Mahtam Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

 

In this, my seventh post on the distribution of tribes gazetted as agriculturalist, according to the 1901 Census of India will look at the Mahtam. The Mahtam were found mainly along the banks of the Sutlej and Ravi, in districts such as Firuzpur, Montgomery and princely state of Bahawalpur. Like many communities in the Punjab, they were found in all three religions. The Sikh Mahtam now prefer the self-designation Rai Sikh.

District

Hindu

Sikh

Muslim

Total

Firuzpur

10,067 2,326 1,335 13,728
Montgomery 6,793 4,628 757 12,178
Lahore 3,279 2,184 4,422 9,885
Bahawalpur State 6,943 1,478 1,419 9,840
Hoshiarpur 6,500 3,013 14 9,527
Chenab Colony 3,774 2,701 12 6,487
Multan 1,869 3,256 5,125
Muzaffargarh 4,139 353 4,492
Kapurthala 1,365 1,066 1,172 3,603
Dera Ghazi Khan 1,281 1,981 3,262
Jalandhar 765 1,326 141 2,232
Amritsar 1,603 142 1,745
Sialkot 259 94 353
Faridkot  218 218
Ludhiana  110 110

Other Districts

 

 

 

 40

Total

 48,586

 19,183

 15,056

82,825

 

Meo and Khanzada Population According to 1901 Census of Punjab, Rajputana and the United Provinces

This is seventh post looking at the distribution of communities, namely the Khanzada and Meo, that were gazetted as agriculturalist in census of 1901 in the Punjab province. In this post, I will also look at the distribution of both communities in Rajputana and the United Provinces as well. Both groups were entirely Muslim. The Meo and Khanzada were concentrated in the Mewat region, in what is now south east Haryana and north east Rajasthan and claimed a Rajput status. Both groups claimed a similar origin from the Jadaun clan of Rajputs. The Meo and Khanzada were also found in Alwar and Bharatpur states in what was then the Rajputana Agency. In UP, the Meo were found largely in two regions, Rohilkhand, and the Doab region of western UP. Most of the Meo in UP were called themselves Mewati. The total Meo population in 1901 was 374,923, of which 147,198 (39%) were found in Punjab, 168,596 (45%) were found Rajputana (modern Rajasthan) and the remainder 59,129 (16%) were found in UP. I would also ask the leader to look at my post on the Khanzadas to get some background information on the tribe.

 

Meo of Punjab

Most of the Meo population was concentrated as I have said in the introduction in the Mewat region, roughly the eastern portion of Gurgaon, and southern bits of Delhi. Outside these areas in Hissar and Karnal, there were a few isolated villages of the Meo.

 

The Meo of Dera Ghazi Khan

The Meo of Dera Ghazi Khan had separated from the main body of the Meo through a migration in the 16th Century. Most of the Meo of this region considered themselves as Jat, and were Seraiki speaking. They had lost all contact with the main body of the Meo.

 

Meo Population of Punjab

 

District Population
Gurgaon 128,760
Delhi
8,268
Firuzpur 4,378
Jalandhar 1,385
Dera Ghazi Khan 880
Karnal 813
Ambala 580
Hissar 543
Other Districts 1,591
Total Population 147,198

Meo Population of Rajputana

 

District Population
 Alwar State  113,154
Bharatpur State
51,546
 Kotah State  1,072
Marwar (Jodhpur State) 1,000
 Jaipur State 654
 Mewar (Udaipur State)  559
 Tonk  State  208
 Jhalawar 125
 Other States and Agencies 278
Total Population 168,596

Meo Population of the United Provinces

District Population
Bulandshahr 9,840
Bareilly 9,374
Rampur State 7,356
Aligarh 6,557
Meerut 5,184
Mathura 3,813
Pilibhit 3,262
Moradabad 2,513
Nainital 2,106
Etah 1,793
Lakhimpur Kheri 1,217
Badaun 1,081
Agra 873
Muzaffarnagar 779
Etawah 603
Shahjahanpur 534
Lucknow 418
Bijnor 365
Rae Bareli 355
Unao 253
Barabanki 220
Farrukhabad 216
Sahanranpur 210
Sultanpur 207
Total Population 59,129

 

Khanzada Population of Punjab

Almost all the Khanzada were found in Gurgaon, where in 1901, they owned nine villages near town of Nuh and to the north of Firozpur.

