Muslim Communities of Gujarat

According to a survey carried out by the anthropologist Satish Chandra Misra in early 1960s, he identified the following Muslim communities in Gujarat, in the order of their numerical strength: Shaikh, Bohra (Sunni Hanafi), Pathan, Momin, Bohra (Ismaili Mustaali), Ghanchi, Malik, Garasia, Syed, Fakir, Musalman, Mansoori, Khatki, Chhippa, Kadia, Sipahi, Tai, Memon, Patel Vohra, Sindhi.Sandhi, Hajam, Pinjara, Mughal, Kasbati, Kumbhar, Dudhwala, Baluch, Makrani, Behlim, Qureshi, Mirasi, Khatri, Khokhar, Dhobi, and Jat.

History 

Located in the westermost portion of central India, Gujarat includes the region of Kutch, Saurashtra, and the territories between the rivers Banas and DamangangaIslam came early to Gujarat, with immigrant communities of Arab trading communities settling on the western seacoast of India as early as the 8th Century A.D. They were later joinded by Persian traders. Many of these early merchants were Ismaili, both Mustaali and Nizari. They laid the foundation of the Bohra and Khoja communities. Gujarat at this time was ruled by the Valabhi dynasty. In the thirteenth century, the last Hindu ruler Karna, was defeated by Alauddin Khilji, the Turkic Sultan of Dehli. This ushered a period of five centuries of Muslim Turkic and Mughal ruler. This led to a conversion of a number of Hindu Gujarati people to Islam, and led to the creation of new communities such as the Molesalam and Miyana communities.

In the sixteenth century, the Memon community immigrated from Sindh and settled in Kutch and Kathiawar. While in Bharuch and Surat, a schismoccurred among the Bohras, and new community of Sunni Bohras was created. Another Muslim sect, the Mahdawi also settled in Gujarat, and led to the creation of the Tai community. In 1593, the Mughal Emperor Akbar conquered Gujarat, and incorporated Gujarat in the Mughal Empire. This period led to the settlement of the Mughal community. A good many Sayyid and Shaikh families also are said to arrived during the period of Mughal rule. After the death of the MughalEmperor Aurangzeb, in 1707, Mughal rule began weaken after ruling for a century. Most of Gujarat fell to the Marathas, and this period saw the dispersal of further Pathan and Baluch, who came as mercenaries and were destroyed or defeated by the Marathas. Gujarat fell to British in the late 19th Century.

Jamat Bandi

Gujarati Muslim society has a unique custom known as Jamat Bandi, literally meaning communal solidarity. This system is the traditional expression of communal solidarity. It is designed to regulate the affairs of the community and apply sanctions against infractions of the communal code. Almost all the main Gujarat communities, such as the Memon, Chhipa, Ghanchi, Khoja, Bohra and Sunni Bohra have caste associations, known as jamats. Social organization at the Jamat Bandi level varies from community to community. In some communities, the Jamat simply runs a mosque and attached rest house, and a madrasah. Some larger communities, such as the Bohra and Khoja have developed elaborate and highly formalized systems with written and registered constitutions. Their organizations own large properties, undertake housing projects and schools, dispensaries and weekly newspapers. Perhaps the Memon have most formalized jamats, with census of community members, and distinct residential colonies.

 

Gujarati Muslim society can roughly divided into four major groupings, each of whom have traditional occupations. Here is a brief description of the various Muslim communities, starting with those who claim actual or putative foreign descen

Foreign Descended Groups

 

Community Sect Clans Language Distribution
Sayyid Sunni and Ithna Ashri Shia Shirazi, Mattari, Bukhari, Naqvi, Tirmizi, Zaidi, Rifai, Bhaktari, Qadiris, Chishti, Mahdawai, Kitoi, Mashadi, Idrusi, and Bahraini Gujarati and Urdu found throughout Gujarat
Shaikh Sunni Hashemi, Siddiqui, Qureshi, Farooqi, and Osmani in Gujarat and Shaikh Dada, Shaikh Syed and Shaikh Faqir in Kutch Gujarati, Kutchi and Hansoti, found throughout Gujarat
Pathan Sunni, some Ithna Ashri Shia Babi, Sama, Khanzada, Yousafzai, Lohani, Mandori, Suleiymani, Surat Turk and Zadran Gujarati, Kutchi and Urdu found throughout Gujarat, but large numbers in Baroda and Junagadh
Mughal Sunni and Ithna Ashri Shia Two sub-groups, the Irani who are Shia and the Turani who are Sunni Gujarati and Urdu found throughout Gujarat. Cambay was a Mughal ruled Princely State
Arabs, also known as Chavuse Sunni Akvon, Acari, Ansari, Anuj, Kathiri, and Qureshi Gujarati Junagadh, Bhavnagar, Panchmahal and Surat
Siddis Sunni None Gujarati Saurashtra, mainly in Junagadh District
Baluchis Sunni and Ithna Ashri Shia Gabol, Lashari, Birri, Gopang, Sukhe, Hooth and Korai Gujarati and Kutchi, some Sindhi Saurashtra and Kutch
Makrani Sunni Raees, Askani, Baluch, Umarzai, Rind-Baluch, Mulkajee and Gudizai Gujarati Saurashtra

 

Trading classes

Most people associate Gujarat with trading communities such as the Bohra, Khoja and Memon, but in fact they form no more then 10% of the total Muslim community.

