

1,002

61

175

1,315

Khokhar

432

191

267

401

1,291

Phullarwan

27

 

880

28

935

Rath

75

   

630

706

Sial

3,055

107

49

75

3,286

Wattu

617

1,653

9,916

3,481

15,647

 

 

 

 

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Arar, Hans, Kathia, Mahaar, and Wahiniwal tribes

In this post, I shall look at four tribes, namely the Arar, Hans, Kathia, Rath and Mahaar, that are found largely in the Neeli Bar region, roughly the lands between the Ravi and Sultej rivers, which now form part of the modern districts of Sahiwal, Khanewal, Okara, Pakpattan and Vehari. Bellow is quote from the Montgomery District (roughly Sahiwal, Vehari and most of Okara) gazetteer that gives quite a good description of the pastoral tribes at the end of the 19th Century.

“The population is distinctly divided into marked sections – the purely agriculture inhabitants and the pastoral tribes. The former consist of the castes, both Musalmaan and Hindu, which are generally met throughout Eastern Punjab, viz Arain, Kamboh, Hindu Jat, e.t.c. But the latter are almost entirely confined to the region which extends from the southern extremity of Multan District to within thirty miles of Lahore. They are all Musalmaans, and their favourite occupation is breeding and grazing cattle. They are locally known by the name of Jat, in contradistinction to more settled inhabitants, who call themselves ryots or subjects. The most important tribes are the Kharals, Fattianas, Murdanas, Kathias, Wahiniwals, Baghelas, Wattus ad Johiyas. The two latter are chiefly confined to the Sutlej, but the others only possess land on the Ravi, and graze their herds in the Doabs adjoining that river”.

Just a note about the tribes referred to in the above quote, the Fattianas are branch of the Sial tribe, while the Murdana are a clan of the Baloch. In my other posts I have looked at the Baghela, Dhudhi, Khichi, Langrial, Naul, Nonari, Rath and Sahu, where I have dwelled deeper into the culture and traditions of several Bar tribes, many with homelands are in the Neeli Bar. But none were as localized, as the tribes I intend to look at in this post. The Hans also have much in common with the Bodla, Khagga and Nekokara tribes, that like Hans have traditions of Arab origin, but have never been pirs or Islamic holymen, and I would ask you to look at the post on those tribes.

Arar

I shall start off with the Arar, who are a tribe of Jat status. According to their traditions, they claim descent from a Arar, Mughal nobleman. Their ancestor came from Delhi into the Punjab in the 15th century. By contracting marriages withJats, they to have now become Jats. There initially settled in Dipalpur, and from there spread to a wide area of Punjab. As pastoralists, they roamed widely in the Neeli Bar until the arrival of the British in the 19th Century, when they were forcefully settled.

They are now found as far west as Mianwali District, and as far north as Sargodha District. However, the greatest concentration remain Okara, Sahiwal and Bahawalnagar districts. Most of there villages are along the upper course of the Khanwah canal in Okara District.

Hans

The Hans claim to be of Quraishi origin, and were one of the many tribes that occupied the upland of the Neeli Bar before the start of colonization of the Punjab by the British Imperial authorities in the 19th century.

They say they emigrated from Arabia to Afghanistan, thence to Punjab, where they settled in Pukka Sidhar in what is now Pakpattan District. In the time of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, the Hans tribe under their chief Shaikh Qutab, attained independent rule over a portion of that district, and retained their independence till the time of the Sikhs, when about the middle of the 18th Century the streams that fertilised their country dried up.

Distribution and Villages

They are now found as propritors a few villages in Okara District. There are also isolated settlements of the Hans in Muzaffargarh and Layyah districts.

In Dipalpur Tehsil of Okara District, the villages of Hans Uttar Wali and Hans Hitharwali are important settlements of the tribe.

In Pakpattan District, Pakka Sidhar, Malka Hans, Bakka Hans, Hamma Rath and Chak 35 SP are important centres of the tribe.

In Layyah District, the villages of Chak No. 280/TDA, Chak No. 387/TDA, Chak No. 356/TDA, Chak No 151 TDA LAYYAH, and Ghulam Haider Kalluwala

In Multan District, the village of Azam Hans near the town of Qadirpur Ran, is an important settlement of the tribe.

In Lodhran District, the village of Mallan Hans.

In Kot Addu Tehsil of Muzaffargarh District, the village of Hans is an important centre of the tribe.

Kathia

The Kathia, like the other two tribes already referred to in this post were pastoral tribal grouping.

The Kathias claim to be Panwar Rajputs descended from a Rajput prince named Kathia who lived about the time of their conversion to Islam, in the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. An attempt has been made to identify the tribe with the Kathoei, who in their stronghold at Sangla Hill, who are said to have resisted the victorious army of Alexandar the Great, but there is nothing definite to show a connection between the Kathoei and the present Kathia.

According to their traditions, the Kathia are descended from the legendary Rajah Karan of the Mahabharat. Originally they resided in Bikaner, whence they migrated and founded the state of Kathiawar, which takes its name from the Kathia tribe, and is in modern day Gujarat State of India. The region of Kathiawar is named after the Kathi tribe, who claim to be Suryavanshi and not Panwar Rajputs. Although it is possible, that groups of Kathi tribesmen migrated to Punjab in the middle ages, as the Kathi were also a pastoral tribe.

Coming back to the Kathia, there legends to talk about Sirsa as their first place of settlement in Punjab. From Sirsa, a further migration took them to Bahawalpur. In this migration, they were accompanied by a few families of the Baghela tribe. Next they crossed over to Kabula stream and went on to Daira Dinpanah. From this place they spread over to Kamalia.

During the reign of the Emperor Akbar, the Kathia were required to give their daughters in marriage to Emperor Akbar. The Kathia refused, and a Mughal army was sent against them. The Kathia were defeated, and the Raja was made a prisoner. He was then conducted with great honour to the Court of Delhi, where the Emperor Akbar treated him with great kindness. This behaviour led to the Rajah deciding to embrace Islam. In 1857, the Kathia together with the Wahiniwal, played a key role in the insurgency against the British. Murad Ka Kathiya, who along with Mokha Waniwal, was involved in the killing of the British Assistant Collector and army Captain Lord Berkeley near Koray Shah at eastern bank of River Ravi, during 1857 War of Independence.

The Kathias are found in the Ravi river valley of the Multan and Sahiwal districts, also in the south of the Jhang District, They are also settled in the district of Toba Tek Singh.

Mahaar

The Mahaar are a Rajput tribe Mahaar, who are entirely distinct from the Mahar, another tribe of Jat origin found in Sindh and Punjab.

