Tribes of Attock: Gheba and Khattar tribes

In this post, I shall concentrate on a number of tribes that are found largely in Attock Districtt, a region where Pothohari culture and language gives way to Pashtun cultural norms. The Indus River flows along the western boundary of the district for about 130 Kilometres, dividing the district from the three bordering districts of Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa. As such, identification with a tribe, a common feature of Pashtun cultural traditions, is an important source of identity in this border region. The two tribes that I will look at, namely the Gheba, and Khattar, all claim a non-Pashtun origin, either tracing Rajput ancestry or claiming a Mughal identity. I would ask the read to read this post in conjunction with my post on the Jodhra and Alpial tribes. Sources used here include D. Turner’s “The Attock District: A Detailed and Comprehensive Survey Updating Col Gracroft’s Report”, (1891) and Col. C. Gracroft. “Report on the Races and Tribes of the Attock and Rawalpindi Districts”, (1868).

Gheba

The Gheba are also found in the District of Attock, and claim to be Mughal. In fact, the tribe is often referred to the Rawal Mughals of Kot Fateh Khan, which is their most important village.

The origin of the Ghebas, like that of many other tribes in Punjab, is obscure. They themselves claim a Mughal origin. Like the Jodhra and Alpial tribes, the Gheba arrived from eastern Punjab as a small warlike band, overpowering to the Jats, Gujars and Awans who preceded them and established their feudal control over the region. However, Gheba have a number of other origin stories. In one of these traditions, Gheba is simply a nickname applied to them because they live in the Gheb, the region around the town of Pindigheb. According to another one, they are connected to the the Sials of Jhangs and the Tiwanas of Shahpur. Rai Shankar Panwar is said to have had three sons, namely Teu, Seo and Gheo, from whom the Tiwanas, Sials and Ghebas respectively are descended.This assertion contradicts their claim to Mughal origin, and would give the Ghebas as of Pajput Panwar origin. After their arrival in Punjab, the Ghebas converted to Islam at the hands of the Sufi saint Baba Farid of Pakpattan, and eventually settled in Fatehjanj, expelling the Jodhras, and become effective rulers of the region.

According to the author of the 1907 Attock Gazetteer, the Gheba are really a branch of the Jodhra tribe who quarrelled with the others, and took the name Gheba, which till then had been simply a title used in the tribe. The fact that the town of Pindigheb was built, and is still held, by the Jodhras, and not by the Ghebas, lends some support to this statement. Most Gheba clame that they are a clan of Barlas Mughal (see my post of the Phaphras for more information on the Barlas), who get there name from Mirza Gheba Khan a distant cousin of the Mughal Emperor Babar, who came here with his army during the Mughal invasion of India in 15th century with Zaheeruddin Babar. Therefore it was the Ghebas who gave the area of Gheb its name, and not vice versa. A claim of Mughal origin has now been accepted, the family of the Sardars of Kot Fateh Khan play an important role in the politics of Attock District. Prior to the arrival of the Sikhs in early 19th Century, the Ghebas were effectively independent. They are now considered equal in rank with the Jodhras and Alpials, and intermarriage with the Alpials, Jodhras and Khattars is common.

Up to1825 they certainly occupied a position subordinate to the Jodhras of Pindigheb, who were responsible for the revenue of the Gheb. The later years of Sikh rule are the period of Gheba rise first to complete independence, then to equality with the Jodhras. Rae Mohamed Khan of Kot was the first chief to refuse Jodhra overlorship and founded a principality in Fatehjang. The 1907 gazetteer says the following about Rea Mohamed:

“He was a man of much power and energy, so influential that he stood to the Sikhs in the relation of an ally rather than a subject, and so turbulent that the record of his violence and crimes remains”

