Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1911 Census of India

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 208,664 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Chauhan 109,533 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe, in central found mainly in Lahore, Amritsar and Jallandhar
Khokhar 93,012 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot, Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Gurdaspur
Sial 91,211 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Joiya 49,486 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Panwar 44,924 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe; a smaller grouo also found in Jhelum
Wattu 34,696 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Bahawalpur to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Naru 29,665 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana – by early 20th Century, several Naru were settled in Faisalabad and Sahiwal in the canal colonies
Ghorewaha 26,203 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Janjua 25,621 a western group in Rawalpindi and Jhelum and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Sulehri / Sulehria 25,512 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Mandahar 24,703 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and Hissar. They are a Ranghar tribe
Manj 20,633 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Bariah also pronounced as Varya 17,893 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Tomar 16,686 Modern Haryana (especially Rohtak and Panipat), Ambala, and in the Bahawalpur Stater
Mair-Minhas 15,075 Chakwal
Kharal 14,521 Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Jatu 13,825 Modern Haryana (especially Hissar and Gurgaon), Ambala, and Rohtak. They are a Ranghar tribe
Manhas / Minhas 10,382 From Rawalpindi to Hoshiarpur – a Muslim Dogra grouping
Awan 9.555 Two groups of Awan registered themselves as Rajput, those of Sonepat and near Delhi – who were a Ranghar tribe, and smaller group in Gurdaspur and Sialkot. All Awan declared themselves as Awan
Taoni 9,273 Ambala – a Ranghar grouping
Alpial 8,986 Attock – a branch of the Manj Rajput tribe
Chib 8,360 Gujrat, a Muslim Dogra clan
Jodhra 8,085 Attock District
Dhanyal 7,909 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Dhudhi 6,730 Sargodha, Jhang, Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Baghial 6,715 Rawalpindi
Dhamial 5,973 Rawalpindi
Bhakral 5,744 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Bhakral 5,744 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Khichi 4,774 Sargodha, Jhang and Sahiwal
Langrial 3,886 Multan, Sahiwal and Okara – northern branch in Rawalpindi/Jhelum and Gujrat – most northern Langrial declared themselves as Jat
Chadhar 3,825 Jhang District – outside Jhang most Chadhars registered themselves as Jat
Dahya 3,620 Ambala District – a Ranghar clan
Khanzada 3,662 Gurgaon – a branch of the Jadaun clan
Kalial 3,662 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Dahya 3,620 Ambala District – a Ranghar clan
Kathia 2,900 Sahiwal and Okara
Kanial 2,317 Rawalpindi
Mangral 2,309 Rawalpindi
