Baghial, Manyal and Rupyal tribes

In this post I return the Chibhal country, and look at three tribes, namely the Baghial, Rupyaal and Manyal, who are found in this region. While Manyal are found entirely in the old Poonch Jagir, the other two are also found in Mirpur and the Pothohar regions. Like other tribes in the region, some sections of these tribes call themselves Jats, while other are Rajputs. The Manyal are also known as Malik Manyal, and have a lot in common with the Safial tribe discussed elsewhere. While Safial are concentrated in the Darhal region, the Manyal are found mainly in the Budhaal region. Both groups are collectively known as Malkana.

Baghial

I shall start of by looking at the Baghial. Like other clans looked in my posts, the Baghial have a number of traditions as to their ancestry. They are found in Pothohar, Mirpur and the old Poonch Jagir. Those of Rawalpindi claim to of Panwar (Agnivanshi) lineage, while those of Mendhar considers themselves to of Thakyal (Suryavanshi) lineage. It could be that indeed these two Baghial are distinct clans. However, the Mendhar Baghial to have legends that a branch of their tribes settled in the Pothohar region. Just one more point, the Baghial are entirely distinct from the Bughial, who are branch of the Ghakkar tribe.

The Panwar Baghials

According to the Baghial of Pothohar, they are closely related to the Bangial, a tribe of Jat/Rajput status found throughout northern Punjab. In Pothohar, the Baghial are found entirely in Rawalpindi District, where they occupy five villages in Gujar Khan Tehsil. They are often confused with the Bughial, who are clan of the Gakhar tribe, but with whom they have no relations. The common ancestor of both tribes is Bangash Khan, the Baghial being descended from his eldest son Bugha Khan, which would therefore make them also of Panwar ancestry. Another difference relates to the fact that while Bangial are found throughout northern Punjab, the Baghial are concentrated in Rawalpindi, and only claim to be of Rajput status. Important Baghial villages include Dhamali, Loona, Dhok Sumbhal, Kanoha in Kallar Syedan Tehsil, Pind Dara, Supiyali Baghial and Maira Mohra, all in Rawalpindi Tehsil.

The Thakyal Baghials

In the Poonch Jagir, mainly in present day Mendhar, the Baghial claim to be a branch of the Thakyal Rajputs. The Thakyal Rajputs are of Suryavanshi lineage. The Thakyals are named after Raja Jothar Singh Thakyal who established the Bhimber state in northern Punjab at the foothills of the Himalayas. There was a Thakyal Rajput by the name of Rusmi Dev who lived in a place called Thakar Dhooli, near the village Dhuruti, located near Ziarat Saen Kamla Badshah, now located some two kilometres on the Pakistan side of the Line of Control dividing Jammu and Kashmir.

 

Rusmi Dev in his descendants established a presence in the Rajouri and Mendher areas, and threw a challenge to the rule and authority of Jayrah clan. The relationship between the Thakyals and the Jayrahs deteriorated resulting in a war between the two clans. Led by Rusmi Dev, Thakyals defeated the Jayrahs (Jarals) and he took over as a ruler of this tiny state. It was a time when Islam was fast spreading all over Hindustan. With influence of Islam growing in the land Rusmi Dev, he also embraced Islam and changed his name to Rustam Khan. He ruled his territory till his death and was laid to rest in Dhuruti where his tomb still exists. Rustam Khan had four sons. His eldest son was named as Bagh Khan. Bagh Khan migrated Mendhar area and founded a village known as Sangal, presently called Narol. The other three were Sangi Khan, Kangi Khan and Kaloo Khan. Sangi Khan’s descendants live in Muzafarabad and Bagh in Azad Kashmir, Abbottabad in the Hazara region, and Gujarkhan and Rawalpindi in Punjab. It could that the Panwar Baghial of Pothohar are really Sangi Khan’s branch of the tribe.

The Baghial first settled in Sangal area now called Narol but later speard over to a number of villages like Kalaban, Salwah, Harni and Gursai. There are few Baghial families living in Sarhutti, Ari and Galhutta.

