Population of Muslim Rajput clans of Faisalabad, Multan and South Punjab according to 1911 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Rajput clans and their population of the Multan Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1911 Census of India. In 1911, the Multan Division consisted of five districts, LyalpurMontgomeryMultanMuzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan. The appearance of a particular tribe as Rajput in the list does not in itself confirm that the tribe is Rajput or otherwise. Identity may change with time, and some groups in the list may no longer identify themselves as Jats. This list simply gives an historical distribution of Muslim Rajput tribes in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a number of years prior to the partition of Punjab.

 

Multan District

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans of Multan District[4]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 12,307
Daha 991
Dhudhi 1,138
Joiya 2,383
Khuhi 1,148
Langrial 3,886
Minhas 168
Meun 76
Panwar 442
Sial 26,393
Taraqar 710

Bahawalpur State

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans found in Bahawalpur State[5]

Tribe Total
Bhatti 5,052
Chauhan 5,463
Dhudhi 1,806
Joiya 17,791
Khichi 911
Panwar 7,757
Rathore 275
Sial 6,281
Tonwar 637
Wattu 2,849
Warha 664

Dera Ghazi Khan District

Here is a list of the main Rajput clans of the district. [6]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 7,272
Jamra 1,455
Joiya 1,500
Panwar 849
Sial 2,781

Lyalpur District (Faisalabad District)

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans of the district. [7]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 5,830
Chauhan 1,455
Kharal 8,043
Khichi 851
Khokhar 856
Manhas 342
Naru 647
Sial 4,166
Sulehria 809
Wattu 2,497

Jhang District

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans found in Jhang District:[8]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 5,949
Chadhar 3,284
Chauhan 492
Jhap 1,559
Kala 747
Khokhar 2,091
Sial 41,008

 

 

Muzaffargarh District

Here is a list of the main Muslim Rajput clans found in Muzaffargarh District[9]

 

Tribe Total
Bhatti 5,342
Chauhan 564
Joiya 1,502
Panwar 695
Sial 5,341

Rajputs of Punjab

In this post, I will give a brief overview of the Rajput community in Punjab. The term Raja putra means the son of a Raja or king in Sanskrit. In Punjab, the Rajputs can be loosely divided into five territorial groupings.  According to the 1911 census in British India, the total Rajput population in the Punjab was 1,635,578, of which 1,222,024 (74.5%) were Muslim, 388,744 (24%) were Hindu and (24,810) (1.5%) were Sikh.  Each Rajput tribe claims to belong one of three lineages, and I shall start off by giving a brief description of each of these.

Lineages

The Suryavanshi lineage, claiming descent from Surya. The Sun Dynasty is oldest among Kshatriyas. The first person of this dynasty was “Vivaswan,” who by the meaning of his name is considered to be “Surya.” Ikshvaku was the first important king of this dynasty. Other important kings were Kakutsth Harishchandra, Sagar, Dileepa, Bhagiratha, Raghu Dashratha and Rama. The poet Kalidasa wrote the great epic Raghuvamsa about the dynasty of Raghu including the great king born in the Sun Dynasty.

The Chandravanshi lineage, claiming descent from Som which literally means “Moon.” This Lunar Dynasty is also old but younger than the Sun Dynasty. Som was the first king of this dynasty. Other important kings were Pururawa, Nahush, Yayati, Dushyant, Bharata, Kuru, Shantanu and Yudhishthir. Yadu was the eldest son of Yayati and Yadavs claim descent from Yadu. Krishna was also born in this dynasty of Yadu. Harivamsa gives details of this dynasty.

The Agnivanshi lineage claims descent from four persons who were born from fire or by the influence of Ved Mantras.” According to Puranic legend, as found in Bhavishya Purana, a yagna was held at Mount Abu, at the time of emperor Ashoka’s sons. From the influence of Mantras of the four Vedas, four Kshatriyas were born. They were: 1. Pramar (Paramara), 2.Chaphani (Chauhan); 3.Chu (Chalukya); 4.Pariharak (Pratihara). But since fire cannot produce warriors, it should be understood that these four persons were either reconverted into Hinduism or revitalized to fight against invaders. They could not be of foreign origin because India was fighting against Indo-Greek kings at that time. Pusyamitra Sunga and his son Agnimitra were Brahmins. They are known for reviving Hinduism. This theory of origin has produced much controversy; however, only four clans out of many Rajput clans are considered to be Agnivanshi. Some scholars also count Nagavanshi and Rishivanshi. The Yaduvanshi lineage, claiming descent from the Hindu god Krishna, are in fact a major sect of the Chandravanshi.