Nagrial 2,220 Rawalpindi
Kalyar 2,177 Sargodha – most Kalyar declared themselves to Jat
Raghubansi 2,135 Ambala – a Ranghar clan
Katil 2,104 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Gaharwal 2,069 Rawalpindi
Nagyal 2,038 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Qaimkhani 2,020 Hissar – essentially a Rajasthani tribe, a branch of the Chauhan
Rawat 1,971 Malerkotla State
Thathaal 1,618 Rawalpindi
Mekan 1,584 Sargodha – most Mekan declared themselves as Jat
Jhap 1,559 Jhang
Jamra 1,455 Dera Ghazi Khan
Tiwana 1,347 a western group in Kushab and eastern group in Patiala
Matyal 1,347 Rawalpindi
Jatal 1,310 Rawalpindi
Rathore 1,148 Hissar, Firuzpur and Bahawalpur, in areas bordering Bikaner. Rajasthani immigrants
Khuhi 1,148 Multan
Warha 1,288 In Hissar a Ranghar group, also found along the Sutlej in Firuzpur and Bahawalpur State
Dogar 1,300 Sahiwal and Okara – most Dogar registered themselves as Dogars and numbered 68,473
Jalap 1,172 Jhelum – a branch of the Khokhar tribe
Nagrawal 1,143 Rawalpindi
Ramial 1,120 Rawalpindi
Ghangar 1,002 Rawalpindi
Daha 991 Multan, Sahiwal and Okara – a branch of the Panwar
Badpyar 988 Delhi with villages near the Yamuna river – a Ranghar clan
Pundir 985 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar group with villages near the Yamuna river
Atiras 965 Patiala State
Kural 961 Rawalpindi
Phularwan 935 Sahiwal and Okara – a second group in Sialkot
Baghela 923 Sahiwal / Okara
Mukhmdal 852 Gujrat – a Chib sub-clan
Jora 834 Fazilka, Hissar and Sirsa
Attar 821 Sargodha
Mial 817 Rawalpindi
Hon 811 Rawalpindi – a branch of the Panwar tribe
Bargujar 805 Gurgaon – a Ranghar tribe found in Rewari
Mayen 802 Patiala State
Mahaar 792 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Bahawalpur to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa – most Mahaar declared themselves as Jat
Adrah 792 Rawalpindi
Kala 747 Jhang
Sakhri 743 Hissar – a Ranghar clans, sub-division of the Jatu
Taraqar 710 Multan
Bhao 706 From Kharian to Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Rath 706 Sahiwal / Pakpattan
Sarral 698 Rawalpindi
Luddu 680 Hoshiarpur
Gaurwa 644 Gurgaon – Ranghar group
Kethwal 642 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Doli 639 Sahiwal / Okara
Barial 633 Ludhiana District
Chandel 618 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Patiala and Ludhiana
Sohlan 606 Jhelum
Noon 599 Sargodha and Multan – a branch of the Bhatti tribe
Agan 569 Gurdaspur – Muslim Dogra clan/td>
Dhanwal 569 Sahiwal and Okara/td>
Jandran 551 Sahiwal / Okara
Bains 548 Rawalpindi – the majority of the Bains registered themselves as Jats
Ranjha 579 Jhelum / Chakwal
Ratial 549 Rawalpindi
Mughal 544 Rawalpindi
Satraola 544 Hissar – a Ranghar tribe
Bhan 519 Sargodha
Chatha 420 Rawalpindi
Jawal 288 Delhi – a Ranghar clan
Jadaun 165 Gurgaon and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Jaswal 160 Hoshiarpur
Meun 76 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Pathania 71 Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Jaral 58 Kangra
Gondal 31 Rawalpindi – almost all the Gondals declared themselves as Jat, except a few in Rawalpindi