 

Community Sect Language Distribution
Alavi Bohra Shia Ismaili Mustaali Gujarati Mainly in Vadodara District
Khoja

 

Ithna Ashri Shia Gujarati throughout Gujarat
Khoja

 

Shia Ismaili Nizari Gujarati and Kutchi found throughout Gujarat
Dawoodi Bohra Shia Ismaili Mustaali Gujarati throughout Gujarat
Doodwala Sunni Gujarati

 

throughout Gujarat
Memon who are further divided into the Hallari, Kathiawadi, Kutch, Juberi and Okhai Memon communities Sunni Gujarati, Kutchi and their own language known as Memoni Found mainly in Kutch and Saurashtra
Patni Jamat Sunni Gujarati Found in Veraval, Govindpura, Naodra, Kalji, Chourbad, Keshod and Junagadh.
Sulaymani Bohra

 

Shia Ismaili Mustaali Gujarati Found throughout Gujarat
Vyapari Sunni Gujarati Viramgam and Dholka talukas of Ahmedabad District

 

Landholders and Cultivators

 

Community Sect Clans Language Distribution
Sunni Bohra Sunni, both Deobandi and Barelvi Charotar, Patani, Kadiwal, Bharuch and Surat Jamats Gujarati found mainly in Bharuch, Ahmedabad, Mehsana and Surat districts
Agaria

 

Sunni, None Kutchi Kutch
Bhati Sunni, None Gujarati and Marwari Bharuch and Banaskantha districts
Chauhan Sunni, None

 

Gujarati north Gujarat
Dafer Sunni, None

 

Gujarati Saurashtra
Jat Sunni, Halai Jat (found in Jamnagar and Porbandar), Verai Jat (Banaskantha District), and Kutchi Jat (found in Kutch District) Gujarati and Kutchi Banaskantha District, Saurashtra and Kutch
Kasbatis Rajputs Sunni, Sayyid, Mughal, Qureshi, Shaikh, Pathan, Parmar, Ghori, Rathore, Kokwana, Bhelim, Khokhar and Soomra Gujarati through Gujarat
Khokhar Sunni, None

 

Gujarati North Gujarat
Maliks Sunni, None

 

Gujarati Kheda District
Makwana Sunni, None

 

Gujarati north Gujarat
Mandali Sunni, Kachhote, Salar, Patadia, Waria, Barogia, Adi and Panghed Gujarati Ahmedabad District
Miyana Sunni, Manek, Bhati, Dhona, Kathia, Mour, Ladhani, Malani, Samani, Musani, Jain, Kher, Makwana, Sadhwami, nd Baidmulla Gujarati and Kutchi Kutch and Saurashtra
Molesalam Rajputs / Garasia Sunni, Rathod, Rana, Mahida, Vaghela, Sindhia, Rawal, Bhalavat, Solanki, Parmar, Chauhan and Chavda. Gujarati throughout Gujarat
Momna Ithna Ashri Shia with a small Sunni minority Shersia, Khorzia, Wankaneri, Paradha, Badi, Serasia, Vakalya, Dholkhawalia, Godhrawalia, Kapadia and Chaudhary   the Shia Momna are found in Mehsana District, Ahmedabad city, and the talukas of Dholka and Dhandhuka of Ahmadabad District, while the Sunni Momna who re concentrated in fifty four villages of Wankaner and Morbi talukas of Rajkot District and the Wahabi Momna are found in Mehsana and Banaskantha Districts.
Nayak Sunni None Gujarati Banaskantha District and Saurashtra
Muslim Patel

 

Sunni None Gujarati Bharuch District
Shaikhda Sunni None Gujarati Godhra, Baroda and Ahmedabad
Rathore Sunni None Gujarati Sabarkantha and Banaskantha districts
Parmar Sunni None Gujarati north Gujarat

 

Sandhai Muslims Sunni Sameja, Samma, Jadeja, Nareja, Dal, Gothi, Solanki, Virsa, Theba, Nayi, Bafars, Hala, Shetha, and Khokhar Gujarati and Kutchi Kutch and Saurashtra
Sanghar Sunni None Gujarati and Kutchi Saurashtra and Mandvi Taluka of Kutch
Solankis

 

Sunni None Gujarati north Gujarat
Wagher Sunni Chamdia, Notitar, Chowra, Sodha, Mendani, Chauhan, Manak, Sumania, Juneja, Kero, Bhati, Koda and Ruchcher Gujarati and Kutchi Okha Taluka of Jamnagar District

Muslim Maldhari communities of Kutch

 

The Kutch region of Gujarat is home to a number of cattle rearing tribal communities, known as the Maldhari. Most of them speak Kutchi, with large Sindhi loanwords. All the Maldhari are Sunnis. Here is a list of the larger communities.

 

Community Distribution
Bafan village of Nagiari, as well as other parts of the Banni. There are also smaller communities in Jamnagar and Sabarkantha.
Bayad mainly in the town of Anjar, with a small number are found in Bhuj.
Chakee mainly in the cities of Bhuj, Mandvi, Mundra and Moghpat in Kutch, as well as the district of Jamnagar.
Halaypotra mainly in the talukas of Bhuj, Abdasa and Mandvi in Kutch District
Hingora mainly in the talukas of Bhuj, Abdasa and Mandvi in Kutch District
Hingorja mainly in the villages of Nandi Daddar, Mota Banda and Dumcara in the taluka of Bhuj
Juneja mainly in the districts of Amerli, Rajkot and the Banni region of Kutch
Ker mainly in talukas of Bhuj, Abdasa and Lakhpat in Kutch District
Khaskheli

 

Meta Qureshi

 

Mutwa

 

Node

 

Raysipotra

 

Royma found in Sukhpar village in Bhuj taluka, as well as other parts of Bhuj, Mandvi, Anjan and Lakhpat talukas of Kutch District. Concentrated in the Kanthi region of Kutch.
Samma four sub-divisions, the Gha Samma distributed in the Banni region, the Saheb Samma who are found in other areas of Kutch, the Chudasama, who are still Hindu, and distributed in Junagadh District and finally the Dangar Samma, who are found in Ahmedabad.
Sanghar found in twelve villages, namely Vandh, Bidada, Pipri, Ratodia, Bhojay, Undot, Khojachora, Asani and Serdi, all along the coast. In addition to these settlements, they are also found in the village of Mota Jakh in Nakhatrana Taluka as well as in Abdasa Taluka
Soomra

 

Theba Jadura village in Bhuj taluka, and other parts of the Bhuj taluka.