District Population
Gurgaon  3,901
Other Districts  70
Total Population  3,971

Khanzada Population of Rajputana

 

District Population
Alwar State  8,503
Bharatpur State 814
Jaipur State 97
Other States and Agencies 540
Total Population  9,954

Saini population of Punjab According to 1901 Census of India

This is my sixth post looking at the population of tribes gazetted as agriculture by the Punjab Land Alienation Act. This one will focus on the Saini community. Like the Mali looked in the previous post, the Saini were traditionally associated with marker gardening. In fact the boundary between the two castes is often blurred. The Saini in 1901 were found largely found in the sub-Himalyan regions such as Hoshiarpur and Ambala.

District Hindu Sikh Total
Hoshiarpur


38,700


6,585 45,285


Ambala
23,435


2,213 25,648


Jalandhar
10,473
5,256
15,729
Gurdaspur
 12,745  2,799 15,544


 Patiala State  6,321  2,734  9,055
 Chenab Colony 2,017 489 2,506
Kapurthala State 2,180  70 2,250
  Delhi   2,213     2,213
 Nalagarh State  2,044    2,044
 Kalsia State  1,378  45  1,423
 Ludhiana  1,299  131  1,430
Kangra  1,030  1,030
 Sialkot  867  867
 Nahan State 758
   758
 Firuzpur 115
91
206
 Amritsar 147 26
173
 Lahore 138
  138
Other Districts
    372
Total Population  106,006 20,665 126,671

 

Mali population of Punjab according to the 1901 Census of India

This is my fifth post that gives the distribution of caste gazetted as agricultural under the 1901 Census of Punjab, namely the Mali. The Mali are a caste of gardeners and vegetable-growers, with the word mali being derived from the Sanskrit mala, meaning garland. In my earlier posts, I have looked at castes who were largely Muslim, but the Mali were largely Hindu, and found mainly in the south east of Punjab, the present day of Haryana. In terms of geographical distribution, the Maliar whose occupation specialization was the same as the Mali, but were Muslim, were found in the North west of colonial Punjab, namely the Pothohar region. It is likely in the Muslim dominated north west, most Mali had converted to Islam, and formed the Maliar caste. While in the South East, namely Haryana, where the Hindu faith dominated, most Mali had remained Hindu. I would also ask the reader to look at my post on the Saini, who were a community of Hindu and Sikh agriculturalist, who were said to be of Mali origin.

District

Hindu

Sikh

Muslim

Total

 Karnal

25,328

504

39
 25,871

 Ambala

24,095

66

15

24,176

 Hissar

13,068

 

13,068

 Delhi

 12,886

 

 51

 12,937

 Gurgaon

 10,884

 

 

10,884

 Rohtak

9,137

 

  9,137

 Patiala State

8,248

41

 

8,289

 

 Jind State

 4,423

65

10

4,498

 Kalsia State

 1,311

 

 

1,311

Pataudi State

 

705     705
Nahan State

 

548  86 634
Nabha State

 

449 449
Firuzpur

 

 201  19  220
Lahore

 

 70  32  102

Other Districts

470 

 3

 168

 641

Total

111,823

 

799

 

294

 

112,916

 

 

Baghban and Malyar/Maliar Population of Punjab and the North West Frontier Province According to the 1901 Census of India

In this fourth post on the distribution of communities, I will look at two related communities, the Baghban and Malyar, sometimes spelt Maliar. Both were found largely in the Pothohar plateau, and neighbouring areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, such as the Peshawar valley and the Hazara region. In terms of geographic distribution, they have much in common with the Awans, whose distribution I have looked at in a previous post. The term Baghban or sometimes pronounced Baghwan, is simply the Farsi equivalent of the Hindi word Mali meaning a ‘gardener,’ and commonly used as equivalent to Arain in the Western Punjab. According to Rose, the colonial British ethnologist:

Baghbans do not form a caste and the term is merely equivalent to Mali, Maliar, etc.

There is some confusion as to whether the Baghban and Maliar are distinct communities. In Peshawar, the Maliar and Baghban do seem to be distinct communities. But in other parts, the two terms are used interchangebly. It is also likely that Baghban of Patiala State were really members of the Arian caste. Time permitting, I will write a post on the Maliar caste.