 

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Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this post, I make reference to the 1901 Census of India, which gave a breakdown of the larger Muslim Rajput clans of British Punjab. The whole Province of Punjab had a 24.4 million population in 1901, of which the Muslim Rajputs numbered 1,505,586. In 1901, the Punjab comprised five administrative divisions — Delhi, Jullunder, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi — and a number of princely states. During the course of the Census, those districts that lay across the Indus which formed the Peshawar Division were formed into a new province named the North West Frontier Province. Geographically, the province was a triangular tract of country of which the Indus River and its tributary the Sutlej formed the two sides up to their confluence, the base of the triangle in the north being the Lower Himalayan Range between those two rivers. Moreover, the province as constituted under British rule also included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Kashmir and Tibet. On the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, which was divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna and Tons separated it from the United Provinces.

In present-day India, it included the regions of Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and Himachal Pradesh (but excluding the former princely states which were later combined into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union). While in present-day Pakistan, it included the regions of Punjab, Islamabad Capital Territory and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (until 1901).

My post on the Rajputs of Punjab gives more details as to the origin and distribution of the various Rajputs tribes.

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 249,302 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Chauhan 114,529 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe
Khokhar 108,239 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Sial 104,658 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Joiya 61,438 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Panwar 55,068 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe
Gondal 36,088 The Gondal Bar (Mandi Bahaudin, Gujrat and Sargodha), also in Rawalpindi
Naru 34,152 mainly in what is now India Punjab – Jallandhar and Ludhiana
Ghorewaha 33,295 mainly in what is now India Punjab – Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Ludhiana
Sulehria / Sulehri 28,577 Sialkot and Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Wattu 25,544 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Janjua 23,619 A western group found in Rawalpindi and Jhelum, and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Baria, also pronounced Varya 21,991 Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Patiala State
Mandahar 21,764 Mainly Karnal and Panipat – a Ranghar group
Manj 20,736 Amritsar, Firuzpur and Jalandhar
Jatu 18,861 Hissar, Sirsa and Rohtak – a Ranghar
Taoni 18,384 Ambala and Patiala State – a Ranghar tribe
Tomar/ Tonwar 18,365 Hissar, Karnal and Rohtak – a Ranghar tribe
Mair-Minhas 15,697 Chakwal
Minhas/Manhas 13,471 from Rawalpindi in the west to Hoshiarpur in the east – a Muslim Dogra group
Dhudhi 11,764 In Sahiwal, mainly in the new districts of Vehari and Okara
Ranjha 11,764 Gujrat, Jhelum and Mandi Bahaudin
Bhakral 11,577 Rawalpindi and Jhelum/Chakwal
Chib 10.697 Jhelum and Gujrat – Muslim Dogra sub-group
Khichi 9,769 Between Ravi and Sutlej – now Vehari, Pakpattan and Sahiwal
Alpial 9,395 Attock and Rawalpindi
Mekan 8,915 Sargodha and Jhelum
Tiwana 6,326 A western group in Khushab and eastern group in Patiala
Khoja 6,326 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Baghial 5,769 Rawalpindi
Noon 4,866 Sargodha, Multan and southern Punjab
Thathaal 4,134 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Gujrat
Dhanial 4,037 Murree Tehsil of Rawalpindi
Raghubansi 4,032 Hissar and Sirsa – a Ranghar group
Dahya 3,637 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Kanyal 3,271 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Nagial 3,036 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Dhamial 2,967 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Jhammat 2,550 Sargodha, Multan and South Punjab
Gaurwa 2,521 Gurgaon, Delhi and Rohtak – a Ranghar tribe
Kethwal 2,355 Rawalpindi – Murre Tehsil (now Kotli Sattian)
Katil 2,170 Sialkot and Gurdaspur – A Muslim Dogra sub-group
Jodhra 1,802 Attock and Rawalpindi District
Bargujar 1,502 Gurgaon and Delhi – Ranghar tribe
Hon 1,496 Rawalpindi
Lar 1,494 Multan and South Punjab
Jatal 1,451 Rawalpindi
Pundir 1,427 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Atiras 1,416 Patiala State
Ranial 1,345 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Sasral 1,292 Rawalpindi
Nissowana 996 Jhang and Sargodha
Jalap 949 Jhelum
Nagral 919 Rawalpindi
Adrah 909 Rawalpindi
Bhon 853 Sargodha
Kalial 773 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Chandel 752 Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana
Narma 748 Rawalpindi and Gujrat
Satti 744 Rawalpindi – Murree
Khatril 722 Rawalpindi
Mial 699 Rawalpindi
Gakhar 690 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Targar 653 Multan and South Punjab
Rathore 587 Firuzpur and Hissar
Nagralwal 580 Rawalpindi
Jamra 548 Dera Ghazi Khan
Satraola 546 Hissar – a Ranghar group
Chatha 500 Rawalpindi
Kowar 493 Rawalpindi
Luddu/td>