Artisans

Community Sect Traditional Occupation Distribution
Abdal Sunni Sufi singing and begging at Sufi shrines Ahmedabad
Ansari Sunni weavers Junagarh, Surat, Ahmedabad and Bharuch
Attarwala

 

Shia perfumers Ahmedabad
Bhadala

 

Sunni fishermen and sailors Kutch District
Bharbhunja

 

Sunni grain parchers Ahmedabad and Surat
Bhishti

 

Sunni water carriers Ahmadabad
Chhipa

 

Sunni Barelvi/Deobandi) calico printers throughout Gujarat
Chundrigar Sunni silk knot printing, and manufacture of a piece of cloth known as the chunri or dupata mainly in Surat
Chunara

 

Sunni manufacturers of lime mainly in Vadodara.
Dhobi Sunni washermen mainly in Baroda, Ahmedabad, Banaskantha and Kaira districts
Dhuldhoya Sunni straining dust and separating gold particles. mainly in Baroda and Sabarkantha districts.
Faqir Sunni mendicants and shrine keepers throughout Gujarat
Galiara Sunni engaged in the extraction of indigo and dyeing Bhavnagar, Rajkot and Junagadh districts
Ghanchi Sunni oil pressers Panchmahal, Sabarkantha and Banaskantha and North Gujarat.
Ghanchi-Pinjara Sunni oil pressers mainly in the districts of Junagadh, Amreli, Rajkot, Surendranagar, and Bhavnagar.
Kadia Sunni masons and brick layers Dhaboji town and the nearby city of Vadodara.
Kagzi Sunni paper manufacturers Shahpur area of Ahmedabad,
Khalipha Sunni Barbers, also musicians Central Gujarat
Khateek Sunni goat meat butchers Central Gujarat
Langha Sunni musicians and entertainers in Kutch District
Machiyar Sunni fishermen Saurasthra

 

Manihar

 

Sunni bangle makers throughout Gujarat
Mir Sunni musicians  
Mansoori Sunni cotton carders throughout Gujarat
Mirasi Sunni genealogist throughout Gujarat
Multani

 

Sunni cotton carders  
Multani Lohar Sunni blacksmiths the Zhalmed from Ahmadabad, the Gohilvad from Surat, the Chorasi from Rajkot and the Kathiawari from Kathiawar
Muslim Rangrez

 

Sunni dyers throughout Gujarat
Nagori Sunni blacksmiths throughout Gujarat
Panar Sunni weavers Dholka in Ahmedabad District
Salaat

 

Sunni stonemasons Palanpur District
Soni Sunni goldsmiths throughout Gujarat
Turk Jamat

 

Sunni soldiers Kathiawar
Tai Mahdawi weavers Viramgam, Dharangadhra and Ahmadabad

 

       

 

 

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Ranghar

Bellow is the orignal article I wrote in Wikepedia, which has been mangled into unrecognition. As the article says, Ranghar doesnot refer to any particular clan of Rajputs, but is a term used to describe any Rajput whose homeland was in the territory that now forms the Indian states Haryana, Delhi and western Uttar Pradesh. The belong to numerous clans, but in general west of the Yamuna the Chauhan and Panwar are the large clans, and in UP the Bhatti and Chauhan are important.

Article

Rangar are a Muslim ethnic group, which is found in Punjab, and Sindh provinces of Pakistan and Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh states of India. Rangar were native to Indian state of Haryana and also found in the Doab region of Uttar Pradesh, as well as Delhi in India. Presently, the Haryana Rangar are now found in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab of Pakistan, while those of western Uttar Pradesh remain in India. The term Rangar is very rarely used by the community itself, who prefer the self-designation Muslim Rajput. The Rangar use the titles of Rana, Rao, and Kunwar, prefixed to their given names, and use Khan as a surname. In Haryana, the Rangar spoke a dialect of their own, called Rangari, which is itself a dialect of Haryanvi, and many in Pakistan still use the language. Those of Uttar Pradesh speak Khari Boli among themselves, and Urdu with outsiders. After independence of Pakistan in 1947, many Uttar Pradesh Ranghars also migrated to Sindh in Pakistan and mostly settling in Karachi. They are entirely Sunni Hanafi Muslims and follow Deobandi and Barelvi schools of South Asia.

The term Ranghar has also been used for closely related Muslim communities, the Pachhada and the Muslim Tagas of Haryana and the Muley Jats. In addition, the Odh community in Pakistan are also often known as Ranghar.

1 History and origin

2 Distribution and present circumstances

2.1 In Pakistan

2.2 In India

2.2.1 Ranghar of Uttar Pradesh

2.2.1.1 In the Doab

2.2.1.2 In Rohilkhand

2.2.2 Ranghar of Delhi

2.2.3 Ranghar of Himachal Pradesh

3 Clans of the Haryana Ranghar

4 Other communities

History and origin

There are various theories as to the origin of the term Ranghar. According to one of the traditions, the name come from the Hindi words rana garh, which means the house (garh in Hindi) of a lord (Rana). There is another definition of Ranghar that it is combination of two words run and garh. Run is said to mean a battle field while Garh means that who fought bravely on the battle field. But the term Ranghar was also somewhat contemptuously applied by the local Hindu community in Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh to any Rajput, who converted to Islam. As such the term Ranghar is rarely used by the community itself.

Different communities of Ranghar had different accounts of their conversion to Islam. Thus in Jind, the local Ranghar claimed descent from a Firuz, who converted to Islam during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. These converted Rajputs kept many Hindu practices, such as keeping Brahmin priests, and practicing clan exogamy. The Chauhan Ranghar of Bulandshahr District have a tradition that their ancestor murdered a Muslim governor, and saved himself by converting to Islam. While the Moradabad District Chauhan claim they converted to Islam, after they had adopted the custom of widow remarriage, an activity proscribed in Hinduism.

The Ranghar were pastoralists, and as such came into conflict with the British imperial authorities, as the British colonial policy favoured settled agricultural communities such as the Ror and Jat, at the expense of these pastoralists. But they were also actively recruited by the British in the Indian army, and were dubbed a martial race.

The Ranghar can be roughly divided into sub-groups, conveniently divided by the Yamuna river. Those to the west of the river remained as pastoralists much longer than the Yamuna Ranghar, who were all settled agriculturist by the start of the 19th century. The partition of India further divided these two groups, with the trans Yamuna Ranghar emigrating to Pakistan, while those of the Doab region remaining in India. They comprise a large numbered of dispersed intermarrying clans. These exogamous groups are made up of myriad landholding patrilineages of varying genealogical depth, ritual, and social status called biradaries or brotherhoods scattered in the various districts of western Uttar Pradesh. The biradari, or lineage is one of the principal point of reference for the Ranghars, and all biradaris claim descent from a common ancestor. Often biradaris inhabit a cluster of villages called chaurasis (84 villages), chatisis (36 villages) and chabisis (26 villages). An example of a chatisa is that of the Chauhan Ranghar of the Agauta pargana of Bulandshahr District. The Chauhan, Bhatti and Panwar form the principal biradaris of the Ranghar, with large communities in Chauhan and Bhatti predominating in Uttar Pradesh and the Tomar and Panwar being found among the western Ranghar.