The aforementioned three patrilineages (vanshas) sub-divide into 36 main clans (kulas), which in turn divide into numerous branches (shakhas), to create the intricate clan system of the Rajputs. The principle of patrilineage is staunchly adhered to in determining one’s place in the system and a strong consciousness of clan and lineage is an essential part of the Rajput character. As the 1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica states, this tradition of common ancestry permits an indigent Rajput yeoman to consider himself as well-born as any powerful landholder of his clan, and superior to any high official of the professional classes. Authoritative listings of the 36 Rajput clans are to be found in the Kumārpāla Charita of Jayasimha and the Prithvirāj Rāso of Chandbardai.

 

Divisions Among the Rajputs of Punjab

The first grouping inhabited the territory that extended from the Yamuna valley to the Ghaghar, roughly what is the modern state of Haryana. Almost three quarters of them had converted to Islam, and these were referred to as Ranghar. They belonged mainly to the Chauhan and Tomar sub-divisions, which gave Delhi its most famous Rajput dynasties.

Next came the Rajputs of the south-west of Punjab, roughly the Seraiki speaking region comprising the modern Bahwalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan and Multan divisions. These tribes were hardly distinguished from the Jat clans in their neighbourhood, and for the most part belonged to the Bhatti of Jaisalmer and Bikaner, and their Panwar predecessors. The Rajput clans of the south-west had converted to Islam in their entirety. The third group comprised the Rajput clans of the Salt Range, and the Pothohar Plateau, who were split into numerous clans, either descended from the Yaduvanshi dynasty of Kashmir, the famous Raja Salvahan of Sialkot, or the numerous Panwar tribes occupying the hills along the Jhelum River. Like the Rajputs of the south-west, these tribes had almost entirely converted to Islam. The only exception were some members of the Chib and Bhao tribes, found in Kharian, many of whom had remained Hindu, and maintained close relations with the Dogras of Jammu.

 

The fourth group comprised the Rajputs of the the Punjab Hills, the modern territory of Himachal Pradesh, Gurdaspur District and Hoshiarpur District. These tribes are perhaps the most ancient of the Rajput tribes of Punjab, the Katoch being the most famous, and were almost entirely Hindu, with only some clans of the lower Shivalik hills, such as the Sulehria and Katil, converting to Islam. The principalities of the Punjab Himalayas, were some of the oldest states in India.

 

The final grouping were the Rajputs of central Punjab, roughly the area of the Sandal Bar, Manjha, Malwa and Doaba. The Bhattis, Kharals and Sials predominated in the Sandal Bar, the Bhatti predominated in the Bhattiana region, the modern districts of Firozpur and Sirsa, and the Ghorewaha, Manj and Naru were found in the Sikh tract, who had held their own against the dominant Jatt Sikh of the region.. In Amritsar and Lahore , the Rajputs were mainly Bhatti And Khokhar, with a sprinkling of Panwar and Chauhan. The Rajput clans were predominantly Muslim in this region, except along the borders with Rajasthan, where there were communities of Hindu Rajputs, such as the Shaikhawat and Rathore. I shall now look into detail at of the five groupings.

Rajputs of South Western Punjab
The term Rajput is very rarely used on its own by the tribes that are indigenous to south west Punjab. In the Bahawalpur Division, the distinction between tribes of Jat status and Rajput status is blurred. Tribes such as the Soomra, Samma, Daher, Kharal, Marral and Ghallu are sometimes refereed to as Jat, and sometimes as Rajput. The exceptions being the Johiya and Wattu, who in popular estimation are always considered Rajput. Along the left bank of the Indus, from Rahim Yar Khan District to Mianwali District, the term is rarely used by the tribes, with the notable exception of the Tiwana and Noon of the Thal Desert, and the Bhachar of Wan Bachran, in Mianwali. It is only when one reaches the Salt Range, that term Rajput comes into common usage. In the lands across the Indus, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Rajput disappears completely, and their place is taken by the Baluch and Pashtun. In the Dera Ghazi Khan District, the only indigenous tribe that calls itself Rajput, are the Jamra, who use the title Jam, indicating Sindhi ancestry. Across the Indus, in Muzafargarh, the Khera Sial, Dhanotar and Panwar are the only tribes that claim Rajput tribes. In Bahawalpur District, the Samma and Soomra are the principal Rajput tribes.