The tribe claims descent from Mahaar, a brother of Johiya (the ancestor of the Johiya tribe). Mahaar is said to be the elder brother of Johiya, being a son of Iyas, a Shaikh Siddiqui holyman, who is said to have married Rani Nal, daughter of the Bhatti Rajput Raja Chuharhar. Mahaar’s grandson, Wag became Raja of a place called Garh Mathila. Wag’s grandson, Sanwra is said to have migrated to Sirsa, in what is now Haryana. The Sirsa branch of the Mahaar are known as the Sanwrepotre (the sons of Sanwra in Hindi). Another branch settled in Shahr Fareed in Bahawalpur District At the partition of India, the Sanwrepotre, like other Muslim Jatts of the region, migrated to Pakistan.

The Mahaar are found mostly along the valley of the Sutlej river, in the districts of Bahawalnagar, Okara, Vehari, Lodhran, Sahiwal and Chakwal.

Villages:

Bahawalnagar District:

Fatooi Maharan

Tabkare

Tajoo ke Mahar,

Nehal Mahar,

Panan Mahar,

Chak Daim Mahar,

Duleke Mahar,

Baqarke Mahar,

Qasimke Mahar,

Saboo ke Mahar

Isan Mahaar.

Mahaar

Dhora Mahaar.

Kacha Sher Mahaar

Dajal.

Chak 30/4L Maharanwala

The Mahaar of Chakwal

Outside south Punjab, there are several Mahaar villages in Chakwal District, who are said to immigrated from Okara. Interestingly, these villages also contain several settlements of Chadhars and Harrals, who also originate in south Punjab, therefore it seems that was a general migration of to Chakwal from south Punjab. These villages are located near the banks of the Bhagne Kas canal and include Mangwal, Kot Iqbal, Sikriala and Rawal.

Wahiniwal

The last tribe I will look at in this post are Wahiniwal. According to their traditions, they are of Bhatti Rajput descent. One of their ancestors was born in a depression in the ground, the word for depression in the local Seraiki language is Wihan. The tribe therefore claims descent from the Bhatti Rajputs. They may be connected with the Bahniwal Jats of Hissar in Haryana. The tribe is found in a number of villages around the town of Kamalia. They are also found through out the valley of the Ravi and Sutlej rivers, from Okara in the north to Multan in the south.

Aura, Hayal, Miyal, Ratial and Tama tribes

This is my fifth post on the lesser known tribes of the Pothohar region. Of the five tribes discussed, two claim to be Rajput, although the Ratial have sections that claim to be Jats (especially in Dina), while the Tama have no traditions of Rajputs ancestry, while the Hayal of Rawalpindi consider themselves to be Chaghtai Mughals, while those in Mirpur are Jats. Finally the Aura are unique in that they make no claim to Rajput ancestry. My post on the Rajput and Jat clans of the Rawalpindi Division enumerated for the 1911 Census of India, gives an idea as to the distribution of these tribes.

Aura

The Aura are a Jat tribe, found mainly in Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi District.Very little is known about them, although they have consistently registered themselves as Jats in all the Census carried out by the British in the early 20th Centuiry. Important Aura villages include Balakhar in Rawalpindi District and Abdullahpur in Jhelum District.

Outside the core area, a colony of Aura is found inChak 21 S.B, which is large settlement of the Aura in Sargodha District. These Aura are immigrants from Gujar Khan Tehsil who were settled in the Sargodha region in the 19th century.

Hayal

The Hayal are little known tribe, found entirely in Kallar Syedan Tehsil, who claim Chaughtai Mughal ancestry. They are found in the villages of Burra Haya, Hayal Pindoral and Mohra Hayal. In Mirpur District, Hayyal, who classify themselves as Jats, are found in the villages of Kangra and Chappar.

Miyal

Miyal, or sometimes written as Mial, are tribe found mainly in Rawalpindi and Chakwal districts. They are descendants of Mian, which in there case may not refer to a single common ancestor, but is a term which is often used to describe any holyman or Sufi saint. These is also shown by the fact that different Mial groups have different origin myths. Some Mial groups say that they are Qureshi Arabs, while others claim to be Mughals.There main villages include Malluwala in Pindigheb Teshsil and Mial in the Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock District, the village of Mial in Rawalpindi District, and the villages of Budhial, Mureed, Mial and Warwal in Chakwal District. In addition, Mial settlements are also found in the Gujar Khan Tehsil, such as Sapiali Khinger.

Ratial

The Ratial are Rajput tribe, found mainly in Rawalpindi District. There customs are similar to neighbouring tribes such as the Bangial and Kanyal. Like other tribes in the region, they have several traditions as to their origin.  According to one such tradition, the tribe are descended from Khattar Khan, the ancestor of the Khattar tribe. Khattar Khan had six sons, Jand Khan,Isa Khan, Sarwar Khan, Firoz Khan, Sehra Khan and Pehru Khan. About three generations after his death, the tribe lost Nilab but they took possession of the open country between Rawalpindi and the Indus which became known by the name of Khattar. The descendents of Jand Khan took possession of the district called after them Jandal between Khushhalghar and Nara. From Feroz Khan the Drek family has descended. His great- grandson was Ratnah from whom have descended the clan known as Ratial. The Khattar tribe, like the Awans claim descent from Qutub Shah, which would make the Ratial Alvi Arabs. However, another tradition makes Ratnah out to be a Manhas Rajput, who left Kangra in the 15th Century and settled in Potohar region, and converted to Islam. His descendents are known the Ratial.

The Ratial were for sometime overlords of a large part of the present Rawalpindi District known as Ratala, centred around the village of Ratala in Gujar Khan Tehsil. They were displaced from Ratala by a Janjua chief named Raja Abdullah Khan in the 18th Century, who had himself been displaced by the upheaval of the Sikh conquest of Garjaak and Darapur, and as a result took his remaining army and conquered the region of Ratyal from a Ratial chief who was loyal to the Sikh empire. He defeated the Ratial Chief and renamed the region Ratala. With this, the Ratial ceased to play any important political role in the region. However, the Ratial are still make up the bulk of the population of the Ratala refgion.

Their principle villages are Ratial (near Dina) and Darapur in Jhelum District, and Ratial, Bher Ratial, Jairo Ratial and Puraney Ratial, in the Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi District. There are also number of Ratial villages in Attock District.

Tama

Finally, we look at the Tama, sometimes written as Tamma, a tribe found mainly in Chakwal and in Dina region of Jhelum. Like almost all the Jat clans of the Jhelum-Chakwal region, the Tama claim a Middle Eastern origin. Their ancestor was a Dulma Khan, nicknamed Tama, who migrated from Iran during the 16th Century, fleeing the forced conversion of Iranian Sunnis to the Shiite faith by Shah Ibrahim Safavi, who had just established a Shite Safavid state in Iran. Dulma Khan settled initially at Pandori near Dina, where he founded Dhok Tama, and where his descendent contracted marriage with Jat tribes, thereby becoming Jat. The largest Tamma Jat settlement is Tamma Ajaib, near the town of Dina.