It was his successor Fatteh Khan, who was the real founder of the Ghebas principality of Kot. Fatteh Khan had started off as owning 13 entire villages, about two-thirds of eight other hereditary villages, and in addition shares in several other villages, which he bought or in other ways acquired. This new consolidated estate, covered much of the country under the west corner of the Khairi Murat. In 1848, the Punjab was conquered by the British, and the Kot Estate came under there direct control. However its worth pointing out that Kot estate was always called the Kot Sarkar under the British, and the administration is the sarkar, while officials of the Government are known but as English officials.” Fatteh Khan died in 1894, when his property with his jagir passed to his brother’s grandson, Mahomed A li Khan, from who the present Sardars of Kot claim descent. Other important Gheba families include the Ghebas of Malal, Dhurnal, and Shahr Rai Sadullah. The three branches of the tribe are Rawal, Bhandial and Silial. The Kot, Dhurnal and Shahr Rai Sadullah families are Rawals. The family of Malal is Bhandial, and the Manjia familyis Sihal. Another important Gheba family is that of Mari. This family calls itself Bhandial, from Rai Bhandi Beg, there ancestor.

Like other tribes of this region, the Gheba are further sub-divided into three main muhis (clans), the Rawal, Bhandial and Sihal. The Sardars of Kot Fateh Khan belong to the Rawal branch of the family, and current Sardar is Sher Ali Khan. The Ghebas are found mainly in the western portion of the Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock District, where they occupy solid block of villages reaching to the Kala Chita on the north, to Fateh Jang and Sagar to the east, and almost to the Sil river in the south. There main villages are Kot Fateh Khan, Manjia, Dhurnal, Gullial, Malal, Mari, Shahr Rai Saidullah, Sikhwal and Dhari-Rai-Ditta all in Fatehjang Tehsil of Attock District.

 

Khattar

 
The Khattar are perhaps the most interesting in terms of their exact origin. According to the traditions of the tribe, the Khattar were an Arab tribe that enetered in Spain with Tariq ibn Ziyad. The head of the tribe, Abu Al-Khattar was said to be a popular governor of al-Andalusia, Spain. After the downfall of Muslim rule in Spain, the tribe left and moved to Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, India and north west of Pakistan. The bulk of the tribe is now found in the in Attock and Rawalpindi districts. In due course, the Khattars split up into two major sections, the ‘Kala’ (Black) and ‘Chitta’ (White); of which the Kala Khattars were mostly of mixed Muslim and Hindu population whereas the Chitta section were almost entirely Muslims, and married extensively with various Afghan, Turkish and Kashmiri tribes. The Hayat family of Wah village, from which some of the most notable Khattars have descended in recent times, are from the ‘Chitta’ Khattars, though Wah village itself was founded much later c 17th century, originally as ‘Jalal Sar’ village, renamed ‘Wah’ by the Mughal Emperor Jehangir, and a pleasure garden was later built here by the Emperor Shah Jehangir. A small of Khattar also claim descent from Qutub Shah, the supposed ancestor of the Awan tribe, which would give the Khattar an Alawi Arab ancestry.
Other theories of their descent include:

“ The Khattars are generally credited with a Hindu origin,from Khatris but they are divided in belief as to their descent .Some admit Hindu origin , while those who deny it claim an Arab descent , alleging they are closely connected with Awans . ”

“ In order to meet the generally accepted belief that they were originally Hindus , even those who claim a Mussalman origin admit that while at Bagh Nilab they became Hindu and were reconverted ”

“ Khattar wedding rites used to closely resemble those of Hindus , Brahmans even being present , but they are now solemnised according to strict Muhammadan rules . ”

A further claim is that the Khattars are of Turkic ancestry; which is based on two factors: (a) supposed physical features and temperament (b) their later inter-marriages with Pakhtun/Afghan tribes living mainly in North-West Pakistan, in the Attock and Hazara regions. However, this theory neglects the Khattars’ actual and close genealogical links to various neighbouring tribes and blood kin, of Attock (Pakistan) and nearby areas, such as the Ghebas, Jodhras etc. This confusion, as to the origin, is not unique to the Khattars, in a region where many tribes, have multiple theories as to their origin.