 

The Rajput make a reappearance in the valleys of the Jhelum and Chenab, where the Chadhar and Sial are both tribes of impeccable Agnivanshi pedigree. In the Sandal Bar, the Waseer, Kharal, Wahiniwal and Wattu are all major Rajput tribes, the first two claiming to be Agnivanshi, while the latter two claim to be Chandravanshi, claiming a common origin with the Bhatti. The upper part of the Sandal Bar, and the Bhattiore area of Chiniot District was a stronghold of the Bhatti tribe. Further along the Jhelum River valley, the Khokhar and Bhatti founds in great numbers.

Along the valley of the Sutlej River, the Wattu, Johiya, Baghela, Lodhra and Kathia are the predominant tribes. In and around the city of Multan, the Khokhar and Bhatti clans such as the Mitru, Kanju, Bosan and Noon predominate.

 

Rajputs of the Pothohar Plateau

The Pothohar Plateau and Salt Range is home to a large number of Rajput clans. The Rajputs are the largest ethnic group in the region, and are often referred to as the Rajah. The principal tribes are the Bhatti, Panwar, Minhas and Janjua. Many of these larger clans have splintered into numerous septs.

In terms of distribution, the Bhatti, and their sub-divisions are the most widespread. Important clans of the Bhatti descent, include Jodhras of Attock District, the Hattar of Chakwal and Jhelum districts, the Gungal of Rawalpindi and Jhelum districts, the Nagrial and Nagrwal of Rawalpindi District and the Mamyal of Rawalpindi District. In terms of historical prominence, the Janjua were the historical overlords of the region, until overwhelmed by the Ghakkars. Important Janjua subdivisions include the Dulal, Gaharwal, Jatal, Dhamial and Ranial. The Minhas are an important clan in the eastern half of the Pothohar Plateau, with their sub-divisions, the Mair of Chakwal, the Kanyal and Nagyal of the Rawalpindi and Jhelum districts.
The Panwar are after Bhatti, are the most numerous clan in this region. The Panwar themselves are found in the Pabbi Hills. Important Panwar clans include the Bangial, Dhudhi, Narma, Sohlan, Hon, Baghial and Bhakral. The Bhakral are, after the Janjua are perhaps the most important Rajput clan in Rawalpindi District. The Katoch, a clan found generally in Jammu and Himachal Pradesh, has two sub-divisions, the Chib of the Jhelum Pabbi and the Ratial of Rawalpindi District.
In additions to these clans, there are also a number of other clans, such as the Alpial, a clan of Manj Rajputs, found in Rawalpindi and Attock districts, the Jalap and Khokhar of Pind Dadan Khan, and Chauhan found through out the Pothohar Plateau.
Other Rajput clans in the region include the Mathyal,Sulehria, Langrial, Khingar, Sehngral, Ghik, Malal, Bhutial, Jamsral, Sainswal, Bijnial, Ramial, Hayal, Janjil, Tharjial, Khumbal, Bharial, Hafyal, Salhal,Mangeal, Johad, Adhial, Kurar, Jhottial, Mair-Minhas, Tuh, Chanial, Bhatti-Mehra, Bhatti-Kanjial, Bhatti-Jangal, Bhatti-Badhuer, and Bhatti-Shaikh.

Rajput of Central Punjab
The Rajput of central Punjab historically occupied a region extending from Faisalabad in the west to Patiala in the east. According to the traditions of the various tribes, they are connected with the Rajputs of Rajasthan. Their no historical records giving the account of the migration of the various Rajput tribes into the region. But tradition points the Ghorewaha to be the earliest inhabitants of the region. The Ghorewaha are said to be Kachwaha Rajputs, who emigrated from Rajasthan, during the period of Mohammed Ghori. Their original territory was the Beas Sutlej Doab. Other important tribes of this region are the Manj, Naru, Taoni, and Varya. In the districts of Amritsar and Lahore, the predominant tribes were the Bhatti and Khokhar, while in Sialkot District, the Rajputs of central Punjab met those of the hills. The Bhattis and Khokhars predominated in the plains, while the Sulehria, Minhas and Bhao were found in the hilly part of the district. In the south, the Bhattiana region, covering the modern Firuzpur and Sirsa districts, was home to the Bhatti, and related tribes such as the Dogar, Johiya, Mahaar, Naipal, and Wattu.