Jat clans of Balochistan

Tribe Section Population
Abra 27,467
Ataria 500
Bugia 82
Bamban 1.435
Beri 150
Bohar 790
Burra 1,014
Chamba 37
Channa 37
Chandhar 64
channa
Chishti 135
Chukhra 1,346
Dandja 40
Dandor 603
Dhandu 82
Dhapar 99
Dhareja 71
Dharpali 63
Dher 60
Drigh 479
Fatwani 8
Goga 19
Gola 478
Gondal 47
Gopang 246
Hadkri 40
Haldrani 70
Hala 172
Hara 389
Hatipotra 199
Hindani 31
Hoti 7
Jandhel 30
Joya 336
Kakal 17
Kakepotra 192
Kakra 8
Kalas 126
Kalhora 301
Kalwar 514
Khakrani 207
Khand 19
Kharal 56
Lakhan 212
Langah 186
Machhi 5,103
Mahar 290
Maiha 460
Mandhar 20
Mara 33
Mastoi 789
Mongrani 58
Naich 32
Nandwani 143
Nawra 56
Pahor 103
Paniar 57
Panwar 322
Parhar 223
Pirani 36
Rid 332
Rohtani 6
Ronga 127
Sabrani 80
Sahu 124
Sherani 400
Takri 38
Wadh 100
Waince 12
Abra unspecified 5,910
Arain 583
Awan 232
Bagra 60
Bagrani 33
Bhand 323
Bhangar 1,279
Bhareja 275
Bhatti 1,648
Chablah 30
Chachar 805
Achrani 37
Arbabani 25
Burani 42
Hukmani 48
Joya 7
Khanani 58
Khedani 18
Mangrani 59
Muhammadani 13
Ruhozai 61
Safrani 85
Saidani 52
Shelani 82
Soomra 16
Chachar Unspecified 202
Chahwan 42
Chanawar 115
Chanjni 21
Channani 147
Chohar 93
Dangar 106
Darkhan 193
Daroga 8
Dasti 237
Detha 483
Dharpal 319
Dhotar(Dhothar) 35
Eri 600
Drigh 130
Ghillpuri 60
Jumazai 19
Shadmanzai 34
Eri unspecified 357
Gabol 5
Gania 41
Ghallu 50
Gujjar 284
Hakrah 10
Jamboja 10
Jamote 252
Jatani 217
Jhammat 219
Jhindi 55
Jorenja 72
Kamiani 44
Kangia 317
Katiha 99
Katpar 1,323
Khamisani 38
Koka 99
Manjhani 48
Othani 166
Pararani 23
Sukhrani 244
Katpar Unspecified 705
Kechi 70
Kehar 566
Dinari 106
Shadinzai 367
Shahwani 64
Khakal 61
Khalifa 50
Khalifa Ibrahim 54
Khaljani 15
Khar 14
Khohara 14
Khokhar 1,100
Kori 170
Koreja 60
Kulachi 37
Kurar 482
Ladhani 73
Larak 4
Larkha 83
Lehi 113
Mahesar 187
Manjhor 22
Manjhu 1,012
Masan 165
Memon 168
Miani 105
Mir Jat 3,753
Babar 28
Bhand 20
Bharani 97
Hajana 203
Kalar 39
Khadani 91
Kharani 45
Lanjwani 32
Meng 10
Majidani 252
Mujat 11
Nasirzai 5
Raojia 380
Mir Jats Unspecified 2,543
Mulavi 27
Nonari 58
Odhana 38
Ogai 11
Oteran 164
Pahi 45
Palal 250
Panwhar 91
Pear 19
Pechuha 939
Rahoja 151
Ran 55
Samit 422
Sangi 18
Sapar 291
Sarki 42
Sawand 131
Seru 40
Shahpost 353
Sial 1,201
Shaikh 1,198
Ansari 34
Jehani 15
Memon 17
Qureshi 232
Sandela 15
Sidiqui 2
Thaheem 78
Zargar 6
Shaikh Unspecified 829
Sianch 80
Sikhani 14
Sirai 131
Soomra 1,880
Tattar 23
Thundle 34
Tunia 1,105
Wagha 20
Waja 213
Wanjara 130
Wara 22
Jats Unspecified 1,554
Total

 

Dhandla, Ghallu, Jakhar, Lohanch, and Makwal tribes

In this post, I shall look at five tribes that are found largely in the uplands of the Chenab and Indus rivers, now forming part of Bhakkar, Layyaj and Muzaffargarh districts. This region goes by the name of the Sindh Sagar Doab (the land between the Indus and Chenab rivers), and is frontier region in terms of both politics and culture. The Jats were probably the earliest settlers, but many Jat tribes have vague traditions of migration from Jaisalmeer or Bikaner in Rajasthan. Like most Bar nomads, they were largely pastoralist till the 19th Century. Almost all consider themselves and are considered as Jats. Of the five tribes, the Dhandla, Lohanch and Makwal are fairly local, but Ghallu and Jakhar have spread to other parts of Punjab.

Dhandla

 

I shall of by looking at the Dhandla, a tribe of Jat status found in Bhakkar and Rajanpur districts. The tribe claims descent from Dhandla, a Bhatti Rajput, who is said to have come from Jaisalmeer to Multan, where he converted to Islam. Like most Bar tribes, they have traditions of accepting Islam at the hand of a Sufi saint, and in the case of the Dhandla, it was Bahaudin Zakaria of Multan.

In Rajanpur District, their main villages are Basti Dhandla, Raqba Dhandla and Tatarwala. In Bhakkar District, their main villages are Basti Jamal, Mitho Bindu, Bharmi Nawab, Bharmi Charagh and Gadola.

Ghallu

The Ghallu are another tribe of Jat status. The tribe claims descent from Ghallu, a Hindu Rajput, who was converted to Islam, by the famous Sufi saint Makhdum Jahanian of Uch. He is said to have had seven sons, from which the main clans of the tribe claim descent. Their main clans in Bahawalpur are the Hanbirpotre, Ghanunpotre, Dipal, Jhanbu, Kurpal, Kanji and Gujj. However, there is another tradition where that Ghallu was in fact a nickname of Hari Singh, a Panwar Rajput.

 

The Ghallu are found in the south west corner of Multan District, extending into Lodhran District, across the river Indus in Muzaffargarh District, and near the town of Ahmadpur East in Rahim Yar Khan District. In addition, a few Ghallu villages are also found in Layyah and Bhakkar districts.