The Jat Baghials

A second group of Baghial are found in Haveli Baghal, a village in Dadyal Tehsil of Mirpur. Unlike the Mendhar Baghial, this lineage considers itself to be Jat, and intermarries with other clans of Jats such as the Rachyal and Roopyal. In Mendhar itself, the Baghial of the villages of Thera, Banola and Kasblari, consider themselves as Jats, and intermarry with other Jat clans.

Manyal

The Manyal trace descent to the town of Rajouri, and the ruler of the town called Manipaal, who lived around the late 12th Century. Manipal belonged the Pal lineage of Rajputs, who around this time were rulers of several principalities in the Pir Paanjal region. In some sources, Mani pal is referred to as Amna pal. It is traditionally believed that ‘Pal’ originated from Sanskrit ‘Pala’ meaning protector or keeper. The Pal Rajahs of the Pir Panjaal claimed a mythical origin from the Pala dynasty of Bengal. Manipal’s ancestral is said to have to come from the Pal kingdom and settled in Rajouri, where are said to have overthrown the Khasiya. Several rulers in what is now Himachal Pradesh also claim to be Pal Rajputs, such as the rulers of Bhajji. Manipal’s own rule was overthrown by Rai Noorudin Khan, founder of the Jarral Rajput line of rulers in Rajouri. Noorudin Khan arrived as a refugee from Kangra, and was greeted by Manipal, who offered his hospitality. The Rai took advantage of this, and seized the throne of Rajauri. In this way Raja Noor-Ud-Din laid the foundation of Muslim Jarral rule in Rajouri in 1194 A.D, which lasted till 21st October 1846 A.D. The Rai took advantage of this, and seized the throne of Rajauri. Manipal and his supporters fled to the region of Budhaal. A branch of his family settled in Majwhaal in Kotli District.

 

In exile in Budhaal, a prince seventh in decent from Manipal is said to have met a Sufi saint by the name of Doodh Haqani, and converted to Islam. He was then known as Din Mohammad. His Fathi Mohammad settled in ‘Moharra’, and was nicknamed Manyaala, on account of his descent from Raja Amna Pal, his clan is still known as Manyaal. Din Mohammad’s son Fateh Mohammad is said to have seized Thakyala from the Thakyal Rajputs. Fateh Mohammad established his base at Mohra village, and all the current Manyals trace their descent from him. They are also known as Malik or Malik Manyaal. The Manyal have produced Sain Bahadur, a famous Naqsbandi Sufi of the Chibhal region. Other than Mohra, the Manyal are also found in Gonthal. The bulk of the tribe remains in Budhaal tehsil.

 

Rupyal

The Rupyal, or The Rupyal or sometimes pronounced as Ruplaal claim descent from the legendary Raja Salvahan, the founder of the city of the Sialkot. He is said to have had 15 sons, the sixth one being called Roop or Roopa. Roopa was said to have left the Sialkot and settled in Pind Dadan Khan, sometime around the conquest of that region by Mahmood of Ghazni. Fourteenth in descent from Rajah Roopa Dev was an individual named Mal. Mal is said to have converted to Islam and adopted the name Rai Jalaluddin. After his conversion, the Rai is said to have left Pind Dadan Khan and settled in Poonch. This settlement occurred in the 15th Century, but happened before the invasion of Kashmir by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, according to Mohamad Din Fauq. The Rai settled in Sarhroon in Poonch. In Sarhoon, there was long settled a clan of local notables called the Chaudhary. When the Mughal Emperor Jahangir visited Kashmir, the Chaudharys provided him with excellent hospitality. As a result, the Emperor granted Sarhoon to the Chaudharys. This caused conflict with Rai Sher Khan, who was then chief of the Rupyaals, who over powered the Chaudhry’s and established Rupyaal rule over the Sarhoon and the villages nearby. The Rai remained rulers of this petty state until the hills of the Chibhal were conquered by the Dogras in the early 19th Century. The Poonch branch, and Pothohar branch of Rupyals consider themselves to be Rajputs, while those in Mirpur call themselves Jats, and intermarry with other tribes of Jat staus.

 

The Rupyal are a tribe found mainly in the Mirpur District, Haveli District and the Pothohar region of the Punjab, Pakistan. In Mirpur they are found in Pandkhor and villages in Dadyal tehsil. In the old Poonch Jageer, their villages include Miani Basti (Haveli), Choi, Degwar Maldyaal, and Chathra. A second cluster of Rupyaal villages are found in Mang Dhagron in Sudhnoti District.