1891 Census of Uttar Pradesh

In this blog, I give a breakdown of the 1891 Census of North-Western Provinces and Oudh, now the state of Uttar Pradesh.

Religion-wise

 

Religion

 

Population Percentage
Hindu 40,380,168 86%
Muslim 6,346,667 13.5%
Jain 84,602 0.2%
Christians 57,470 0.1%
Arya 22,053 0.05%
Sikh 11,343
Buddhist 1,387
Parsi 342
Jews 60
Other 39
Total Population 46,962,572 100%

 

 

Caste-wise:

Hinduism (including Aryas, Jains and Sikhs)

 

Category: Military and Dominant Caste or Tribe Population Percentage
Babhan (now called Bhumihar) 221,031
Jat 713,912
Rajput 3,251,418
Taga 99,409
Total: Military and Dominant 4,285,770 10.6%
Category: Priests
Brahmin 4,725,061
Joshi

 

35,069
Mahabrahmin 19,829
Total: Priests 4,779,959

 

12%
Genealogists

 

Bhat

 

161,144
Total: Genealogists

 

161,144 0.4%
Traders

 

Bania 1,369,052
Bhatia 265
Bohra or Palliwal 1,131
Dhusar Bhargava 12,279
Kalwar 348,790
Khatri 46,250
Total: Traders 1,777,767 4.4%
Pedlars
Ramaiya 4,095
Total: Pedlars 4,095
Writers
Kayastha 514,327
Cultivators
Barai 153,421
Bhar 417,745
Bhurtiya 423
Dangi 2,363
Golapurab 9,723
Kachhi 703,368
Kamboh 6,222
Khagi 43,435
Kirar 18,363
Kisan 364,455
Koeri 540,245
Kurmi 2,005,802
Lodha 1,029,225
Mali 245,945
Murao 664,916
Rawa 25,451
Ror 4,459
Saini 99,245
Total: Cultivators 6,334,806 16%
Cattle breeders, sheep breeders and graziers  
Ahar

 

244,167
Ahir

 

3,917,100
Gaderia

 

299,423
Gujar

 

280,113
Rebari

 

896
Total 5,371,699 13%
Forest and Hill Tribes

 

Agariya 938
Ahiwasi 9,502
Baiswar 1,898
Bhil 190
Bhoksa 1,208
Bhuiya 849
Bind 76,986
Chero 4,883
Dhangar 783
Goli 21
Gond 8,861
Kharwar 176
Kol 68,566
Korwa 33
Kotwar 97
Mahra 699
Majhwar 16,263
Manjhi 6,122
Musahar 40,622
Soiri 17,822
Tharu 25,492
Total: Forest and Hill Tribes

 

282,011 0.7%
Hindu Artisan Castes

 

Banjara 39,875
Bansphor 17,227
Bargah 218
Bargi 1,076
Bari 69,708
Barhai 498,995
Barwar 5,082
Bsor 25,447

 

Beldar 37,299
Belwar 6,194
Bharbhuja 21,996
Biyar 18,821
Chain 28,610
Chhipi 23,249
Dastgar 46
Dharkar 29,639
Dhobi 579,784
Dom 270,560

 

Dorha 68
Dusadh 82,913
Ghasyara 198
Gorchha 963
Halwai 64,702
Kadhera 51,743
Kahar 1,184,455
Kasera 7,273
Kewat 315,882
Kharadi 806
Kharot 5,641
Khatik 189,630
Kori 919,549
Kumhar 702,805
Kuta 4,029
Lakhera 3,678
Lohar 525,910
Lonia 412,817
Lorha 2,662
Mallaah 365,739
Nai 668,087
Naik 2,563
Niariya 258

 

Panika 6,502
Patwa 30,812
Potgar 12
Raj 3,165
Rangdhar 185
Sadh 1,870
Saun 257
Saqailgar 704
Sejwari 386
Sonar 255,008
Sonkar 1,396
Tamboli 73,641
Tarkihar 2,747
Teli 790,047
Thathera 20,823
Village Watchmen

 

Balahar 2,359
Boriya 26,909
Dhanuk 146,190
Dharhi 12,972
Khangar 32,929
Parahiya 495
Pasi 1,219,311
Dancers and Singers

 