 

Starting with Muzaffargarh, they are found in Alipur Ghalwan Pani Wala, Sanu Wala, Kaurey Wala Nirali Wala and Bambherwala. In Lodhran District, there villages include Malikpur, Qureshiwala, Suiwala, Pacca Munna, Saadullahpur, Yousufwala, Sabra, Bahadarpur, Thath Ghallwan, Khanwah Ghalwaan, and Tibi Ghalwaan. While in Bhakkar District, there most important village is Mouza Dhingana in Tehsil Mankera. Further south in Layyah District, they are found in Chah Ghilay Wala Mouza Gat Nashaib.

 

In Bahawalpur District, their villages include Ghallwan, Ismailpur Ghallwan and Baqarpur Ghallwan.

Jakhar

I come next to come to the Jakhar, sometimes pronounced as Jhakkars, who are found pretty much throughout South Punjab. In fact in terms of numbers, they are after the Bhatti, the second largest tribe of the Seraiki speaking region. In India, Jakhars are one larger Jat tribes, found in east Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.

 

There are a number traditions as to the origin of the Jakhar. William Crook, the late 19th Century British colonial writer in his book Castes of Northwest provinces and Avadh, narrates the story of a king of Dwaraka, who is said to have had a huge bow and arrow and he proposed that whoever broke it would be given a status above the king. The king of the Jakhar clan, Jakhbhadra, tried but failed. The failure made him leave his state and settle in Bikaner, in the area that was then known as Jangladesh.

Among Punjab Jakhars, there are traditions that connect them with Rana Rajwadhan, the ancestor of the Hattar, Kalyar, Kanju and Uttera tribes. Most Jakhar groups have various traditions that came from Rajasthan in the fifteenth century, crossing the Thar Desert, and settling in the valleys of the Sutlej and Chenab rivers, and eventually converting to Islam.

 

The Jakhars of Pakistan are found mainly in the south of Punjab, in the districts of Layyah, Sargodha, Muzaffargarh, Okara, the village of Jakhar in Toba Tek Singh District, Sahiwal and in Faisalabad district near small towns of Mamukanjan and Chak Jakharanwala.

Jakhars are also found in Jakhar village in Gujrat District, while in neighbouring Jhelum District they are found in Kalyal near Dina. In Layyah District, they are found in Hyder Shahwala, Basti Jakhar, Chak152 TDA, Jhakkar Kacha and Jhakkar Pakka, while Dera Ghazi Khan District, they are found in Jakhar Imamudin. Further up along the Indus River, in Bhakkar District they are found in the villages of Basti Jakhar, Basti Dirkhan near Dolatwala and Manjhotanwala.

 

 

Lohanch

I shall next look at the Lohanch, a tribe of Jat status. According to tribal traditions, the Lohanch were settled in their present abode by two descendents of the famous Sufi, Bahwal Haq. Makhdum Lal Isa is said to have brought with him two brothers, the elder of whom was called Lohanch, and settled them in what was wasteland, in the Sindh Saggar Doab. The descendants have remained confined in this small territory, which is now part of Layyah District.

The Lohanch are almost confined to Layyah District. Their main villages are Chak 152TDA LAYYAH,  Chak 145TDA LAYYAH, Chak 143TDA, Ghullam Hyder Kalluwala, Nangi Lohanch Pukka, Nangi Lohanch Kucha, Lohanch Nasseb and Lohanch Thal Kalan, all in Layyah District.

Makwal

The next tribe I am going to look at are the Makwal. Unlike other tribes in this post, Makwal have traditions of an Arab origin. The word Makwal, is a shortened form of Makkah wal, which in the Seraiki language means “from Makkah”. The tribe claims that its ancestors were Arabs from the holy city of Makkah in what is now Saudi Arabia. As far as I know, the Makwal are distinct from the Makkal, who are found further north in Mianwali. Coming back to the Makwal, according to their traditions they arrived in India during the reign of the Sultans of Delhi, and took to agriculture. The Makwal also started to intermarry with other Jat tribes, and as such became Jat.

The Makwal of Kot Addu Tehsil in Muzaffargarh District, who are guardians of the Sufi shrine of Dera Din Pannah, are family that has had some influence in the politics of southern Punjab. Most Makwal villages are found close to the shores of the Indus river. In Muzaffargarh District, their main villages are Bait Rayli, Basti Makwal, Basti Karamwala, Chowk Makwal, Makwal Hader, Makwal, Shah Jamal as well as Dera Din Pannah.

 

Across the Indus, several Makwal also exist in Dera Ghazi Khan District. The larger Makwal villages include Patti Makwal, Jhok Makwal, Makwal Kalan and Makwal Khurd. While in neighbouring Rajanpur they are found in Basti Basheer Nagar.

Shrine of Dera Din Panah

The Makwal are closely associated with the Sufi shrine of Dera Din Pannah, as they are the heredity caretakers. Din Panah was said to be a Bukhari Saiyad, who settled by the banks of the Indus some four hundred years ago. He is said to have taken up residence in the house of Suhagin, the wife of Akku, a Jat of the Makwal tribe. When Suhagiun’s daughter was married, Din Panah gave himself as part of the dowry. He died in A. H. 1012 (1603 AD), on the west bank of the Indus, and was buried there. However a dispute arose between the Makwals of Dera Ghazi Khan and those of Muzaffargarh as to where Din Panah be buried. The MakwaJs of the east Bank tried to steal his coffin, but were prevented. A feud broke out between the Makwals on each bank of the Indus. At last Din Panah revealed himself in a dream to the brothers of Akku, and told them to make a coffin for the east bank of the Indus, and that his corpse would be found in it also, as well as on the west bank. Since then there bas been a shrine on each bank of the Indus.

Bhakar, Ghugh, Hal, Khamb, Khatarmal, and Khandoya tribes

In this post I will specifically be looking at tribes that are found in the neighbourhood of the Jhelum river, just south of the city of Jhelum, and north of Sargodha. I include tribes that have a presence in Chakwal District, as the district’s eastern portion is a continuation of the Bar. My earlier posts of the Chadhar and Langrial look into some detail on the identity of the Bar tribes. In this post I shall look at the Bhakar, Ghugh, Hal, Khamb, Khatarmal,  and Khandoya. All the tribes I am going to look at designate themselves as Jats, except the Khandoya.