The Khattars now occupy a stretch of land, known as Khattar, on both sides of the Kala Chita Range, and runs in a narrow strip east and west from the Indus, and across the district, in Rawalpindi, where they own, fourteen villages. They own twenty nine villages in Attock Tehsil, forty-three in Fateh Jang Tehsil, and a fair number in Pindigheb Tehsil. Their main villages in Attock District include Dhrek, Bahtar, Bhagowi, Kot Shadi, Thatha , Kutbal and Pind Sultan. The town Wah, as already mentioned, was historically an Khattar settlement. In Rawalpindi District, there villages are mostly in the Kharora Circle, in the present Taxila Tehsil, and include Dhok Phor, Pind Nosheri, Garhi Sikander and Usman Khattar. The Khattar are largely a class of feudal landlords, never really forming a majority of the population in their villages, leaving cultivation to groups they consider inferior.

 

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Jalap, Jethal, Khoti, and Tama tribes

Moving on from my previous post on the tribes of the Chibhal, I now shall now look some tribes settled in Jhelum and Chakwal districts, which are situated directly to the south of Chibhal, that have generally fallen under the rubric of Jat, although many also claim a Middle Eastern or Central Asian ancestry. As this region lies between Rajput dominated Pothohar, and central districts of Sialkot and Gujrat, where the Jat dominate, it perhaps more than most areas of the Punjab where the term Jat is used loosely. It can be applied any cultivator who does not claim foreign ancestry or Rajput ancestry, and does not belong to one of the larger tribes of the region such as the Gakhar or Janjua. However it may include groups that may have historically belonged to one of the larger tribes, but over time intermarried and merged into the general cultivating class. The tribes I shall look at all have traditions of a Central Asian or Middle Eastern, but as far as local traditions are concerned are of for the use of a better word of Jat status. Perhaps the largest of these tribes are the Gondal (whom I will look at in a latter blog), who are found all along the Jhelum river valley, with some sections in one village claiming to be Jats, and those in the following village claiming to be Rajputs. Below are a list of tribes, starting with largest tribe in terms of population, which were and probably still are the Gondal, that were enumerated as Jat by population in the 1911 Census of India:

Tribe Population
Gondal 6,549
Dhamial 4,730
Bhatti 3,146
Kalyal 3,039
Kanyal 2,603
Bhakral 2,147
Bangial 1,869
Nagyal 1,830
Raya 1,790
Jhammat 1,471
Thathaal 1,230
Bhans 1,188
Khatarmal 1,184
Matyal 1,147
Khinger 1,146
Sial 1,125
Gungal 1,049
Gujjral 788
Tarar 744
Khanda 734
Jatal 710
Ghogha 710
Phaphra 663
Khoti 646
Bhutta 632
Jandral 618
Tama 617
Chadhar 196
Hariar 579
Jangal 572
Serwal 572
Dhudhi 526
Haral 500
Minhas 457
Bains 309

As the table shows, the eastern parts of the Jhelum-Chakwal region is home to fair number of number of tribes that have a large presence further east and south of Punjab such as the Chadhar, Gondal, Haral, Mekan, Tarar, Ranjha and Sial, while as one moves north and west, we find tribes such as the Bhakral, Gungal, Kalyal, Kanyal Khinger and Nagyal, which are essentially Chibhali, with roots in the Mirpur-Jammu region. In terms of the fluidity of identity between Jat and Rajput, it is interesting to note that the Sial, who in Jhang and Multan are perceived as Rajput, are consider themselves as Jats in the Jhelum region, while some groups of Minhas have recorded themselves as Jat and other as Rajput. In this blog, I shall look into some details at the following tribes, the Jalap, Jethal, Khoti, and Tama. In the 1911 Census, the Jalap and Jethal were assigned Rajput status, while the other tribes were recorded as Jat. Most of these tribes are found along and near the banks of the river Jhelum. Readers can make reference to my earlier postings that look at the origins of the Bangial, Dhamial, Kalyal, Kanyal, Khinger, Jatal and Jhammat clans, all of whom have significant presence in the Jhelum, Chakwal and Pind Dadan Khan region. Time permitting; I hope to dedicate future postings on the Chadhar, Dhudhi and Mekan, all of whom are large tribes of the Jhelum and Chenab valleys. Below are a list of tribes that were tabulated as Rajput by the 1911 Census of India:

 

Tribe Population
Mair-Minhas 15,075
Janjua 10,572
Bhatti 6,586
Chauhan 4,394
Minhas 1,329
Chauhan Taubl
Jalap 1,172
Ranjha 866
Khokhar 770
Sohlan 606
Panwar 518
Bhakral 465
Gondal 7

Jalap

The Jalap, sometimes spelt Jalip, are the predominant tribe in the Jalap Illaqa, the rich well tract situated between the Jhelum River and the Salt Range. According to the 1931 Census of India, the last that counted caste, they numbered 400. The Jalap are generally recognised as Rajputs by their neighbours, although they do intermarry with the Gondals, who are their neighbours, and considered as Jat. Most of the tribe is found the Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of the Jhelum district, there are also a few small villages in the Bhalwal tehsil of Sargodha District.

According to one of their origin myths, at the time of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, they were settled along the banks of the Chenab river. Jalap was the chief of the tribe, and the Emperor asked him to give his daughter in marriage, as other Rajputs had done. Jalap agreed, but the rest of the clan disapproved, and when he came home, they set upon him and killed him. Shah Jahan then sent an army to punish them, and being driven from their home they crossed the Jhelum, and after many fights with the Janjua established themselves where they are found.

Most Jalaps however prefer another tradition, that their ancestor was named Jalap, a holy man, and is buried in Sargodha. Jalap is said to be buried at Ramdiani in Sargodha District. Sidharan, who was several generations in descent from Jalap led the tribe to its present location. The Pind Dadan Khan plain was at that time held by the Janjua Rajputs, whom the Jalap ousted. Both traditions make reference to the fact that Jalap was a Khokhar Rajput, and the well known Khokhar Rajput family of Ahmedabad in Pind Dadan Khan acknowledge the connection with the Jalap. Closely connected with the Jalaps are two liitle known clans, the Bharat and Khiwa clans, that also reside in the Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil.

The best known families reside at Chak Shadi, Chak Jani and Pinnanwal in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. Other Jalap settlements include Addowal, Chak Ali Shah, Chak Danial, Dhudhi Thal, Dharyala Jalap, Khotian Jalap, Kot Shumali, Kotli Piran, Mirzabad and Nawanloke, all of which are also in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District. A smattering of Jalap are also found across the Jhelum River in the Bhalwal Tehsil of Sargodha District, in particularly in the villages of Chak 4 NB Phullarwan, Chani Mohammad Qazi, Jalap, Lakseen, Salaam and Verowal. Smaller numbers are found in Chakwal District at Lehr SultanpurMandi Bahaudin District at Jayya and Sanda, Gujrat District, at Jalapwala and Sialkot District at Jalap Wali.

Jethal

Like the Jalap, the Jethal are Rajput clan, who claim Bhatti Rajput descent, but their pedigree is traced to a Bhutta, who some 12 or 14 generations ago, married the sister of a Ghori Sultan. The king, however, drove Bhutta with his 21 sons in the Kirana Bar. Bhutta eventually crossed the Jhelum River, and settled at Ratta Pind, now a mound near the town of Kandwal. According to other traditions, they are in fact Bhutta Jat by origin, a tribe found mainly in the Multan Bahawalpur region. Interestingly, Jethal legends refer to the tribe being settled at Ucch Shah Jalal, the modern town of Uch in Bahawalpur, an area with a fairly large Bhutta population.