In Punjab they are found mainly in Rawalpindi District, with Doberan in Kahuta and their villages in Kallar Syedan tehsil include Nothia Shareef, Mohra Ropial, Chapri Akkoo, Chanam Shareef and Chauntra. In Jhelum, they are found in Makhiala.

 

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Rajput Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

In this post, I look at the distribution of the Rajput population of Punjab, according to the 1901 Census. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the Rajputs of Punjab to get some background information.

 

District / State

Muslims

Hindus

Sikhs

Total

Main Clans

Kangra

889 153,100 57  154,046

Katoch, Indauria, Guleria, Jamwal, Jaryal (Jarral), Abhrol, Minhas, Pathania, Pathial, Dadwal and Jaswal

Rawalpindi

121,420  813  114  122,347

Bhatti, Alpial, Thathaal, Baghial, Bhakral, Nagial, Kanial, Chauhan, Dhamial, Janjua, Jodhra, and Minhas,

Bahawalpur State

101,870  3,152  2,035  107,057

Joiya, Wattu, Panwar, Sial, Khichi, Jatu and Tomar

Hoshiarpur

44,260  49,055  223  93,538 Ghorewaha, Manj, Naru, Luddu, Bhanot, Dadwal, Jaswal, Pathania, Janjua and Minhas
Multan 88,975  2,159  387 91,521  Sial, Panwar, Bhatti, Dhudhi, Minhas (Lodhra), Khichi and Noon
Firuzpur 79,868  4,282  1,034  85,184 Bhatti, Joiya, Panwar, Wattu, Manj, Sial, Dhudhi and Rathore
Karnal  66,780  15,529  197  82,506 Mandahar, Panwar, Bhatti, Barya (Brah), Chauhan, Pundir and Taoni
Gurdaspur  43,420  36,405  185  80,010 Minhas, Sulehria, Katil, Bhao, Bhatti, Pathania, Dadwal and Manj
Shahpur  72,096  897  184  73,177 Bhatti, Sial, Dhudhi, Chauhan, Bhon, Joiya, Khichi, Noon and Tiwana
Hissar   55,205  15,262  70,467 Jatu, Tomar, Panwar, Satraola, Raghubansi, Mandahar, Dhudhi, Khichi, Bhatti, Joiya and Chauhan
Ambala  48,746  18,373  128  67,247 Taoni, Chauhan, Ghorewaha, Dahya, Barya (Brah), Panwar and Raghubansi
Patiala State  52,052  12,628  616  65,296 Barya (Brah), Bhatti, Chauhan, Ghorewaha, Joiya, Mandahar, Mandahar, Atiras, Taoni, Panwar, Tiwana, and Wattu
Lahore   53,193  4,716 1,850   59,759 Bhatti, Naru, Panwar, Joiya and Dhudhi
Sialkot  47,919  11,515  232  59,666 Sulehria, Minhas, Bhatti, Katil, Janjua, Bajju and Pathial
Jhelum 57,316   251 57,567  Janjua, Bhatti, Bhakral, Minhas, Mair-Minhas, Chib, Chauhan, and Jalap
Montgomery  49,615  975  457  51,047 Wattu, Sial, Kathia, Bhatti, Joiya, Dhudhi, Khichi and Chauhan
Jalandhar  42,452  5,767 3,079   51,298 Ghorewaha, Manj, Naru, Barya (Brah), Bhatti and Chandel
Jhang  50,077  121  145 50,343 Sial, Chadhar, Gondal, Bhatti, Joiya and Dhudhi
Chenab Colony  40,129  1,129  2,677  43,935 Sial, Wattu, Khichi, Joiya, Bhatti, and Chauhan
Amritsar 32,929  2,342  209  35,480 Bhatti, Manj, Naru and Chauhan
Rohtak 27,238   7,412 1,331   34,650 Panwar, Chauhan, Mandahar, Barya (Brah), Jatu and Tomar
Ludhiana 27,798  344  29,473 Ghorewaha, Manj, Naru, Bhatti, Barya (Brah), Panwar and Taoni
Gurgaon  9,445  18,120  27,565 Bargujar, Chauhan, Jatu, Panwar and Tomar
Kapurthala State  23,788  927  27  24,742 Manj, Naru, Bhatti and Chauhan
Delhi  4,218  19,498  13  23,729 Chauhan, Gaurwa, Tomar and Panwar
Gujranwala  23,688  521 1,937  26,146 Bhatti, Joiya, Khichi and Sial
Gujrat  22,328  1,066 317   23,711 Chib, Minhas, Bhatti, Narma and Janjua
Muzaffargarh 14,699 335 1,949 16,983 Sial, Bhatti, Panwar, Dhudhi and Chauhan
Dera Ghazi Khan 14,693 193 99 14,985 Sial, Bhatti, Panwar, Joiya, Jamra and Tomar
Nabha State 6,578 3,937 286 10,801 Barya (Brah), Jatu, Chauhan, Tomar and Ghorewaha
Jind State 5,409 4,908 10,317 Mandahar, Panwar, Bhatti, Chauhan and Jatu
Bilaspur State 187 7,805 7,992 Pundir and Raghubansi
Mianwali 6,012 129 59 6,200 Joiya, Janjua, Bhatti, Sial, Kanial and Mekan
Mandi State 150 5,650 5,800 Mandial, Katoch and Chandel
Chamba State 185 4,301 4,486 Chambial, Katoch, Pathania
Faridkot State 3,685 181 19 3,885 Bhatti, Chauhan, Joiya and Manj
Nahan State 536 2,964 10 3,510 Taoni and Chandel
Kalsia State 2,432 649 25 3,106 Taoni, Atiras and Chauhan
Shimla 375 2,323 2,968 Shiam and Katoch
Bashahr State 2,570 2,570 Nanglu, Chandel and Chauhan
Malerkotla State 2,238 96 2,334 Barya (Brah), Manj, Bhatti and Ghorewaha
Dujana State 1,525 613 2,138 Chauhan, Jatu and Tomar
Nalagarh State 220 522 742 Chauhan and Chandel
Pataudi State 668 1,644 2,312 Chauhan, Jatu and Tomar
Suket State 1,178 1,178 Katoch
Other Districts
Total 1,397,347 432,360 17,885 1,797,592