Bhakar

I shall start of by looking at the Bhakar, sometimes also spelt Bhukar, who are a clan of Jats found mainly in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. However, in Indian Punjab and Rajasthan, there are several settlements of Bhakar Jats. The P.D. Khan Bhakar have traditions of migration from India, and are likely to be same clan. According to their traditions, their ancestor, Bhakar was a Nagvanshi Rajput, who left India, and migrated to the Pind Dadan Khan plains, where he converted Islam, and married into the local Jat community. They are now considered as Jats, and intermarry with tribes of Jat status such as Khothi and Gondal. There main settlements are Baghanwala, Dharyala Jalip and Khotian Jalap, where they are found intermixed with Gondal Jalap and Lilla Jats, and Sherpur. In neighbouring Sargodha District, the town of Bakhar Bar near Shahpur was an centre of an independent chieftainship, until it was conquered by the Sikhs. While neighbouring Khushab District, they are found in the villages of Thathi Ghanjera and Jalalpur Syedan.

 

Ghugh

The Ghugh are a small Jat clan, with a number of origin myths. According to one such tradition, ancestor Ghugh, belonged to the Gondal tribe, who left the Gondal Bar (now Bhalwal and Malakwal tehsils), crossed the Jhelum and settled in the Pind Dadan plains. There earliest settlement was Bagga, on the banks of the Jhelum River. However, among the Ghugh of Ghugh village in Chakwal, there are tradition that Ghugh was not a Gondal, but Bhatti. The question then is who are the Ghugh. The answer is never simple, but Pind Dadan Khan region which has a larger Ghugh population, and the Gondals also have traditions that the Ghugh are Gondal, it is likely that they are a Gondal clan. I must also add the Ghugh of Sahiwal claim to be of Chadhar descent.

They are now found in Jutana and Lilla as well as Bugga villages in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. In neighbouring Chakwal District, the Ghugh villages include Dhok Dabri and Ghugh. Other Ghugh villages are also found in Sargodha, Chariot, Khanewal, and Mandi Bahauddian districts.

Hal

The Hal, a small Jat clan confined to two separate villages, that of Lilla Bhera, in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil and Mohal in Dina Tehsil. According to the traditions of the Lilla Bhera Hals, the Hal were once the dominant Jat clan in Jhelum river valley, effectively ruling what is now Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. In the 16th Century, the Lilla, a clan of Qureshi Arabs, invaded their lands, and exterminated the tribe, save a single pregnant woman. She then gave birth to a son, from whom all the present tribe claims descent. However, there is a completely different origin myth held by the Hal of Mohal, these Hal claim that they are a clan of the Awan tribe, descended from Qutub Shah, the general that is said to have accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni. The Hal were thus Awans, initially settling in Fatehjang, a town in what is now Attock District, and about four hundreds years ago they left Fatehjang, and settled initially at Burla village near Pandori, and finally in Mohal, a village entirely inhabited by the tribe. Although both sets of Hal acknowledge each other’s existence, the exact connection between the two remains unclear, with no cases of intermarriage. Interesting

Khandoya

The Khandoya, sometimes spelt Khandoa and occasionally pronounced Khandowa, are extremely localized tribe, their name comes from the Punjabi word khand, meaning something sweet. According to their traditions, they are a clan of Chauhan Rajputs, who after wondering in from what is now Haryana settled in area near Chakwal in an area that had sweet water, which they called Khandoya or sweet water place. Other then Khandoya village, Khandoya are also found in the villages of Bhalla, Dhok Virk, Mari, and Trimni. From Khandoya, the Khandoya spread to the Pind Dadan Khan plains, where the majority are still found. In Pind Dadan Khan tehsil of Jhelum, their villages include Addowal, Dharyala Jalap, Jhuggian Syedan, Karyala Jalap, Kot Umar, Nawanloke and Pinnanwal. Further south in Khushab District, there are several Khandoya families in Katimar village. The Khandoya perceive  themselves to be Rajputs, and do not intermarry with neighbouring Jat tribes such as the Gondal, Jethal and Lilla.

Khamb

The Khamb are extremely interesting tribe, having said to have migrated from from Kathiawar, in what is now the modern state of Gujerat in India. According to their traditions, the Khamb are a tribe of mixed Turkish and Mongol extraction, who were settled in their present abode, by a Hashmat Khan, a chief of the Thathal tribe, who are also natives of the Pothohar region. This Hashmat Khan was appointed as a garrison commander of Khambhat in Kathiawar, by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. When Hashmat returned to the Pothohar region, he was accompanied by members of the garrison at Khambat which included members of the Kamboh tribe, troopers of Mongol origin of the Barlas tribe and Afghans from Badakshan. He ordered that a village be built and named it Khanpur, and the Khamb tribe was granted lands in and around the new town. Therefore, the Khamb, are at least partly Turkic extraction and are now considered a clan of the Barlas Mughals. According to other traditions, the Khamb are a clan of the Ranjha tribe who are a sub-caste of the great Bhatti tribe and as such are Jats.

 

The Khamb are now found mainly in compact territory covering Sargodha, Jhelum and Gujrat districts, roughly following the course of the Jhelum River from Bhalwal to Jhelum city. There are also a few isolated villages in Khushab, Rawalpindi, Chakwal districts and near the town of Shahpur in Sargodha district. In Jhelum District, Khamb villages include Khambi and Chak Jalilpur, Khamb in Rawalpindi District, Khamb Kalan in the Phalia Tehsil of Mandi Bahauddin District. Khamb Nau and Khamb Kohna in the Bhalwal Tehsil of Sargodha District. Interestingly, the town of Khanpur Khamb, their original settlement in northern Punjab no longer has any Khambs as they were later evicted by Marrian Jats migrating from Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District.

Khatarmal

The Khatarmal, or sometimes spelt Khotarmal, are tribe of Jat status, found almost entirely in Chakwal District, although there are scattered settlements in Pind Dadan Khan. According to their tribal traditions, there ancestor Khatarmal was a Gakhar nobleman, who after arriving in Chakwal, contracted marriage with a Jat, and his descendants became Jats. Interestingly, unlike the Sakhial mentioned in my earlier posts , the Khatarmal do not find a place in any of the Gakhar genealogies. This does not mean that they are not Gakhars, it is simply shows that they now have no connection with Gakhar tribe.

 

List and Population of Major Muslim Jat clans of Lahore Division

The list below gives a breakdown of the larger Jat clans of the Lahore Division according to the 1911 Census of India. In 1911, Lahore Division covered Gujranwala, Lahore, Kasur, Narowal, Okara, Sahiwal, and Sialkot districts, as well as Amritsar and Gurdaspur districts now in India. Those who are familiar with Jat clans, will recognize the major clans that are also found among the Sikhs of East Punjab. For example clans like the Bajwa were largely Muslim in Sialkot, but had a slight Sikh majority in Gurdaspur.