The Jethal are found mainly in the Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District, where they hold five villages, of which Pind Saidpur is the largest, and are also found in neighbouring Dhudi Thal, Jethal, Chak Musiana, and Kahana villages. In addition, they are found in the villages of Jethal, Munday and Thoha Bahadar in Chakwal District. They are also found in the village of Chak 21 S.B. in Sargodha District and these Jethals are immigrants from the four Jethal villages in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil.

Khoti

Moving now on to the Khoti or sometimes written as Khothi, are a tribe found almost entirely in Chakwal District. Like most of the tribes in the region, they have multiple traditions as to their origin. One such tradition makes the Khoti descendents a Raja Kang of Ludhiana. Sohi, the grandson of the Raja, moved from Ludhiana and settled in Sialkot, and from him descend the Sohi tribe of the Jats. One of his descendents, Khoti, left Sialkot and settled in Pind Dadan Khan, founding the village of Chak Hamid, which is the centre of the tribe, and where the bulk of the tribe is still found. However, a second tradition makes the Khoti are a muhi, or clan of the larger Awan tribe. As the bulk of the Khoti live in a region dominated by the Awans, it makes some sense of the Khoti to claim descent from Qutub Shah. However, their neighbours such as the Mair-Minhas and Kahut consider the Khoti to be Jats, and intermarry with other Jat tribes of the area such as the Jhammat, Khinger and Serwal. The Khoti are sub-divided into a number of lineages, the largest being the Arbal, Babka, Jewal, Malkal and Nawabal.

The Khoti occupy several villages, Azampur, Baghanwala, Chak Hamid , Chak Mujahid Shumali, Daulatpur, Dhingwal, Karimpur, Khotian Jalap and Nawanloke being the main ones, in the Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, at a distant from Jhelum river. They are also the main Jat clan of Chakwal District, with the villages of Dheedwal, Munday and Khotian, near Chakwal and Khotian near Choa Syedan Shah are centres of the tribe. The village of Khotian, in Chakwal is incidentally also home to the famous Sahgal family, who have remained it Saigalabad.

 

Tama

Finally, we look at the Tama, sometimes written as Tamma, a tribe found mainly in Chakwal and in Dina region of Jhelum. Like almost all the Jat clans of the Jhelum-Chakwal region, the Tama claim a Middle Eastern origin. Their ancestor was a Dulma Khan, nicknamed Tama, who migrated from Iran during the 16th Century, fleeing the forced conversion of Iranian Sunnis to the Shiite faith by Shah Ibrahim Safavi, who had just established a Shite Safavid state in Iran. Dulma Khan settled initially at Pandori near Dina, where he founded Dhok Tama, and where his descendent contracted marriage with Jat tribes, thereby becoming Jat. The largest Tamma Jat settlement is Tamma Ajaib, near the town of Dina.

 

Bhao, Kahlotra, Kamlak, and Sau /Sao Tribes

Many of the tribes that I have so far looked at, such as the Kanyal, for example, have traditions that they migrated from the Chibhal of Jammu and Kashmir, and I shall now look at some of the tribes that still have a presence in that region, in addition to having branches settled in Pothohar. I shall start off by giving a brief descriptions of the Bhao, Kahlotra, Kamlak, and Sau tribes. All these tribes are by origin Dogra, and question then arises, who exactly then are the Dogras? They are largely Hindu ethnic community concentrated in the region between Tawi and Chenab river in Jammu and Kashmir, and the word Dogra is said to have arisen from the fact that the cradle of the Dogra people lies between the two lakes of Sruinsar and Mansar. Its derivations is therefore from the word Dwigart Desh (meaning country of two hollows), which was converted into Duggar and Dugra, which then became Dogra. The term Dogra does not refer to a single caste, but is more a linguistic category. For example, included within the Dogra category are groups that identify themselves as Rajputs or Brahman. Most of the Dogra Rajputs follow the Hindu faith, however the region lying to the west of the Chenab River saw the conversion to Islam of most of the Rajput clans. This happened largely as the Rajput population in Jammu was thickest around the Mughal road leading from the plains of western Punjab into Kashmir, through the Bhimber-Rajauri-Shupian route across the Pir Panjal. This was the route historically used by various Muslim armies on their march to Kashmir. The first Rajput chiefs said to have embraced were those of the Khokhar tribe. One of the first to convert was the Khokhar chief Rai, according to the Tabaqat i_Nasiri had embraced Islam in the time of Mohammed Ghori. Manhas and Sulehria Rajputs became Muslims in large numbers on the borders of Jammu in the region called Salahar-Tappa and Manhas-Tappa. Communities such as the Jarral, Sulehria, Mangral, Bhao and Manhas converted in large numbers in the 16th Century. The territory between Tawi and Jhelum, became known as the Chibhal, after the largest tribe in the region, the Chib. With their conversion to Islam, many other clans such as the Bhawpal, Sau and Kamlak also converted to Islam. In the pre-independence period the Muslim Rajput population was more than double that of the Hindu Rajputs.