Barwa 1,631
Beriya 15,313
Bhagat 485
Gandharv 664
Hurkiya 801
Kathak 2,034
Paturiya 4,714
Radha 4,354
Tawaif 22,969
Total
Leather Workers
Chamar 5,816,487

 

Dabgar 1,353
Dhalgar 8,019
Mochi 11,038
Total
Scavengers
Bhangi 414,946
Domar 16,067
Total
Nomads and Vagrants

 

Aheria 19,768
Badhik 126
Baheliya 33,755
Bandi 110
Bangali 1,353
Barwar 2,703
Bawariya 2,729
Bhantu 372
Dalera 2,223
Gandhila 134
Gidiya 17
Habura 2,596
Harjala 275
Hijra 1,125
Kanjar 17,873
Nat 63,584
Sansiya 4,290
Total
Castes Foreign to the Province

 

Bhotiya 7,467
Maratha 732
Pindari 37
Sadgop 177
Sood 147
Total Hinduism 40,380,168

 

Muslims

Category Caste or Tribe Population Percentage
Priests      
  Faqir 623,506  
  Sayyid 242,811  
Priests: Total      
Writers      
  Kayastha 1,313  
Traders      
  Bisati 959  
Cultivators, Herdsmen/Graziers and Landholders      
  Baloch 13,672  
  Dogar 340  
  Gaddi 51,970  
  Gara 51,088  
  Ghosi 27,760  
  Gujar 64,424  
  Jat 14,190  
  Jhojha 26,847  
  Kamboh 2,322  
  Meo 70,974  
  Mughal 76,673  
  Nau-Muslim 87,171  
  Pankhiya 913  
  Pathan 700,393  
  Rajput 375,893  
  Rayeen 15,243  
  Shaikh 1,333,566  
  Taga 28,113  
  Turk 4,994

 

 
Total      
Artisan Castes  

 

     
  Baidguar 424  
  Banjara 26,953  
  Bansphor 112  
  Barhai 59,889  
  Bharbhunja 9.009  
  Bhatiara 30,658  
  Bhishti 80,147  
  Chhipi 11,871  
  Chik 9,430  
  Darzi 8,640  
  Dhobi 78,946  
  Dhuna (also known as Behna) 401,987  
  Dom 28,363  
  Gandhi 838  
  Halwai 31,544  
  Iraqi 11,677  
  Julaha 780,231  
  Kahar 6,923  
  Kasgar 1,670  
  Kharadi 398  
  Khateek 290  
  Khumra 5,198  
  Kumhar 10,189  
  Lohar 66,204  
  Mallaah 3,629  
  Muker 6,245  
  Nai 193,937  
  Nanbai 2,177  
  Nalband 429

 

 
  Patwa 165  
  Qalaigar 89  
  Qassab 148,516  
  Raj 3,468  
  Rangrez 35,135  
  Saiqalgar 3,446  
  Sonar 320  
  Tamboli 270  
  Teli 143,984  
  Thathera 522  
Total      
Musicians      
  Dafali 42,075  
  Dharhi 1,322  
  Mirasi 28,362  
  Panwariya 512  
Total      
Leather Workers      
  Chamar 295  
  Dabgar 129  
  Mochi 3,672  
Total      
Scavengers      
  Bhangi 17,335  
Total   17,335  
Castes Foreign to the Province

 

     
  Habshi 194  
Total      
Total Muslims   6,346,667 100%

 

 

 

Christians

Community

 

Population Percentage
Armenians 54  
Europeans 27,941  
Eurasians 7,040  
Indian Christians 22,489  
Total Christians 57,470 100%

 

 

Khushabi, Kohja, Harni and Sahnsar tribes

In this post, I will look at four communities, which were settled largely in cis-Sutlej territory that now forms parts of Punjab and Haryana State in India. At the time of partition in 1947, all of these communities as Muslims immigrated to Pakistan. In Punjab, it is often said that there is a strict division between the tribes that practice agriculture, and those that don’t. What these castes had in common in this that they occupied a borderline status, not quite zamindars, but certainly above the occupational castes. They owned land, and many were farmers. However, the Kohja difer in that their claim to Jat status was unchallenged.