Gurdaspur District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 54,811 (35%) out of a total population of 158,628. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe Gurdaspur Tehsil Batala Tehsil Shakargarh Tehsil Pathankot Tehsil Total
Atwal 214 13 227 
Aulakh 65 12 22 99 
Bajwa 185 391 265 3 844 
Bains 625 40 76 112 853 
Bal 117 117 
Bhangu  96 6 3 1 106
Basra 39 419 458 
Bhullar 12 174 192 
Buttar 52 553 605 
Boparai 4 5
Chahal 1 46 1 48 
Chhina 223 162 395 
Chuna 156 128 130 1 415 
Dhariwal 292 67 153 7 519 
Dhillon 17 153 66 9 245 
Gadri  65 490
Ghuman 680 107 59 5 851 
Gill 689 107 59 5 1,198 
Goraya 677 117 620 1,414 
Hanjra  181 181
Jandi 528 10 538 
Johal 55 55 
Kahlon 843 370 516 1,729 
Kallu 612 207 1 1 821 
Khaira 155 80 4 239 
Khak 554 2 556 
Maan 89 264 1 354 
Malhi 51 51 
Mami 154 1 11 166 
Natt  64 442 249 755
Padda 28 98 151 
Pannun 107 107 
Randhawa 249 1,950 75 9 2,283 
Rayar 5 573 578 
Samra 175 9 184 
Sandhu  225 558 783
Sarai  386 193 1 580
Sidhu 624 414 117 1,155 
Sohal 144 2 51 197 
Thathaal 303 85 84 1 473 
Virk  492 524 1 1,017
Wahla  58 56 30 1  145
Waraich 538 497 444 33 1,512 

 

Amritsar District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 22,056 (17%) out of a total population of 139,454. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

 

Tribe Amritsar Tehsil Tarn Taran Tehsil Ajnala Tehsil Total
Aulakh 43 51 580 674

 

Bajwa 138 66 173 377

 

Bal 36 8 7 51

 

Bhangu

 

35 2 37
Bhullar 32 24 5 61

 

Chadhar 166 166

 

Chahal 20 42 29 91

 

Cheema 43 59 35 137

 

Chhina 165 140 434 739

 

Deo 16 198 23 237

 

Dhillon 635 1,528 138 2,298

 

Dhariwal 75 10 263 348

 

Ghumman 187 155 105 477

 

Gill 2,710 693 943 4,346

 

Goraya 178 20 214 412

 

Hanjra 38 23 81 142

 

Heer 65 9 74

 

Hundal 207 21 2 230

 

Kahlon

 

218 53 119 330
Kang

 

20 66 11 97
Maan

 

35 25 35 95
Mahil

 

29 3 6 38
Pannu 26 9 56 91

 

Randhawa 2,020 198 443 2,661

 

Samra 20 25 8 53

 

Sandhu

 

765 779 510 2,054
Sarai 81 43 47 171

 

Sidhu

 

155 566 158 879
Sohal

 

76 56 86 218
Virk 124 34 167 325

 

Waraich 231 61 200 492

 

Sialkot District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 147,879 (62%) out of a total population of 237,575. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

 

Tribe Sialkot Tehsil Pasrur Tehsil Zafarwal Tehsil Raya Tehsil Daska Tehsil Total
Aulakh 403 33 84 54 40 614
Awan 462 148 2 42 60 714
Bains 191 20 202 202 11 626
Bajwa 6,711 3,135 2,220 1,356 305 13,727
Basra 286 212 266 1,815 1,004 3,583
Cheema 908 90 151 176 5,221 7,446
Deo 359 22 65 405 4 855
Dhariwal 35 219 16 215 39 524
Dhillon 287 163 1,224 1,071 2,758
Dhindsa 263 1 1 265
Ghumman 3,458 1,001 558 172 2,390 7,579
Gill 1,462 821 180 388 617 3,468
Hanjra 325 967 55 214 183 1,744
Heer 42 31 73
Kahlon 267 870 3,946 944 258 6,285
Kang 32 9 5 127 173
Lidhar 433 8 152 21 614
Maan 127 28 8 1 5 169
Nagra 13 36 104 120 26 299
Pannun 176 10 39 210 63 498
Randhawa 30 40 18 235 34 357
Sahi 301 85 69 1,331 1,786
Sandhu 625 1,209 67 505 2,648 5,054
Sarai 57 93 413 478 1,041
Sidhu 250 4 150 404
Virk 403 539 234 313 161 1,670
Waraich 3,640 437 580 415 845 5,917

Gujranwala District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 172,924 (81%) out of a total population of 213,389. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe Gujranwala Tehsil Wazirabad Tehsil Hafizabad Tehsil Khangah Dogran Tehsil Sharakpur Tehsil Total
Aulakh  96 36 17 201 7 357
Bajwa  461 260 172 1,360 230 2,483
Bhangu 87 7 278 372
Buttar 736 28 45 32 842
Chahal 224 6 41 272 66 609
Chatha 371 1,549 544 305 35 2,804
Chhina  391 2,750 42 4 65 3,252
Cheema  6,044 10,818 2,294 2,415 164 21,735
Deo  108 108
Dhariwal  345 92 10 243 54 744
Dhillon 275 53 74 359 8 769
Dhotar 29 38 246 44 357
Ghumman 233 659 115 379 43 1,429
Gill 484 727 303 809 312 2,635
Goraya 770 105 1,603 816 297 3,591
Hanjra  838 826 1,347 736 587 4,334
Haral 185 336 90 5 643
Kahlon  108 91 62 261
Kharal  219 231 4,004 1,859 5,763 12,077
Khokhar  825 1,795 1,999 2,125 1,149 7,893
Lodike  2,630 45 2,675
Maan  39 5 87 77 245 453
Mangat  103 67 135 107 23 435
Pannun  176 18 41 16 251
Randhawa  5 156 85 322 9 577
Sahi  218 316 121 370 25 1,050
Samra  162 38 56 121 29 406
Sandhu  592 658 452 1,064 426 3,192
Sarai  234 62 296
Sidhu  97 99 196
Sipra  121 111 372 12 42 658
Tarar  244 945 3,046 562 44 4,841
Virk  1,770 655 620 3,460 1,139 7,644
Waraich  3,577 2,875 1,101 1,305 652 9,510