The 1911 Census of India was the last one that collected information on the various clans of the Pahari Rajput. According to the 1911 Census of India, the main clans were:

Tribe Population
Badhan 6,856
Bains 6,193
Bhatti 4,451
Bhao 592
Bomba 1,462
Chauhan 3,646
Chib 9,665
Domaal 6,953
Douli 3,009
Gakhar 13,825
Janjua 8,062
Jarral 8,506
Khakha 1,391
Khokhar 7,736
Mangral 7,027
Manhas 6,707
Narma 6,617
Sau 2,961
Thakhar 10,451
Other Clans 64,003

 

As this table shows, the largest clan in Chibhal Region were the Gakhars, in particular in what is now Mirpur and Kotli Districts. In latter posts I intend to look at the Mangral and Douli tribes, and hopefully time permitting the Bomba and Khakha.
 

 

Bhao

Let start with the Bhao or sometime pronounced Bhau or even Bahu , who are a Rajput clan, found in Punjab, Pakistan as well as both Indian administered Jammu & Kashmir as well as Azad Kashmir. According to the tribe’s tradition, they are Raghbansi Rajputs, originally from Ayodhya in North India. This migration is said to have occurred a thousand years ago, with the Bhoas first migrating to Jammu, where they settled near Akhnur on the banks of the Chenab river. In the 14th Century, small groups began to move into what is now Gujrat District. At the time of their settlement in Gujrat, they also started to convert to Islam.

The name Bhao is said to mean those who inspire fear in the local Dogri language, which is spoken in Jammu. They have said to have acquired this name when the tribe was settling in Jammu, it inspired fear among its enemies, and hence got the name but others say the Bhao were free booters or looters and hence earned the title. However, according to another tradition, the Bhao are branch of the Jamwals, thereby related to the Minhas Rajputs. The ancestors of the both the Bhao and Jamwal were the Dev dynasty that ruled Jammu. The Devs largely remained loyal to the Mughal kings, but a feud within Dev dynasty was deepened with the Mughal agencies exploiting it, and during the late sixteenth century, the Devs virtually split into two factions (Jammu faction of Jammu city-fort, and Bahu faction across the Tawi river), while the actual Mughal supremacy over the region was established. The intra-dynasty feud and the Mughal supremacy were both terminated in Jammu during the reigns of Dhruv Dev (1707–33) and Ranjit Dev (1733–82). The Bahu is a hill located on the outskirts of Jammu. After their defeat, the Bahu Jamwals moved to Akhnur, Bhimber and the Kharian region of the Punjab.

The Muslim branch of the Bhao are found in the Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, as well as a few villages in the Bhimber District of Azad Kashmir. The Hindu branch is still found in Akhnur in Jammu District. Historically, Muslim Bhao were also found in Gurdaspur District, but all these Bhao Rajput emigrated to Pakistan at the time of the partition of India. Their customs and traditions are similar to the Chib and Sohlan Rajputs, tribes of Dogra extraction who are there neighbours.