Baghban Population of Punjab

District Muslim Hindu Total
Rawalpindi  502  141  643
Patiala State
 397  397
Gujrat
207

207
Mianwali
189    189
 Other Districts  257  50  307
Total Population  1,552 191 1,743

 

Baghban Population of North West Frontier Province

 

District Population
Peshawar  9,427
Bannu  2,155
Other Districts  289
Total Population  11,871

 

 

Malyar in Population Punjab

 

District Population
Rawalpindi  50,125
Jhelum  28,371
Shahpur  2,651
Total Population  81,093 

Malyar in NWFP

 

District Population
Peshawar  18,319
Hazara  7,770
Kohat  1,078
Total Population  27,167

 

Awan Population of Punjab and the North West Frontier Province according to the 1901 Census

This is my third post, looking at the population distribution according to the 1901 Census of Punjab. In this post, I look at the Awan caste, who unlike the castes looked in previous posts such as the Dogar and Kamboh, is entirely Muslim. I will ask to the reader to look at my posts on the Kamboh, to give some background as geographical spread of Colonial Punjab. In addition, for completeness’s sake, I would ask you to look at my posts on the 1931 Census of Hazara, as well my the post on the Budhal, who are sub-group of the Awans, to get some background information on the caste. This post will also look at their distributions according to the 1901 Census of the of the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan.

Awan Groups

In terms of distribution, about two-thirds of the Awans lived in the Pothohar plateau, and the Salt Range mountains, which were located just below the plateau. The Awan population of the North West Frontier Province were culturally close to the Awan of the Pothohar. Both spoke related languages, the Hindko and Pothohari languages. The Awan of Mianwali spoke an intermediate dialect between Hindko and Seraiki. While the Awans of Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan, and the southern Punjab districts of Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, Multan and the Bahawalpur State spoke Seraiki.

A third cluster of Awans was found in what is now Indian Punjab. The Awan of Sialkot, Gujranwala and Lahore were culturally similar to the East Punjab Awans. There were Awankari, or Awan inhabited territories in Ludhiana, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar and Kapurthala state, all teritories now located in Indian Punjab.

Awan Population of Punjab

 

District Population
Rawalpindi 140,835
Jhelum 99,542
Shahpur 55,387
Sialkot 24,459
Mianwali 23,449
Gujrat 14,864
Hoshiarpur 13,652
Jalandhar 12,350
Multan 6,600
Bahawalpur 4,815
Ludhiana 4,580
Lahore 3,887
Dera Ghazi Khan 3,442
Muzaffargarh 3,232
Chenab Colony 3,001
Jhang  2,900
Montgomery  1,737
Amritsar  1,683
 Gujranwala  1,018
Gurdaspur 1,008
Firuzpur 490
Kapurthala 483
Ambala 193
Total Population 421,112

Awans in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP)

In the NWFP, now known as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Awans were concentrated in the Peshawar valleyHazara Region and the southern Seraik areas of Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan.

District Population
Peshawer 111,339
Hazara 91,474
Kohat 22,358
Bannu 8,667
Dera Ismail Khan 6,396
Malakand, Dir, Swat, and Chitral Territories 512
 Other Districts
Total Population 241,006

 

Dogar Population of Punjab and the United Provinces according to 1901 Census

In this second post looking at 1901 Census, I will look at the distribution of the Dogar population. Like the Kamboh in my first post, the Dogar were gazetted as an agriculture tribe. However, the Dogar were almost entirely Muslim, out of a total population of 75,080, only 95 were Hindu, 9 were Sikh and 4 were Jain. The Dogar were historically a pastoralist group, that by beginning of the 20th Century stretched from Sialkot in the west to Bulandshahr in the east.I wish to add that the Dogars have nothing to do with the Dogras, who are found largely in the Jammu region. Almost 70% of their territory went to India in 1947, leading to the migration of the Dogars to Pakistan. The only exception are the UP Dogars, who have largely remained in India.