Distribution and present circumstances

In Pakistan:

After independence of Pakistan, the Haryana Ranghar have settled down mainly in the districts of Lahore, Sheikhupura, Bhakkar, Bahawalnagar, Rahim yar Khan District (specially in Khanpur tehsil)Okara, Layyah, Vehari, Sahiwal and Multan of Punjab. They speak a Haryanvi dialect which is often called Ranghari. Ranghar communities are also found in Mirpur Khas and Nawabshah Districts of Sindh. Recent studies of the Ranghar communities in Pakistan have confirmed that they maintain a distinct identity. They have maintained the system of exogamous marriages, the practice of not marrying within one’s clan, which marks them out from neighbouring Punjabi Muslim communities, which prefer marriages with first cousins. In districts of Pakpattan, Okara, and Bahawalnagar which have the densest concentrations of Rangarh, they consist mostly of small peasants, with many serving in the army, police and Civil Services. They maintain an overarching tribal council (panchayat in the Rangharhi dialect), which deals with a number of issues, such as punishments for petty crime or co-operation over village projects.

Most Ranghar are now bilingual, speaking Punjabi and Sindhi, as well as still speaking Ranghari. A large number of Ranghars are also found in the capital city of Islamabad. They speak Urdu with Ranghari accent.

In India

In India, the Ranghar are found in western Uttar Pradesh and Delhi

Ranghar of Uttar Pradesh

The Ranghar of western Uttar Pradesh have by and large remained in India, with only a small trickle migrating to Pakistan. This community is endogamous, and divided into three broad categories, the Agnivanshi, the Chandravanshi and Suryavanshi, which are again divided into several biradaris or gotras. The community is distinct from other neighbouring Muslim communities, in that follow the custom of gotra exogamy, the practice of not marrying among one’s father’s or mother’s clan. The community’s primary function has remained agriculture. Animal husbandry and poultry are also secondary occupations. Like their Pakistani counterparts, the Uttar Pradesh Rangarh also have a tribal council. Offences that are dealt by the tribal council include adultery, elopement, disputes over land, water and theft. They are entirely Sunni, and town of Deoband is in the centre of Rangarh territory, and many Rangarh are now Deobandi.

In the Doab

The community in mainly distributed in the Doab region, a tract of land between Ganges and Yamuna rivers, which forms the western part of the state of Uttar Pradesh. There main clans are the Pundir, Chauhan, Bargujar and Bhatti. Starting with Saharanpur District, their northern most settlement, their main distribution by clan is as follows; the Chauhan are found mainly in Saharanpur and Nakur, the Pundir are found mainly in the Katha tract. Other clans include the Jadaun, Bhatti, Tomar and Rawat, almost all of whom live in Saharanpur Tehsil, while the Panwar and Bargujar are found in Deoband Tehsil. The Ranghars of the village of Kunda Kalan played an important role in the events of the 1857 Indian Mutiny.

In Muzaffarnagar District, the main clans are the Chauhan, with smaller numbers of Bargujars, Panwars, Tomars and Bhattis. They are confined to the Kairana and Budhana tehsils. The only other family of importance are Sombansi of the village of Ainchauli, who are said to have come from Awadh. In neighbouring Meerut District, their main clans are Chauhan and Tomar. The three main villages of Panwar are Jasad Sultan Nagar, Zainpur (Dewli Khera) and Gotka in Sardhana Tehsil of Meerut district. The Pundir of Bajhera village are one of the important Rajput families in Ghaziabad district. Other clans include the Bargujar, Bhatti, Bhale Sultan and Sisodia. The Sisodia have nine villages in the district, while the Tomar have eight in Hapur and three in Baghpat (now a separate district). In total, they have forty-five villages in total.

In Bulandshahr District, they belong mainly they belong mainly to the Chauhan, Bhatti and Bargujar clans, while there are also considerable number of Panwar, Bais, Tomar and Bhale Sultan. The Bargujar are further divided into five clans, the Lalkhani, Ahmadkhani, Bikramkhani, Kamalkhani and Raimani. The Lalkhanis have consider themselves distinct from other Rajput communities, having held large estates such that of Chhattari State and Pahasu State.[16] In Aligarh district there are also a number of Ranghar settlements. They are found mainly in Khair and Aligarh tehsils. There main clans are the Chauhan and Bargujar, including the famous Lalkhani family. The Chauhan Ranghar of Aligarh trace their descent from Rana Sengat, whose great grandfather was Chahara Deva, the brother of Prithviraj Chauhan. There are also a considerable number of Gehlot in Hathras, Rathore in Khair, Bais in Atrauli and Khair and Bhadauria in Atrauli.

In Mathura District, the Ranghar are found mainly in the tehsils of Mathura, Chhata and Mahaban. They belong for the most part to the Bhale Sultan biradari, with a smaller number of Chauhan and Jaiswar. These Bhale Sultan trace their ancestry to the Solanki rulers of Gujarat. According to the traditions of the Mathura Bhale Sultan, they descend from a Kirat Singh, and played an important role in the history of the district during Muslim rule. The district is also home to Jaiswar clan, and the Jaiswar Ranghar are said to have been converted to Islam during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. They trace their descent to the town of Jais in Awadh, and their ancestor Jas Ram was a leper who came to Mathura as a pilgrim, and was miraculously cured. He settled down at Bhadanwara in Mat tehsil. In addition to the clans already referred to, this district and neighbouring Agra district are also home to a community known as the Malkana. Unlike the Ranghar, the Malkana community is of a more mixed origin. Those in Mathura found mainly in and around the town of Sadabad are for the most part Gaurwas and Jats. This distinction also reinforced by the fact that there is no intermarriage between the Malkana and recognized Ranghar clans such as the Bhale Sultan.