Sahiwal District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 118,940 (88%) out of a total population of 151,186. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe Sahiwal Tehsil Gugera Tehsil Dipalpur Tehsil Pakpattan Tehsil Total
Arar  108 1,648 44 1,800
Bhadro  440 2 36 160 638
Bhatti 121 240 1,105 510 1,976
Chadhar 694 892 660 37 2,283
Chauhan  69 49 141 258 517
Dhaku 188 13 221 251 673
Dhudhi 94 245 128 115 582
Hans  128 71 390 375 964
Jakhar 200 343 49 84 676
Jhandir 10 651 28 679
Joiya  300 292 387 979
Kalsan  1 295 261 10 576
Kharal  8 32 491 206 735
Khichi 260 455 183 409 1,307
Khokhar  1,142 687 1,121 1,187 4,137
Mahaar 17 9 1,011 218 1,255
Malil  168 269 547 649 1,633
Nonari 195 83 1,432 738 2,448
Sahu 649 186 112 231 1,178
Sapral  179 47 101 273 600
Sial 818 772 818 1,301 3,709

 

 

Lahore District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 77,915 (38%) out of a total population of 204,406. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe Lahore Tehsil Chunian Tehsil Kasur Tehsil Total
Aulakh  212 126 19 357
Awan  2,715 567 151 3,433
Bajwa  295 68 129 492
Batth  254 85 1 340
Bhatti  1,230 667 145 2,042
Bhullar  669 92 612 1,373
Buttar  43 10 145 198
Chahal  182 362 17 561
Chander 358 311 52 1,221
Chauhan 247 52 94 393
Cheema  337 115 151 603
Chhina  207 98 437 742
Deo  35 58 18 111
Dhariwal  140 358 254 752
Dhillon 777 405 524 1,706
Gill  1,330 400 651 2,381
Ghuman  163 199 41 403
Gondal  558 355 97 1,080
Goraya  158 106 216 480
Hanjra 94 633 111 838
Heer  243 128 10 376
Joiya  81 537 31 649
Khaira  3 80 24 107
Kharal  318 1,629 121 2,064
Khokhar  1,065 1,386 257 2,708
Maan 288 7 342 637
Malhi  37 117 154
Pannun  7 7
Randhawa  7 22 69 162
Samra  9 36 45
Sandhu 3,153 2,798 4,014 9,965
Sansi  475 43 4 522
Sarai 256 49 46 351
Sekhon  58 59 46 155
Sidhu  419 603 1,002
Sial  266 952 155 1,373
Tarar  38 7 125 170
Uppal  29 58 87
Virk  576 509 290 1,375
Waraich  212 126 19 357

Bhutta, Langah, Kanju, Shajra and Uttera tribes

In this post, I shall look at five tribes, the Bhutta, Langah, Kanju, Shajra and Uttera. Of these, three have a substantial presence outside Punjab, namely the Bhuuta (known in Sindh as the Bhutto), Langah and Shajra, while the Kanju and Uttera are confined to south Punjab. All speak Seraiki, are largely Sunni Muslims, and are considered by themselves and others as Jat. Just to make clear, with regards to the Bhutta, there is a well known clan of Arains also called Bhutta, but this post will only look at the Jat Bhutta. The Bhutta, Langah and Shajra also have traditions of being descended from a common ancestor. Just one more point to note, the Uttera have sometimes been confused with the Uttra, but both tribes are distinct.

Bhutta

Like almost any tribe in Punjab, much has been written about the origin of the Bhutta. There is also much confusion between the Bhatti and Bhutta, and whether there is any connection between the two tribes. In terms of numbers, the Bhutta are probably the largest tribe of Jat status in south Punjab, although they are now found as far north as Jhelum (Please see Muslim Jats of Rawalpindi Division).

According some Bhutta traditions, they are a clan of Suryavanshi Rajputs, whose ancestors left Ayodhya, arrived in Multan, and converted Islam at the hands of the Sufi Bahauddin Zakaria. A significant number of Bhutta claim to have descended from Solar Rajputs. Raja Bhutta, the supposed ancestor of the tribe is said to have left Hindustan (roughly the modern states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh) arrived in Multan, which was then ruled by Raja Dahir, and captured a city which he renamed it Bhutta Wahan. Rajah Dahir could not take any action against Bhutta, as his kingdom was soon facing an invasion by the Arabs, who were successfully in overthrowing Dahir’s kingdom. The city still exists today and is located 16 km north of Rahim Yar Khan on the banks of the lost river of Hakra. After the death of Raja Bhutta, his son Ang Pal became the ruler. During Ang Pal’s rein, Bhutta Wahan was invaded by an Arab army, and he was killed fighting while his six brothers managed to escape. The family dispersed in various directions and most of them embraced Islam.

In Bahawalpur, there is a tradition the Bhutta are the same stock as the Bhatia, a well known Hindu caste found historically in south Punjab, Sindh and Gujarat. Incidentally, if this tradition is correct, the Bhutta are Chabdravanshi, and not Suryavanshi. However, there are also claims that the Bhutta descend from Raja Bhutta, of was said to be fifth in descent from Raja Karan (of the Mahabharata) and say they were forcibly converted even earlier , by Mehmood of Ghazni and driven from Uch. The tradition of descent from Rajah Karan is fairly widespread among tribes of this region of Punjab, and all it seems to suggest that a particular tribe has long been resident in the region. In Unch, there are oral traditions, that the town was ruled by the Bhuttas until they were overthrown by the Gilani Sayyids.

During the rein of Sultan Rukn-u-din Feroz Shah (1229 AD ~ 1236 AD), one of Raja Bhutta’s descendents, Muhammad Sadiq Bhutta migrated to the city of Sialkot from Uch. Muhammad Sadiq Bhutta took employment in the court of the Governor of Punjab and as a reward for his services was awarded a estate of about thirty villages (one of these villages – Kotli Bhutta, is still in the possession of his descendents. The Jethal of Jhelum also have traditions that they a branch of the Bhutta tribe.

Bhutta Pirzadas

Perhaps the most famous branch of the clan is found in the town of Khairpur Tamiwali near Bahawalpur, who now claim to be Sayyids. These Pirzada Bhuttas have entirely separated from the rest of the tribe, and there is no intermarriage between them and other Bhuttas. They are descended from Pirzada Murad Baksh Bhutta.

Distribution

The Bhutta are found mainly in southern Punjab, in the districts of Multan, Sahiwal, Lodhran, Bahawalpur, Vehari, Sargodha, Bhakkar, Muzaffargarh and Layyah, although Jhelum and Chakwal districts also have several Bhutta settlements.

Villages in Northern Punjab

In terms of villages, I have already referred to Kotli Bhutta in Sialkot. Starting with Jhelum District, they are found in Chak Mujahid Janubi, Dewanpur and Jalalpur Sharif. Next door in Chakwal District, they are found in Kot Chaudharian, Khokhar Zer, Mureed, Roopwal and Thoha Bahadar villages. These are also large Jat villages, and also home to other Jat clans such as the Gondal. Moving south, in Sargodha they are found in Chak 114 NB and Jalpana. Further west in Khushab District, they are found in Chak 50 MB and Jaura Kalan.