Dogar Groups: The Ghaghar – Sutlej groups

The Dogar were found largely in the valley of the Sutlej, in Firuzpur, Faridkot State and the territory of Montgomery (present day Sahiwal and Okara) and the grasslands located between the Ghaghar and the Sutlej rivers, in what then the princely states of Nabha and Patiala and the Hissar territory, presently western Haryana. This region was home to the larger Dogar population, almost a third

The Himalayan Group

A second cluster of Dogars were found along the Himalyas, stretching from Hoshiarpur to Sialkot. The Dogars of Lahore, Gujranwala, Jalandhar and Ludhiana were culturally related to the Himalayan group of Dogars.

The Haryana and UP group

A final group was found in Karnal and Rohtak, and this group extended into the United Provinces, present day Uttar Pradesh. They differed from other Dogars in that they spoke Haryanwi, and not Punjabi. Karnal was home to the largest cluster. The Bulandshahr Dogars were migrants from Rohtak, mainly from the village of Parah in that district, settling in UP the mid 19th Century.

Dogar Population of Punjab

District Population
Firuzpur 16,402
Patiala 11,243
Hissar 7,623
Lahore 7,503
Hoshiarpur 5,388
Jalandhar 4,409
Amritsar 4,128
Gurdaspur 2,615
Ludhiana 2,411
Sialkot 2,302
Karnal 2,064
Montgomery 1,675
Gujranwala 1,048
Faridkot 946
Ambala 386
Jind 230
Rohtak 210
Other Districts 34
Total Population 75,080

Dogar Population of the United Provinces

 

District Population
Bulandshahr 215
Total Population 215

Kamboh Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

This is the first of a number of blogs that will look at the results of 1901 Census of the Punjab, with reference to a particular caste. Its worth mentioning that in 1901, the Punjab included in Pakistan, the Punjab province and Islamabad, and in the India the states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal and Delhi. I will start off by looking at the Kamboh community, which in total terms of the Punjab population in 1901, which was 24,754,737, numbered 174,061, which was not a large in population numbers. But as a gazetted agricultural tribe, under the  Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900 in every district they lived in, were an important landowning group. I will ask the reader to read my post on the Muslim Kamboh of UP, which looks at their origin myths. Like many Punjabi castes, the Kamboh were found in all three religions, namely Hindu, Muslim and Sikh, although Muslim Kambohs formed the largest sub-group. One interesting fact is that the Kamboh religious affaliation did not follow that of a majority of the population they lived. In what is now Sahiwal and Okara (old Montgomery District), the majority of the Kamboh were Hindu, in a region that was predominantly Muslim. While in Patiala and Nabha, the modern areas of the Punjab and Haryana borderlands, the Kamboh were Muslim, in a largely Sikh region. They Kamboh were also linguistically and culturaly divided. In what now Haryana, the Kamboh spoke dialects of Haryanwi, and were connected with large Kamboh population of Saharanpur in UP. While through the central region of Punjab, stretching from Montgomery to Nabha, the Kamboh population was Punjabi speaking. A third group of Kambohs were those of Multan and Bahawalpur, entirely Muslim, and largely urban.

District

Muslim

Hindu

Sikh

Total

 

Lahore

 14,339

 6,227

 2,280  22,846

 

Patiala

 11,910

 5,819

 5,073

 22,802

 

Montgomery

 2,326

 19,507

 201  22,034

 

Amritsar

 11,494

 1,330

 4,907

 17,731

 

Kapurthala

 2,604

 1,289

 12,384

 16,277

 

Chenab Colony

 3,005

 1,880

 10,343  15,228

 

Karnal

 1,754

 11,945

 161

 13,860

 

Ambala

 1,673

 5,530

 2,123

 9,326

 

Firuzpur

 5,204

 821

 327

 6,352

Jalandhar  191  1,040  5,086  6,317
Malerkotla  5,519  5,519
Nabha  4,559  48  20  4,627
Multan  1,947  1,947
Sialkot  1,746  1,746
Ludhiana  1,302  133  15  1,450
Jind  1,277  16  1,293
Gujranwala  744  19  471  1,234
Shahpur  957  957
Gurdaspur  713  94  18  825
Hoshiarpur   303  102  167   572
Kalsia  247  266  513
Bahawalpur  208  208
Hissar  166  166

Other Districts

 103

 84

 44

  231

Total

 73,878

 56,297

 43,886

 174,061