In Agra District, the Ranghar communities are found mainly in trans Yamuna tract of this district. They belong for the most part to the Kachwaha clan, found in villages in and around the towns of Fatehabad[disambiguation needed] and Kiraoli. This community are also found near Etmadpur and near the city of Agra. There is also settlements of Chauhan Ranghar in Firozabad District, who claim a connection with the famous family of Mainpuri Chauhans. Other than these two clans, there are small number of Tomar, Panwar and Sikarwars found scattered throughout the district. The Sikarwar are said to have given the name to Fatehpur Sikri, the legendary capital of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. Most of the Sikri Sikarwars were converted to Islam during the 16th Century. Like Mathura, Agra is also home to a large number of Malkanas. They are found mainly in six villages near the town of Kiraoli. The Kiraoli Malkana trace their descent from a Jat, while other Malkanas such as those in Etmadpur claim to have originally been Panwar, while those in Fatehabad claim to have been Parihar, and those in Kheragarh to have originally been Banias. Like in Mathura, the two Rajput groupings do not intermarry. The Ranghar groups are by and large fairly orthodox, while the Malkana have preserved a lot more of their Hindu traditions.

In Etah District, there main clans are the Bhatti, Chauhan and Bhale Sultan. The Chauhans are descended from the famous Chauhan family of Mainpuri. They are found mainly in Aliganj and Kasganj. The Bhattis are found mainly in Azamnagar tehsil, with Bhargain being their most important settlememt. While the Bhale Sultan are found mainly in Mohanpur, and are related to the Bhale Sultan of Bulandshahr District.

Here is a list of the Ranghar clans tabulated for 1891 Census of India.

Northern Doab

Tribe

Saharanpur District

Muzaffarnagar District

Meerut District

Bulandshahr District

Total

Bargujar

64

1,092

147

 4,006

Bhale Sultan

27

4,790

 4,817

Bhatti

443

343

576

2,455

 3,817

Chauhan

7,766

4,056

6,730

7,236

25,788

Gautam

106

 106

Gehlot

8

165

376

1,304

 1,853

Jadaun

413

38

 451

Jaiswar

58

 58

Lalkhani

2

170

3

127

 302

Panwar

313

486

885

567

 2,251

Pundir

7,267

3,875

15,680

79

 26,901

Tomar

62

32

3,016

607

 3,717

Meerut District has now been divide into three districts, Baghpat, Ghaziabad and Meerut. Similarly Aligarh District too has been divided into Hathras and Aligarh.

Southern Doab

Tribe

Aligarh District

Mathura

District

Agra District

Etah District

Etawah

District

Total

Bargujar

9

140

9

106

 264

Bhale Sultan

3

 3

Bhatti

49

49

2,671

 2,769

Chauhan

2,604

416

154

943

173

 4,290

Gehlot

1,391

173

26

14

32

 1,636

Jadaun

151

81

 232

Jaiswar

1,000

 1,000

Lalkhani

43

 43

Malkana

1,000

4,546

28

 5,574

Panwar

210

2,686

 2.896

Pundir

89

 89

Tomar

210

38

43

26

57

 374

In Rohilkhand

The Muslim Rajputs of the Rohilkhand region are also referred to as Ranghar. They belong mainly to the Bhatti and Chauhan clans. Starting with Moradabad District, the Ranghar are found mainly in Sambhal, and Bilari. The Chauhans are concentrated in Sambhal, the Rathore in Thakurdwara and Bilari. Other clans are the Bargujars of Sambhal, the Katehria in Moradabad, and Sombansis found in the entire district. In addition, the district is also home to a large colony of Khokhar Rajputs, who settled in the district during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Babar. They are said to have come originally from Sialkot in Punjab, where they are still are a large and important Rajput tribe. In the neighbouring Jyotiba Phule Nagar District, the Ranghar are found mainly in the tehsils of Hasanpur and Amroha. The Gaur are found mainly in Hasanpur, the Bargujars in Amroha,the Katehria of Hassanpur, the Bhatti in Hassanpur, and the Tomar in Hasanpur and Amroha.

In Bijnor District, there main clans are the Chauhans found in Dhampur, Nagina and Bijnor tehsils, Panwar and Bhatti in the western part of the district, and Sisodia in Dhampur.[26] The Ranghar in Rampur District, for the most part belonged to the Katehriya and Bhatti clans. They are pretty evenly distributed all over the district.[22]

The Ranghar in Bareilly District are found mainly in Bareilly, Baheri and Nawabganj. In terms of importance, the Jadaun of Aonla are perhaps to the most prominent family in the district. Other clans include the Chauhan, Sombansi and Bhatti. The village of Thiriya Nizamat Khan is an important Bhatti settlement in Bareilly District.[23]

In Badaun District, the main Ranghar clans are the Bargujar, Bhatti, Chauhan and Panwar. The Chauhan are found mainly in Bisauli, Dataganj and Badaun. In numbers, they are the largest clan. The Bargujar are found mainly in Dataganj and Gunnaur, and belong to the Lalkhani family, while the Panwar are found in Gunnaur. Kakrala is an important Bhatti village in Badaun District.

The Ranghar of Shahjahanpur District, for the most part belonged to the Chauhan, Katehriya and Sombansi tribes. The former are concentrated in Tilhar, the other two clans are found throughout the district.

Here is a list of the main tribes, as tabulated by 1891 Census of India.

Tribe

Bareilly District

Bijnor District

Badaun District

Moradabad District

Shahjahanpur District

Pilibhit District

Rampur State

Total

Bachgoti

119

119

Bais

15

212

173

400

Bhatti

3,762

514

605

4,881

Bargujar

321

363

156

40

880

Chandel

29

85

114

Chauhan

239

2,100

283

1,228

375

13

2,138

Gehlot

63

13

15

91

Panwar

123

123

Sombansi

197

386

8

591

Tomar

207

70

107

4

388

Ranghar of Delhi

The Ranghar of Delhi are said to have converted to Islam, during the reign of Aurangzeb. The conversion initially is said to have had little effect on the community. Their social customs remained unaltered, their rules of marriage and inheritance remained unaltered, save that they shaved their scalp lock and upper edge of their moustache. The community was historically connected with the Ranghar of Haryana, but their emigration to Pakistan has led to commencement of relations with the Ranghar of the Doab. A good many of the Delhi Ranghar have also emigrated to Pakistan, and are now found mainly in Mirpurkhas District, in Sindh. There main clans are the Badpyar, Bhatti, Chauhan, Panwar and Tomar. According to the 1911 Census of India the main clans were as follows:

Tribe

Population

Bagri

14

Bhatti

326

Chauhan

1,122

Gaurwa

329

Jaswal

28

Jatu

111

Panwar

223

Tonwar

136

The Ranghar in Delhi were found mainly in villages, around the city. Their most important settlement was Okhla, which now been incorporated into the city. The spread of Delhi has led to the incorporation of many other Ranghar villages into the city. There are still a small number of Ranghar villages in the west of Delhi, along the border with Rohtak District. They are remnants of the large communities of Panwar and Chauhan communities in region. Much of the Ranghar land was taken over by the Delhi Development Authority in the 1950s and 60s. This has led to landlessness, and many are now engaged as industrial labourers. There has thus been a marked decline in the fortunes of the Rajputs.[28]

The community is entirely Sunni Muslim, and many are now gravitating towards the orthodox Deobandi sect. They remain endogamous, only rarely marrying out, and then only with other Rajput communities in Meerut, and still maintain gotra exogamy. The traditional tribal council is no longer as effective, as the community has rapidly urbanized.

Ranghar of Himachal Pradesh

In Himachal Pradesh, the Ranghar claim to have immigrated from Karnal, in what is now Haryana some five hundred years ago. The areas inhabited by the Ranghar were part of the historic British province of Punjab. They still speak Haryanvi among themselves, although most educated Ranghars can speak Urdu and Hindi. The community consists of four clans, the Pundir, the Chauhan, the Tonwar and Taoni, and the conversion of these Rajput clans had occurred prior to their immigration. In addition, there are several villages of Bhattis and Ghorewahas in Una district, who although technically distinct from the Ranghar now intermarry with them. These two communities still Punjabi, and are remnant of much larger Rajput found in the historic Hoshiarpur District. Like many other Himachal Pradesh Muslims, a majority of the Ranghar immigrated to Pakistan at the time of the Partition of India in 1947. All the Himchal Pradesh Ranghars belong to the Sunni sect.

Most Ranghar villages are found along the border with Haryana, along the slopes of the Shiwalik mountains, mainly in the districts of Bilaspur, Solan, Hamirpur, and Mandi. This country is hilly, and was historically was forested, and small groups of Ranghar immigrants cleared the jungle and built their settlements. This is seen by the presence of generally of just one gotra in a Ranghar village, with the inhabitants claiming descent from a common ancestor. These settlers were also accompanied by occupational castes such as Nai, Julahas and Telis. A patron client relationship, known as the jajmani system continues to exists with these groups.The Ranghar are still a community of farmers, with animal husbandry being an important secondary occupation. Historically, service in the army and police was important, but this has almost disappeared. Closely related to the Ranghar are the Sunhak community, who are Muslim converts from the Chandel Rajputs.

In the past, the community practiced clan exogamy, but this practice has now declined, and inter gotra marriages do occur. Although living near a number of other communities such as the Bharai, Arain and Rawat, there is no intermarriage with these communities, and they are strictly endogamous. Like those in Uttar Pradesh, the Himachal Pradesh Ranghar have a biradari panchayat, that deals with intra-community disputes. The Ranghars have very effective biradari panchayat system and it exercises effective control over the community.

Population of Major Ranghar clans of Haryana from the 1911 Census of India

The last

census of India to give a breakdown of the clans of the Ranghar community was that of 1911.

Tribe

Total

Awan

7,513

7,513

Badpyar

988

988

Bargujar

805

805

1,416

589

611

2,616

Bhatti

1,416

7,094

488

8,998

Chauhan

22,833

2,676

4,221

10,929

27,316

6,545

74,520

Dahya

3,620

3,620

Gaurwa

475

475

Ghorewaha

2,949

2,949

Jadaun

46

119

165

Jatu

482

9,644

805

2,011

12,942

Jaswal

288

288

Joiya

4,785

4,785

Jora

834

834

Khanzada

3,439

3,439

Kharal

840

840

Mahaar

792

792

Mandahar

525

617

20,857

21,999

Naru

561

561

Panwar

850

6,236

1,499

15,730

24,315

Pundir

265

720

985

Qaimkhani

2,020

2,020

Raghubansi

2,135

2,135

Rathore

534

534

Sakhri

743

743

Satraola

544

544

Taoni

8,531

8,531

Tonwar

1,197

265

637

10,573

29

12,701

Warha

664

664

2,849

2,849

Clans of the Haryana Ranghar

Here is a brief description, with reference of the historic distribution of the Rajput clans of Haryana.

Chauhan

The Haryana Muslim Chauhans all claimed descent from Rana Har Rai, and connect themselves with Prithvi Raj, the last Chauhan Raja of North India. Perhaps the most widespread of the Ambala Division tribe, found in almost every district. In Karnal and Ambala, they were found all along the valley of the Yamuna. In the Rewari Tehsil of Gurgaon District, they formed important communities. According to 1911 Census of India, they numbered 73,604.

Bargujar

The Muslim branch of the Bargujar were found mainly in Jhajjar – Beri, and Rewari tehsil of Gurgaon District.

Mandahar

The Mandahars claim descent from Loa, son of Ram and grandson of Raja Jasrath of Hindu traditions. They converted to Islam in time of the Firuz Shah Tughlaq, Sultan of Delhi, in the 14th century. The tribe was found almost entirely in the old Karnal District, and as well as a few around Samana in Patiala.

Panwar

In Haryana, the Panhwar or Puar were after the Chauhan, the principal tribe. They used Rao as a title. The Ranghar in Rohtak District were almost entirely Panhwar, and acorrding to the 1911 Census of India they numbered 18,352. According to their tradition, the Panwar immigrated from Dharanagri (a place said to be somewhere in Deccan), and intermarried with the Chauhans, who gave them lands around Rohtak and Kalanaur. They have all emigrated to Pakistan, after 1947, and are found in Okara, Kasur and Sahiwal districts.

Pundir

The Pundir were found mainly in what is now Yamunanagar district, along the banks of the Yamuna river. A second settlement was near the town of Thanesar

Jatu

The Jatu are a Tonwar clan, who were settled mainly in Sirsa, Rania, Hissar and Jind districts. They are now found mainly in Okara and Kasur districts.