 

Khushabi

 

Khushabi is a geographical term meaning the native of Khushab in Pakistan. However, the Khushabi were found in the Rupar Tehsil of Ambala District and near the town of Sunam in what was Patiala State. According to the 1911 Census Report, the Khushabi arrived from the Khushab in the early 19th Century. The community are said to have been peddlers and merchants, and generally claimed to be of Jat extraction. Once settled in Patiala, they were involved in the carrying of lime between Pinjore and Patiala. Eventually, the Patiala state authorities granted the Khushabi land north of Sunam. There they settled as farmers and with groups spreading as far north as Rupar. Although of Jat origin, the Khushabi remained distinct from neighbouring Muslim Jats, and continued to speak the Shahpuri dialect of Punjabi, which is quite distinct from the Malwai dialect spoken in the cis-Sutlej tract.


Kohja

The Kohja or Kauja are Jat clan, with an interesting origin myth. The original homerland od Kohja was the portion of Jallandhar Distric, where the Kingra stream enters that district. They lived in five villages, the largest and most important was also called Kauja. Interesting the Kohja were only entirely Muslim Jat clans found in Jalandhar District. The other villages included Kauja, Dhurial, Nangal Fida, Alamgirpur and Kotla Kauja in north of Jalandhar Tehsil

According to their tribal tradition, their ancestor was a giant who accompanied Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna in one of his invasions and settled downalong the banks of the Kingra Cho. His name was Ali Muhammad or Manju, and he was nicknamed Koh-Cha, or ‘little mountain’ on account of his size. Over time, the name changed from Koh-cha to Kauja or Kohja . The Kohja are further divided into six clans, namely he Sim, Sadhu, Arak, Sin, Dhanoe, and Khunkhun, all of whom claim to
be of Arab descent.

After the partition in 1947, like other Punjabi Muslims, the Kohja migrated to Pakistan. Most are now found in Sahiwal District, with Chak 46/5-L now there main settlement.
Other Kohja are distributed in Jhang, Nankana Sahab and Faisalabad districts.

 

 

Harni

 

The Harni were found mainly in Ludhiana, Jullundhar and Hoshiarpur districts. Harnis called themselves Bahli. Different groups of Harnis had different origin myths.For example, the Harnis of Ludhiana had a curious tradition of descent from one Najaf Khan, a Pathan, who was a friend of Shah Abdul Karim of Gilan. With his eight sons, Najaf Khan accompanied the saint in the army of Mahmud of Ghazni, receiving for his service lands at Mansuri near Delhi. The sons married Hindu Rajput wives and thus became Rajputs. Najaf Khan’s descendants settled in various parts of India, those of his four younger sons in Bhatner (now Hanumangarh), Uch, Dhodukot and Multan, from wher in 1671 A.D. they migrated into Kapurthala. At Harnian Khera, their settlement in Bikaner, the Bhattis among the Harnis quarrelled with the Tur and Mandhar septs, and were driven out. But they were accompanied by those of their women who had married into other septs and whose children fled with them. According to another version is that famine drove them from Bikaner.

 

This is however no the only origin myth. In Jallandhar, there was a tradition that the Harnis became mercenaries of Rai Kalla Khan Manj of Raikot and he gave them several villages in jagir. In return they ravaged his enemies’ lands, but when the Rai’s family declined the Harnis’ villages were handed over to the Kapurthala chief by Ranjit Singh, and they themselves were soon banished from the State on charges of killing kine. This was in 1818 and in 1847 they made an unsuccessful petition to the British authorities to be reinstated in their land. They were then allotted some waste land near Jagraon in the Ludhiana district, but it was wholly inadequate for their support and the Harnis settled down to a life of crime.

 

 

There are various explanations of the name Harni, for example heri meaning huntsman, from her a herd, and from har a road. Others say that Rai Kalla so nick-named them from harni, a ‘doe,’ because they were his huntsmen.

 

The Harni gots were numerous, considering the smallness of their numbers. The Harni genealogies were kept by the family of Pir Shah Abdul Karim of Delhi, and his descendants.

 

 

Bhatti Sejpal.

Naru

Chhajle

Bhatti Lakhanpal.

Bhatti Bharipal

Rahmir.

Bhatti Rahmasurke.

Bhatti Rahdir.

Dhadda.

Bhanas.

Chauhan.

Walha

Bahli

Bhatti Phuski.

Sangri.

Nache.

Muri.

Jitang.

Tur.

Tur Shaikh-parhai.

Tur Dhoduke or Dhuddike.

Mandahar.

Mandahar Gujjar.

Pawanr.

Panwar Awan.

Ghunia or Ghumia.

Ladhar.

Fadhar,

Shadiwal.

Lathik.