 

 

 

 

 

List and Population of Muslim Jat Clans in the Ambala Division

Below is a list of Muslim Jat clans and their population in the Ambala Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1911 Census of India. This region now forms part of the modern state of Haryana. These clans referred to themselves as Muley Jats. In 1911, the Ambala Division consisted of four districts, Ambala, Hissar, Delhi and Rohtak and Gurgaon. In 1911, Delhi was seperated from the Division and became a new province. Almost all the Muslim Jat population Haryana immigrated to Pakistan at partition in 1947. I would also strongly recomend that readers watch Mohammad Alamgir’s Youtube channel, which has interviews with many members of the Mulley Jat community that now live in Pakistan.

Ambala District

The total Muley Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 10,956 (10%) out of atotal population of 106,402. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muley Jat clans:

 

Tribe Tehsil Kharar Tehsil Rupar Tehsil Naraingarh Tehsil Jagadhri Tehsil Total
Baidwan 2 45 1 48
Bains 7 64 3 4 78
Bal 2 2 93 97
Chahal 50 4 96 2 152
Dhariwal 7 151 44 202
Dhillon 5 79 13 97
Dhindsa 10 7 17
Gill 32 17 93 2 21 165
Heer 7 17 1 2 27
Kang 14 14
Maan 9 25 173 207
Mahil 10 10
Mangat 4 8 241 2 255
Pawania 6 43 49
Sarai 1 13 3 17
Sandhu 26 182 2 12 240
Sidhu 7 92 99
Waraich 7 3 1 1 12

 

Hissar District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 5,311 (3%) out of a totalpopulation of 224,889. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Mulley Jat clans:

Tribe Hissar Tehsil Hansi Tehsil Bhiwani Tehsil Fatehabad Tehsil Sirsa Tehsil Total
Bahniwal 237 17 286 540
Bola 33 2 35
Chahal 8 45 24 77
Chauhan 2 24 26
Dandiwal 20 14 34
Dhillon 11 11
Dohan 81 2 83
Gill 13 16 29
Godara 62 202 264
Lahar 10 10
Mahla 13 9 22
Maan 101 101
Nain 57 39 96
Panghal 7 9 59 4 79
Punia 35 88 9 132
Sarai 8 24 33 65
Sawaich 40 40
Sheoran 42 1 43
Sehwag 5 19 24