Raghubansi

The Raghubansi were found mainly in Hissar, Jind and Bhattinda.

Rathore

The Rathore are a Suryavanshi Rajput clan. In Haryana, Muslim Rathore were found mainly in Hissar District.

Taoni

The Taoni claim a connection with the Bhatti Rajputs. They were found mainly in Ambala District.

Tonwar

The Tonwar were found mainly in Delhi, Rohtak, Hissar and Sirsa. The Jatu and Satraola, found in Hissar were clans of the Tonwar.

Other communities

Included within the Ranghar category are the Pachhada, and Tyagi communities from the old districts of Rohtak and Karnal in what is now the Haryana state of India. They are now found mainly in Muzaffargarh and Layyah districts of Punjab.

The term Muley Jat was used to describe Muslim Jat clans settled in the Karnal, Hissar and Rohtak regions of Haryana. They are sometimes included within the Ranghar category, as many are settled in Okara and Sahiwal, among communities of Muslim Rajputs. However, the term Ranghar has historically been restricted to the Rajput community.

The main Mulla clans include the Malik, Godara, Nain, Khatri, Dandiwal, Bacchal, Baidwan and Ahlawat.

1901 Census of Uttar Pradesh

 

This was the breakdown by caste, religion and community of the population of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, now the states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, by the 1901 Census of Indi

Class Caste or Tribe Population
Group I Hindus      
  Brahman

 

4,706,332
  Ahiwasi

 

3,147
  Bhaureriya or Bhaddal

 

2,128
  Joshi

 

26,798
  Dakaut

 

5,569
  Barau

 

312
  Mahabrahman

 

8,983
Group II Hindus      
  Bhumihar

 

205,951
  Taga

 

109,578
  Bohra or Palliwal

 

1,407
  Dhusar Bhargava

 

4,436
  Bhat

 

131,881
  Golapurab

 

7,108
Group III Hindus      
  Rajput

 

3,354,058
  Khatri

 

49,518
  Kirar

 

695
Group IV Hindus      
  Kayastha

 

515,698
  Baiswar

 

1,960
  Bhatia

 

36
Goup V Bania or Vaishya      
  Agarwal

 

291,143
  Baranwal

 

19,170
  Barahseni

 

42,883
  Churuwal

 

2,966
  Gahoi

 

29,448
  Khandelwal

 

10,450
  Maheshri

 

20,081
  Oswal

 

3,359
  Rastogi

 

22,421
  Umar

 

42,422
 

Goup VI Bania or Vaishya  

   
  Agrahari

 

86,503
  Kandu

 

157,638
  Kesarwani

 

48,713
  Kasaundhan

 

96,123
  Rauniyar

 

12,074
  Unai Sahu

 

 
  Other sub-castes

 

447,088
Total Bania Group V and VI   1,332,432
Group VII Hindu

 

   
  Jat

 

784,878
  Kamboh

 

6,155
  Rayeen

 

510
  Ror

 

3,095
  Bishnoi

 

1,667
  Halwai

 

65,778
  Dangi

 

1,399
Group VIII Hindu

 

   
  Kurmi

 

1,963,757
  Gujar

 

283,952
  Rawa

 

23,953
  Ahir

 

3,823,668
  Ahar

 

246,137
  Bhurtiya

 

2,101
  Sonar

 

283,980
  Niariya

 

240
  Kasera

 

7,927
  Thathera

 

19,855
  Atith

 

35,068
  Mahant 7

 

  Sadh

 

2,641
  Baghban

 

15,577
  Mali

 

250,664
  Saini

 

73,567
  Kachhi

 

711,630
  Murao

 

645,142
  Koeri

 

505,097
  Kabariya

 

548
  Kunjra

 

1,739
  Soiri

 

1,318
  Lodha

 

1,063,741
  Kisan

 

369,631
  Khagi

 

44,608
  Gorchha 484

 

  Tamboli

 

80,561
  Barai

 

138,418
  Barhai

 

548,816
  Kunera 608

 

  Lohar

 

531,749
  Nai

 

670,239
  Bari

 

74,303
  Kahar 1,237,881

 

  Gharuk 764

 

  Gond

 

20,324
  Goriya

 

19,792
  Kamkar

 

32,016
  Bargah 372

 

Group IX Hindu      
  Mallaah

 

227,840
  Kewat

 

429,291
  Bind

 

77,829
  Sorahiya 9,661

 

  Tiar 135

 

  Chai 29,547

 

  Kadhera 29,020

 

  Gaderia

 

941,803
  Bharbhuja

 

309,655
  Chhipi

 

31,178
  Patwa

 

28,208
  Tarkihar

 

1,334
  Darzi 101,741

 

  Sejwari 138

 

  Gandharv 861

 

  Kumhar

 

705,689
Group X a Hindu  

 

Lakhera 2,793
  Churihar 1,403

 

  Manihar

 

5,695
  Kalwar

 

324,375
  Teli

 

732,367
  Bhar

 

381,197
  Tharu

 

24,219
  Bhoksa

 

5,064
  Bhotiya

 

9,832
  Saun

 

896
  Banjara

 

45,628
  Naik in plains

 

2,544
  Belwar

 

1,697
  Kuta

 

6,204
  Orh 14,248

 

  Ramaiya

 

3,158
Group X b Hindu      
  Dhunia

 

20,369
  Arakh

 

73,702
  Mochi

 

10,830
  Radha

 

3,567
  Bhagat 882

 

  Paturiya

 

4,537
  Kanchan 65

 

  Naik in hills

 

2,070
  Bhand

 

129
  Dharhi

 

12,747
  Harjala

 

365
  Hijra

 

35
  Lonia

 

399,886
  Beldar

 

46,520
  Kharot

 

4,859
  Khairha

 

88
  Khairwa

 

25
  Parahiya

 

234
  Kol

 

49,653
  Kharwar

 

15,496
  Chero

 

5,942
  Majhwar 21,259

 

  Manjhi 85

 

  Panika

 

4,824
  Kotwar 53

 

  Bhuiya

 

1,599
  Bhuiyar

 

3,870
  Ghasyara

 

345
  Pathari 542

 

  Pahri

 

1,590
  Bayar

 

15,211
Group X c Hindu      
  Mina

 

10,546
  Khangar

 

27,376
  Dalera

 