Baki

 

The curious point about these gots is that the forebear of each is specified in the table of descent from Najaf Khan. All these gots are descended from his four younger sons. To these must be added the Gul and Pachenke gots found in Tappar and Kiri respectively. The superiority of the Bhatti got is recognised by placing several cloths over the corpse of one of its members on its journey to the grave : other Harnis have to be content with a single cloth.

 

 

 

Sahnsar

 

The last community I will look at are the Sahnsar. Like most Punjabi tribes, there are several origin myth stories. In Hoshiarpur, there was a tradition that they were Panwar Rajput, who had taken to growing vegetable, as such they were ranked with the Arain. However, the two castes did not intermarry. But other traditions gave the Sahnsar a Bhatti origin.The Sahnsar were found in Hoshiarpur around Tanda and Dasuya.

 

The Sahnsar were of quasi-Rajput status, and may be an offshoot of the Mahtons a caste of Sikhs who also claimed Rajput ancestry. According to other traditions, they were once called Hazara and that Sahansar is a translation of that name (sakans=1000=hazar). If this is correct they may be Hazaras and although unlike the Hazara, the Sahnsar were and are Sunni. Another tradition claims that they originate from Pattehar, a place which is said to be in Saharanpur, and Sahnsar is the shortened form of Saharanpuri. By occupation they used to be weavers, and involved in the manufacture of ropes, mats made of grass and mors or coronets for weddings.

 

Bhawpal, Domaal, Kamlak, and Mangral tribes of Azad Kashmir

In this post I shall look at four tribes of Chibhali or Pahari Rajputs, found mainly in the Mirpur-Rajouri-Poonch region, now bisected by the Line of Control. This region is located in the middle of the Pir Panjal Mountains. These mountains form part of the Inner Himalayan region, run from east-southeast to west-northwest across the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and the disputed territories comprising Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan administered Azad Kashmir, where the average elevation varies from 1,400 m (4,600 ft) to 4,100 m (13,500 ft). The mountains are traversed by the rivers Chenab and Ravi, with the Chenab also forming a culturally boundary, with tribes located in the east of the Chenab remaining Hindu, while those found in the west have generally converted to Islam. So the Kamlak, a tribe I will look in this post, is still Hindu in territories east of the river like Reasi, while largely Muslim in Rajouri. These four tribes are the Bhawpal, Domaal, Kamlak, and Mangral . Two of these clans, the Doomal and Mangral are now entirely Muslim, but Bhawpal and Kamlak still have Hindu branches in the region. With regards to the Mangral, they also have a large presence in Rawalpindi District. All four tribes speak Pahari, but the Mangral dialect is also close Pothohari, reflecting their more western location.

Bhawpal

I shall start off with a little known tribe, the Bhawpal or sometime pronounced Bhopal, who are a Rajput clan that are included within a group of tribes that form part of the Chibhali community. Chibhali history starts with the conversion of Dharam Chand Chib, the Hindu Raja of the area in the 15th Century to Islam. As a result of his conversion, many other Rajput clans also converted to Islam. What ever the actual facts of this conversion, it is an important foundation myth for most the tribes in the Pir Panjal region. The Bhawpal, like other Chibhalis, are a clan of Katoch Rajputs of Kangra, in what is now Himachal Pradesh, India, claiming descent from a Bhawpal or Bhopal.

In Pakistani Kashmir, they are found mainly in Kotli District and Bagh District, in villages near the line of control, while in Indian administered Jammu & Kashmir, they are found in Rajauri, Nawshera and Jammu tehsils

Domaal

The Domaal are well known tribe with a substantial presence in the historic Poonch area. The Domaal are of Rajput status, a claim generally accepted by their neighbours. They are found principally in the divided district of Poonch in Jammu & Kashmir, as well as Rajouri District in Indian-administered Kashmir and Bagh District in Azad Kashmir.

Like most tribes in the region, the Domaal have a number of traditions as to their origin. In one such tradition, there was once a Mala Rajput who went to Kargil. There, he contracted a marriage with a Buddhist woman, and the Domaal are the progeny of this marriage. However, with regards to origin myths, the more common traditions makes the Domaal a branch of the Chib Rajputs. They are said to be descended from two brothers Dharam Chand and Puran Chand (incidently also ancestors of the Muslim Chib). Dharam Chand on a visit to Delhi converted to Islam. For this action, he was excommunicated by members of his tribe. They then chose his younger brother Puran Chand as the new chief of the tribe. He too latter converted to Islam, and took the name Dom Khan. The Domaal are the descendants of Dom Khan, the suffix aal clans signifiying descent. After his conversion, Dom Khan left Bhimber and settled in the village of Rajdhani in Rajouri, although he is buried in the village of Narrouni, still a place of pilgrimage for many Domaals. According to some sources, they account for 35% of the population in Rajauri Tehsil.