491 Hoshiarpur
Kanial Chauhan 470 Rawalpindi
Sainiwal 439 Rawalpindi
Rath 410 Sahiwal and Okara
Johar 407 Rawalpindi
Bakhial 404 Rawalpindi
Jodha 368 Rawalpindi
Joota 367 Jhang
Bosan 340 Multan
Chadhar 334 Jhang
Mangral 331 Rawalpindi
Fattiana 318 Sahiwal
Pathial 311 Hoshiarpur
Maral 307 Jhang
Tanwari 273 Multan
Badhan 272 Rawalpindi
Salhal 262 Rawalpindi
Khel 234 Rawalpindi
Sudhan 227 Rawalpindi
Kangra 222 Rawalpindi
Dharwal 202 Mianwali
Hafial 197 Rawalpindi
Gaharwal 194 Rawalpindi
Kahut 178 Jhelum / Chakwal
Gangal 178 Rawalpindi
Saswal 174 Rawalpindi
Marial 167 Rawalpindi
Kathia 166 Sahiwal
Taranda 162 Multan
Tonda 156 Rawalpindi
Bhao Ragial 153 Rawalpindi
Bains 152 Rawalpindi
Budhal 152 Rawalpindi
Dalal 133 Rawalpindi
Satral 146 Rawalpindi
Jasgam 129 Rawalpindi
Matra 121 Multan
Kassar 113 Jhelum / Chakwal
Katoch 112 Kangra
Khakha 106 Rawalpindi
Jaswal 89 Hoshiarpur
Bagri 82 Firuzpur
Pathania 69 Gurdaspur
Ladhar 47 Rawalpindi
Jaral 47 Kangra
Kilchi 46 Rawalpindi
Thakkar 36 Gurdaspur
Guleria 11 Gurdaspur

 

Bib, Karlal, Sarrara and Turk tribes of Hazara

In this post, I shall look at four tribes, namely the Bib, Karlal, Sarrara and Turks that are found in the Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Hazara is located in the North-Eastern part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, east of the Indus River and comprises six districts: Abbottabad, Battagram, Haripur, Mansehra, Kohistan, and New District Torghar. The region is bounded on the north and east by the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir. To the south are the Islamabad Capital Territory and the province of Punjab, whilst to the west lies the rest of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The river Indus runs through the division in a north-south line, forming much of the western border of the division. The total area of Hazara is 18,013 km².

Hazara lies in a region which is a crossroads of cultures, where the plains of the Punjab meet the Central Asia. Its population consists of numerous tribes, many of whom claim and are of Pashtun ancestry. However the tribes looked at in this post make no such claim. It is likely that they are of Hindu ancestry, but other then the Turks, they now all claim Arab ancestry. Like most of the population of Hazara, all these tribes speak the Hindko language, which main be descended from the ancient language of the Gandhara civilization. The population are referred to as Hindkowan, meaning people who speak Hindko.

Bib

I start this post with one of the least known of the Hazara tribes, the Bib. The origin of the Bib is subject to some argument. According to their own traditions, the Bib are a branch of the Awan tribe, a claim generally not accepted by the Awans. They, like the Awans claim descent from the fourth Caliph of Islam, Ali. Their customs are similar to neighbouring Hindkowan communities, and they are entirely Sunni.
The are found in the Abbotabad District, occupying two villages between the Rash plains and Thandiani range. This region is extremely mountainous, located in the northeast of Abbottabad District in the foothills of the Himalayas. To the east beyond the Kunhar River lies the Pir Panjal mountain range of Kashmir. Cut from the other the Awans of the Haripur plain, the Bib have much in common with their neighbours the Karlal and Sarrara, rather then the Awans.

Karlal

The Karlal, also known as Kard’al, Karaal, Karhral, or Kiraal, is a Hindko speaking tribe, found mainly in Abbottabad District, inhabiting the hilly area of the Galyat and the Nara tract. A minority are also settled in the Haripur District. A small number are also found in neighbouring Azad Kashmir, in Kotli District. Many Karlal now prefer the self-designation Sardar, meaning chief in Farsi.
The tribe trace their descent from a Sardar Kallar Shah son of Sujann Shah who is believed to have come from southern Afghanistan, and was a descendant of Alexander the Great. In Haripur and Abbottabad, they are known as Sardars, a name they acquired during the time of the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1296), when the tribal members were made rulers of the galliyat region of Hazara. There is also some argument as to the religion of the Karlal, as whether they were Hindu or not. As some of the oldest inhabitants of Hazara, a region that was largely Hindu till the early 13th Century, it is likely that they were either Hindus, or strongly influenced by Hinduism.