Distribution of Muslim Bhao Rajputs by District in Jammu and Kashmir State According 1911 Census of India

District Population
Jammu 66
Reeasi 53
Mirpur 457
Poonch Jagir 16
Total Population 592

 

As the census figures, the bulk of the Muslim Bhao population was found in what is now Bhimber.

Distribution of Hindu Bhao Rajputs by District in Jammu and Kashmir State According 1911 Census of India

District Population
Jammu 2,184
Udhampur 100
Reeasi 139
Mirpur 69
Poonch Jagir 9
Total Population 2,501

 

The Hindu Bhao were found largely in Akhnur, the region of Jammu bordering Bhimber. The difference of religion was largely due to the fact that the western branch of the Chibs, the largest of the Rajput clans in this region on the slopes of the Pir Panjal, had converted to Islam, and other smaller clans followed their example. Around Akhnur, most of the Dogras remained Hindus, and as did the Bhao.

Kahlotra

Looking now at the Kahlotra, sometimes pronounced as Kalotri, a tribe historically found Naushera and Rajauri tehsils of what was then Riasi District till 1947, with a smaller number found in the south eastern portions of Kotli District. The Kahlotra are sub-group of the Dogra community. Among those clans of the Dogras that converted to Islam, the foremost are the Kahlotra. However, there are still a good many Kahlotra who have remained Hindu. According to some traditions, the Kahlotra are a clan of Suryavanshi Rajputs, while others make them a clan of the Manhas Rajput tribe. The Muslim Kahlotra also played an important role in Adam malia (Non payment of land tax) and Quit Kashmir movement.

 

In 1947, at the partition of India, entire Muslim branch of the Kahlotra tribe migrated from  the Jammu region to Azad Kashmir and Pakistan. A significant number are now settled in villages such as Thoa Khalsa in Rawalpindi District, but are still distinguished from their neighbours by the continuied use of the Dogri language.

Kamlak

The Kamlak are a Dogra clan, and have much in common with the Bhao and Sohlan referred to in my earlier blogs. The clan claim that they are the descendants of Raja Azamat Khan Kamlak, who migrated from Budhal to the village of Azamatabad, situated in north Thanamandi Tehsil. They are a Rajputs tribe found mainly in the Rajauri District of Jammu and Kashmir. In Budhal Tehsil, there are still several villages of Kamlak, both Hindu and Muslim, such as Kandi, Dandwal, Rajnagar and Shahpur. Other then Azmatabad, Manyal in Thanamandi Tehsil of Rajouri District is an important Kamlak village. The Hindu Kamlak are a Dogra clan, and they intermarry with neighbouring clans such as the Charak, Chandial and Manhas. Both groups of Kamlak claim a common origin and have some common customs and rituals

Sau /Sao

I will now look at the Sau, or sometimes pronounced as Shau. They are a branch of the Minhas Rajputs, but of all the Rajputs clans found in Mirpur, they have the least written about them. The word Sau is a corruption of Sahu, or well born, and they claim a higher status from other Minhas descended clans. It is in fact a corruption of word saha which the Sanskrit version of old Persian word Shaha or emperor. In the Pothohar and Chibhali regions, tribes such as the Gakhar and Janjua use the term to describe themselves in distinction from those tribe such as the Kanyal or Nagyal, who are called zamindar. Found now mainly in Mirpur District, in villages such as Chatroh, Dheri Phali, Jabot, Khirri, Lakhora, Kot Qandu Khan and Unna (near Dadyal), often surrounded by Bains and Jat villages.

Distribution of Muslim Sao / Sahu Rajputs by District in Jammu and Kashmir State According 1911 Census of India

As this table shows, more then even the Bhao, the Sahu are a tribe of the Mirpur region.

District Population
Jammu 26
Mirpur 2,934
Total Population 2,961