The community occupies the southwestern slopes of the Pir Panjal range. Their villages are found along the slopes of hills overlooking a number of tributaries falling into the Poonch River and Chenab River. Perhaps the greatest concentration of the Domaal is in the Manjakot block of Tehsil Rajouri.

 

Kamlak
Unlike the two previous tribes, the Kamlak make no claim to Chib ancestry. They are in fact a Dogra clan, and have much in common with the Bhao and Sohlan referred to in my earlier blogs. The clan claim that they are the descendants of Raja Azamat Khan Kamlak, who migrated from Budhal to the village of Azamatabad, situated in north Thanamandi Tehsil. They are a Rajputs tribe found mainly in the Rajauri District of Jammu and Kashmir. In Budhal Tehsil, there are still several villages of Kamlak, both Hindu and Muslim, such as Kandi, Dandwal, Rajnagar and Shahpur. Other then Azmatabad, Manyal  in  Thanamandi Tehsil of Rajouri District is an important Kamlak village. The Hindu Kamlak are a Dogra clan, and they intermarry with neighbouring clans such as the Charak, Chandial and Manhas. Both groups of Kamlak claim a common origin and have some common customs and rituals.

Mangral

The next tribe we shall look is are the Mangral, sometimes pronounced as Mahngral, Mangarpal. They are closely associated with the history of the town of the Kotli, which was said to be founded by their ancestor Raja Mangar Pal. The Mangrals ruled Kotli State until 1815 when it was incorporated into the State of Jammu by the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh. Raja Sensphal Khan who founded the city of Sehnsa and was the first Mangral to adopt Islam. Since then the Mangral are entirely Muslim, and found mainly in Kotli, with smaller communities found in both Indian and Pakistani administered Poonch. They are in essence a Chibhali tribe, and have much in common with both the Domaal and Kamlak clans. With regards to their origin, nothing is definite. According to Hutchinson and Vogel, authors of the Punjab Hill States, “Kotli was founded about the fifteenth century by a branch of the royal family of Kashmir. Kotli and Punch remained independent until subdued by Ranjit Singh in 1815 and 1819 respectively.” However, other traditions make the Mangral Chandravanshi Rajputs, descendent from the ancient race of the Yadavas, the clan of Krishna. According to the Chandravanshi tradition, Raja Mangar Pal son of Hani Dev who migrated to present day Sialkot from the Jangladesh region of northern Rajastan in the Twelfth century A.D. Hani Dev’s brother Nirmal Dev continued to live in Jangladesh. Prior to the mid 15th Century Jangladesh was a wild barren area. It was subsequently conquered by Rao Bika a Rathore Rajput and since then has been known as Bikaner. If we accept this tradition, the Mangral and Bhatti have a common origin, but Mangral are always considered Sahu, while only some Bhatti are.

Mangral rule over Kotli lasted for approximately four centuries until they were defeated by the army of the Sikh leader Ranjit Singh. The Mangrals led by Raja Shah Sawar Khan initially defeated the Sikh forces in two battles (1812 and 1814), though at very high cost in loss of life. However, the Sikh army returned in 1815 with 30,000 soldiers and a final battle ensued. Having lost many fighters, the Mangrals agreed to a compromise, giving up control of their city (then based in Baraali near modern Kotli) to Ranjit Singh. The rural areas remained under the control of various Mangral families as jagirs from the Jammu Raj, and they continued to be the landowners and collectors of tax revenues. This arrangement lasted until Pakistan’s 1962 Land Reform Act, whereby the ownership of the land was transferred to the tenant farmers without compensation to the landowners.

The last official count of Indian castes was conducted by the British in their census of India of 1931. At the time they recorded 4,500 adult male Mangrals. According 1911 Census, there were 2,309 Mangral in Rawalpindi District. Mangral’s in Rawalpindi are found mainly in Jawra and other nearby villages in Gujarkhan Tehsil.There are also three Mangral villages in Kahuta Tehsil of Rawalpindi District, namely Galli, Marigala Mangral and Nandna Mangral