In South Punjab

In Lodhran District, they are found in the villages of Basti Ameerwala, Basti Naseerabad, Bast Mochianwala, Basti Muhammadi Wala, Basti Khalisa, Basti Raitwala, Basti Mahtamwala and Tahir Bhutta near Dunyapur.

 Langah

I shall next look at the Langah, a tribe that is extremely interesting as it provided a dynasty that ruled southern Punjab for almost a century.

The Langah claim to have been orignally an Pashtun tribe, who came to Multan from Sibi, in what is now the Balochistan province, for the purposes of trade and eventually settled at Rappri, near the city of Multan. In the confusion that followed the invasion of South Asia by Tamerlane, the city of Multan became independent of the Sultanate of Delhi. The inhabitants chose Shaikh Yousaf Qureshi, a descendent of the famous Sufi Baha-ud-din Zakariya, as governor. In 1445, Rai Sahra, chief of the Langah, whose daughter had been married to Shaikh Yousaf, introduced an armed band of his tribesman into the city by night, seized Shaikh Yousaf, and sent him Delhi, and proclaimed himself king, under the title Sultan Qutbudin. This a list of the Langah kings of Multan:

Sultan Qutbudin 1445–1460

Sultan Hussain 1460

Sultan Firuzshah dates unknown

Sultan Mahmud dates unknown

Sultan Hussain 1518–1526

Sultan Mahmood Langah 1526-1540

The Langahs lost the city of Multan to Jalal ud-din Akbar. After their overthrow, the Langah left the city, and settled mainly in Shujabad district, where there is a solid of Langah villages.

There are however other traditions as to the origin of the Langah. Among the people of the Multan region, Langah are perceived to be of Jat status, and certainly seem to have little in common with Durrani Pathans of Multan city. One theory, mainly referred to by early British colonial writers such Rose, makes the Langah out to be

Panwar Rajputs, and related to neighbouring Panwar tribes such as the Kharal, Harral and Lak. According to James Todd, an earlier British authority, the Langah are a clan of Solanki Rajputs, who inhabited Multan and Jaisalmer, and were driven out by the Bhattis. Although, we certainly find no reference of a tradition of Solanki descent among the Langah. It therefore likely, the Langah were migrants from Sibi, although whether they were Pashtun is detainable. It is quite possible, that they are Jats, originally from Sibi, who migrated to southern Punjab in the early Middle Ages.

Some modern Langah also claim Arab ancestry, having said to have come from Arabia some eight centuries ago. However, although the trend to claim Arab ancestry has become popular among many Punjabi Muslim tribes, most Langah still claim an Afghan origin.

Kanju

The Kanju are one five tribes, which include the Hattar, Noon and Uttera, that claim a common ancestry.

According to their traditions, the tribe claims descent from a Bhatti Rajput nobleman, a Rana Rajwadhan. The Rana lived in Ghazni, and then moved to Delhi in India. After some time, he moved to Bhatner. In the 13th Century, the Rana moved to Chanb Kalyar, in what is now the Lodhran District. The ruler of the area was a Raja Bhutta. The Raja wanted to marry the daughter of Rajwadhan, who refused. As a result a battle took place, and the Raja was slain. The tract was then divided by Rajwadhan, and his five sons, Kalyar, Uttera, Kanju, Noon and Hattar. Each son was given an area to occupy, the Kanju were given Lodhran, where the bulk of the tribe is still found. Here the Kanju lived the life of pastoral nomads, similar in customs and traditions to other Bar nomads until the region was invaded by Baloch tribes in the 15th Century. In the 19th Century, there land was seized for the purposes of colonization, and the nomadic Kanju were settled. The village of Alipur Kanju, near Kahror Pacca, is still a stronghold of the tribe, and Bohar Mailsi is also an important Kanju settlement.

Outside Lodhran District, Multan District, and Rahim Yar Khan districts in Punjab, Ghotki, Daherki and Nawab Shah districts in Sindh. The town of Muqeem Shah in Dera Ismail Khan District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is large Kanju settlement.

Shajra

The Shajra, or sometimes spelt Shujra, are a tribe of Jat status, found both in SAindh and Punjab. To clarify, there is a Jat tribe called Chhajra, with whom the Shajra have no connection. Like other tribes already referred to in and other posts, the Shajra have several traditions. What is interesting is that older traditions of Hindu ancestry are being replaced by claims of Arab origins. British sources in the early part of the twentieth Century recorded the following origin; the Shajra claim descent from Mahli, who is said to be a Suryavanshi Rajput. This Mahli is said to have four sons, Shajra being one of them, the other three being Bhutta. Naich and Langah, from whom descend the Bhutta, Naich and Langah tribes. Interestingly, although the Bhutta and Naich claim Suryavanshi descent, they have no tradition connecting them with the Shajra.

However, more recently claims of Arab ancestry have been made. Their ancestor Shajra, now is a Yemeni Arab, who was a soldier in the army of Mohammad Bin Qasim, the Aran conqueror of Sindh. Interestingly, the word shajra in Arabic means a tree, and it could be possible that it was a nickname of an ancestor. The Shajra might be of Arab origin, however after centuries of intermarriage, they have merged with the other Jat clans of south Punjab. In Punjab, the tribe speaks Seraiki, while in Sindh it speaks Sindhi. The Shajra of Sindh also have a chief, who resides in Ghotki and the current one is Muzafar Ali Shujra.

In Punjab, they are found mainly in the districts Khanewal, Multan and Rajanpur districts.

Uttera

In this post I will finally look at the Uttera. There origin myth is looked in some detail in the entry on the Kanju, with whom they share many customs and tradition. Just a point of clarification, the Uttera are distinct from the Uttra, who are discussed in my first post. The Uttera are Bar nomads, who traditional area was near Kahror Pacca, a region that they share with the Kanju. Like the Kanju, they lost a lot of their traditional grazing area when the Lodhran area saw the immigration of Baloch tribes. The Uttera were fully settled in the 19th Century by the British.

They are now found mainly in Lodhran, Multan,and Bahawalpur districts.In Lodhran District, the village of Kotla Uttera is an important centre of the tribe. Other Uttera villages include Mouza Muhammad Saee ( near the town of Kahror Pacca), Rind Jada and Khubbriwala.  There are also a cluster of Uttera villages near Dunyapur such as Bankeywala, Maywala Gogran, Chah Dhoraywala, Chah Dahana, Tundianwala, Qasimwala, Talibwala, Arwarwala, Balochwala, and Basti Shareenwala Gogran.