1,925
  Badhik 198

 

  Barwar

 

5,331
  Bawariya 839

 

  Bhantu 300

 

  Sansiya

 

1,595
  Kapariya

 

88
Group X Hindu      
  Dhobi

 

609,445
  Rangrez

 

1,800
  Rangsaz 79

 

  Kori

 

990,027
  Balai

 

454
  Saqailgar 1,250

 

  Dabgar

 

6,452
  Raj

 

2,827
  Aheria

 

17,774
  Baheliya

 

37,814
  Nat

 

56,263
  Beriya

 

8,810
  Bangali

 

1,214
  Dhanuk

 

127,581
  Dusadh

 

72,124
  Sonkar 744

 

  Khatik

 

199,591
  Pasi

 

1,239,282
  Tarmali 59

 

  Boriya

 

18,614
  Bansphor

 

11,934
  Dharkar

 

40,037
  Dharkar

 

40,037
  Bajgi

 

5,818
  Habura

 

4,103
Group XII Hindu      
  Chamar

 

5,890,639
  Gharami

 

142
  Agariya

 

1,186
  Musahar

 

41,187
  Kanjar

 

18,198
  Dhangar

 

1,586
  Korwa 617

 

  Saharya

 

7,559
  Bhangi

 

353,530
  Basor

 

36,510
  Balahar

 

1,988
  Domar

 

7,764
  Dom

 

233,915
Group XIIa Hindu      
  Bhil 270

 

  Bhopa 172

 

  Gorkha

 

3,835
  Ranware 726

 

  Rahwari 459

 

  Raji 63

 

  Sadgop

 

169
  Sood 4

 

Group XIIb Hindu

 

   
  Donwar

 

592
  Garg 1

 

  Potgar

 

6
  Faqir

 

294,253
  Unspecified

 

40,251
Total Hindu  

 

42,954,517
Group I Muslim

 

   
  Sayyid

 

257,241
  Shaikh

 

1,340,057
  Pathan

 

766,502
  Mughal

 

82,334
Group II Muslim      
  Ahar 2

 

  Ahir

 

7,214
  Arakh 71

 

  Baghban

 

2,104
  Baheliya

 

2,685
  Baidguar

 

290
  Bangali 194

 

  Bania

 

2,964
  Banjara

 

36,608
  Bansphor 555

 

  Barhai

 

75,060
  Bari

 

339
  Barua 8

 

  Basor 34

 

  Bawariya 98

 

  Bayar 7

 

  Behna

 

356,577
  Beldar 111

 

  Beria 720

 

  Bhand

 

3,739
  Bhangi

 

90,904
  Bhanreria 7

 

  Bhar 19

 

  Bharbhunja

 

11,560
  Bhat

 

35,582
  Bhil 9

 

  Bhumihar

 

3,005
  Bind 1

 

  Brahman 22

 

  Chai 27

 

  Chamar 205

 

  Chhipi

 

13,107
  Dabgar 36

 

  Dangi

 

8
  Darzi

 

161,298
  Dhanuk

 

83
  Dharhi

 

2,345
  Dharkar 14

 

  Dhobi

 

90,597
  Dom

 

23,156
  Dusadh

 

5
  Gaderia 708

 

  Gaddi

 

58,543
  Gandhi 1,315

 

  Ghosi

 

34,136
  Goriya

 

3,047
  Gujar

 

77,738
  Hijra 757

 

  Habura 27

 

  Jat

 

18,478
  Kachhi 67

 

  Kadhera

 

1,469
  Kahar

 

8,084
  Kalwar

 

 

2,601
  Kamboh

 

2,601
  Kamkar 80

 

  Kanjar

 

2,226
  Kasera 19

 

  Kayastha

 

6
  Kewat 3

 

  Khangar 1

 

  Khatik

 

557
  Khatri

 

38
  Koeri

 

607
  Kumhar

 

19,964
  Kunera

 

1,915
  Kurmi 310

 

  Lakhera

 

96
  Lodh

 

232
  Lohar

 

77,786
  Luniya

 

175
  Mali

 

6,180
  Mallaah

 

7,551
  Moch

 

4,700
  Murao

 

66
  Musahar

 

3
  Nai

 

219,898
  Nat

 

25,078
  Niyaria

 

291
  Orh

 

86
  Pasi

 

369
  Patwa

 

306
  Rajput

 

404,781
  Ramaiya

 

435
  Rawa 106

 

  Rayeen

 

14,239
  Soeri

 

5
  Sonar

 

3,205
  Taga

 

39,605
  Tamboli

 

3,904
  Teli

 

207,863
  Tharu

 

13
  Thathera

 

653
  Nau Muslim

 

41,807
  Unspecified

 

28,742
Group III Muslim      
  Atishbaz

 

771
  Bhatiara

 

34,714
  Bhishti

 

81,735
  Bisati

 

1,760
  Churihar

 

36,708
  Dafali

 

36,860
  Faqir

 

334,762
  Halwai

 

32,067
  Hurkiya

 

1,448
  Julaha

 

898,032
  Kabaria

 

7,930
  Kingharia

 

3,247
  Kunjra

 

85,738
  Manihar

 

72,671
  Mirasi

 

8,836
  Nalband

 

243
  Nanbai

 

1,502
  Qalaigar

 

447
  Qassab

 

180,805
  Raj

 

9,589
  Rangrez

 

38,338
  Rangsaz

 

229
  Saiqalgar

 

3,947
  Tawaif

 

21,797
Group IV Muslim      
  Baloch

 

4,278
  Dogar

 

210
  Gara

 

53,952
  Habshi

 

73
  Iraqi

 

8,706
  Jhojha

 

30,509
  Meo

 

51,028
  Pankhiya

 

1,913
  Turk

 

6,569
Total Muslim

 

  6,731,034
Christians

 

   
  Native Christians

 

68,841
  Europeans

 

28,410
  Eurasians

 

5,218
Total Christians   102,469
Jains

 

  84,401
Sikhs

 

  15, 310
Aryas

 

  65,282
Buddhists

 

  788
Total Population   49,953,801

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Census of India 1901. Vol. 16, Pt. 1, N.-W. Provinces and Oudh. Report. Subsidiary Table I Caste, Tribe and Race by social Precedence and Religion pages 248 to 258