It does seem that throughout the middles ages, the Karlal maintained their independence. During Mughal era (1550-1730), when the Gakkars were trying to extend their authority in the entire lower Hazara from their base in Khanpur in what is now Haripur District, the leader of Karlal tribe Morcha Kulli Khan at that time was able to murder the Ghakkar chief and retained his tribes independence. Similarly the Turks, whose territory lay to the north, were also never able to extend their authority over this tribe although enjoying suzerainty over large portion of Pakhal Sarkar (an old name for Hazara). In the Durrani period (1740-1800), no attempt was made by Afghan rulers to subdue their territory. However, when the Sikhs captured lower Hazara they tried to gain control over entire lower Hazara including Karlal territory.

In 1822, Ranjit Singh sent a large force under famous General Amar Singh Majitta which was defeated by Karlals with great slaughter. Amar Singh was also murdered by the Karlal. Lepel Griffin, author of a colonial history of Hazara, writes in his book about this battle of Sumandar Khata. From 1822 to 1845 Karlal tribe fought many battles with Sikhs and were able to retain their independence. In 1844 once again Lahore Darbar sent a large force under Diwan Mulraj and Hari Singh to subdue Karlal country. Taking advantage of the difficult geographical terrain of their country, the Karlals were able to defeat Sikh army at place called Nah and killed more than 150 Sikh soldiers.

During the British period at the time of mutiny in 1857, the Karlal tried to revolt against the rule of East India Company, however, British were able to imprison Karlal chief Sardar Hassan Ali Khan and many mutineers of this tribe were hanged along with some Dhund tribesmen (Mutiny Reports 1857 of Hazara District). Subsequent to that, the Karlal remained fairly quite throughout the rest of the British period ending in 1947.

According to some sourdes, the Karlal make up 30% of the population of the district of Abbottabad, concentrated in the Galyat region bordering Murree and Azad Kashmir. The Karlal together with the Dhund, who are their neighbours to the south, speak a dialect of Hindko called Dhundi-Kariali, which is quite distinct from other Hindko dialects.

Sarrara

The next tribe I will look at are the Sarrara, who closely connect themselves to the Dhund, a tribe found mainly in the Murree hills. Some traditions make the Sarrara a branch of the Dhund, like the Dhund, the Sarrara claim to be Abbasi Arabs.

A strong tribal tradition, make their ancestor Sarrara one of twelve son of Akber Gai Khan, the ancestor of both Dhund and Sarrara tribe. Akber Gahee Khan was son of Zarab Khan who said to have come to Kashmir as general of the army under the command of Qutab Shah, the supposed ancestor of the Awan tribe. On signing a treaty with King of Kashmir and marrying his daughter he was on way back when he went to a saint in Kahuta, who asking him to pray for a child of him. The saint asked for promise of staying at the place as a reward for his prayer. The prayer of the saint led to the birth of a boy named as Akber Gahee Khan. This Akber Gahee Khan had twelve sons, namely:

Kahonder Khan ( forefather of Dhund)
Tanoli Khan (forefather of Tanolis in area of Tanawal and Amb Durband)
Chajjar Kanal
Salal
Agar Khan
Kool or Koor
Hakim Khan
Sarrara
Hans Khan
Molam Khan
Dilhawas
Barra Hazaria

The legend seems to suggest a close connection with the Dhund, and the Sarrara customs and traditions are close to the Dhund. Like the Dhund, they are hill farmers, speak the Dhundi-Kariali dialect of Hindko.
However, another tradition refers to their ancestors having come some time ago from Pakpattan in the Punjab. The tribe is classed as Sahu and inter marry on equal terms with Dhund.
The Sarrara are only found in the Boi tract between the Thandiani range and Kunhar river in the Abbottabad District. They are found mainly in Pattan Kalan and other villages such Chamiali, Bandi Sarrara, Darer, Batangi, Sialkot, Kotlian, in Kukmang Union Council.