 

Karnal District

 

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 3,597 (3%) out of a totalpopulation of 111,239. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

 

 

Tribe Karnal Tehsil Panipat Tehsil Kaithal Tehsil Thanesar Tehsil Total
Ahlawat 15 15
Badhan 4 146 1 151
Bhainiwal 2 27 1 30
Dabdal 41 10 51
Deshwal 257 3 260
Dhariwal 11 11
Dhillon 1 68 69
Dhindsa 34 34
Gailan 20 20
Ghatwala or Malik 8 9 3 20
Gill 15 2 17
Jaglan 11 11
Khandi 9 9
Khokhar 50 12 62
Maan 10 10
Narwal 171 3 17 191
Pawania 11 2 13
Saran 4 3 7
Sidhu 4 3 7
Sandhu 2 24 26

 

Rohtak District

 

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 4,015 (2%) out of a totalpopulation of 266,729. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

 

 

 

Tribe Rohtak Tehsil Jhajjar Tehsil Gohana Tehsil Total
Ahlawat 21 21
Dalal 10 10
Deshwal 19 19
Dhaukar 19 26 45
Ghatwala or Malik 5 36 8 49
Khatri 19 19
Panghal 150 150
Phogat 20 20
Rathi 144 144
Sunar 4 120 124

 

 

Delhi District

When the 1911 Census was taking, Delhi was still part of Punjab, and included Sonepat and Ballabgarh, which were added to Rohtak when the new province of Delhi was created. In 1931, the total Muslim Jat population was 1,245, out of a total Jat population of 53,371. Many Muslim Jats were found in the villages of Nangloi Jatt and Shahpur Jat. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

 

Tribe Sonepat Tehsil Delhi Tehsil Ballabgarh Tehsil Total
Ahlawat 13 13
Dagar 2 2
Dahiya 27 27
Deshwal 9 9
Ghatwala or Malik 711 13 724
Gulia 69 2 71
Khatri 21 21
Nain 28 28

 

Ghosi, Gaddi and Gadariya population of Punjab according to the 1901 Census

In this post, I will look at the distribution of three castes according to the 1901 Census, that in the Punjab were associated with pastoralism, namely the Gaderiya, Gaddi and Ghosi. With regards to the Gaddi, we really have two distinct communities, one found in what is now Himachal Pradesh, who practice transhumance, and a community of Muslim agriculturalist found in what is now modern Haryana. They may be the one and same community, simply divided by religion. The Ghosi, found in Delhi, and adjoining parts of what is Haryana were simply Muslim converts from the Ahir caste.

Gadariya Population

The Gadariya were traditionally shepherds and goatherds, who had taken to weaving blankets. In 1901, they were found almost entirely in Haryana, and were largely Hindu. Karnal was the only area with Muslim Gadariya.

District / States Hindu Muslim Total
Karnal 6,916  597 7,513
Gurgaon 5,304 5,304
Ambala 4,571 60 4,631
Delhi 2,226 10 2,236
Kalsia State 581 12 593
Patiala State 556  18 574
Lahore 419 419
Nahan State 360 360
Firuzpur 353   353
Jind State 164   164
Other Districts
    322
Total Population 22,048 721
22,769

Gaddi Population

District / States Hindu Muslim Total
Chamba State  11,507 11,507
Kangra  9,315 9,315
Karnal  4,015 4,015
Gurdaspur  492 492
Mandi State  172  172
Delhi  153 153
Other Districts
Total Population 21,514
4,192
25,706

Ghosi Population

The Ghosi were Muslim converts from the Ahir caste. They were largely urban group, associated with selling milk.

District / States Muslim Hindu Total
Delhi 526  315 841
Hissar 622 622
Karnal 592 592
Ambala 324  46 370
Rohtak 320 320
Rawalpindi 289 289
Jalandhar 211  19  230
Lahore 161  11 172
Firuzpur 134 134
Ludhiana 131 131
Patiala State  84 36 120
Other Districts
Total Population 3,543  487  4,030

Gujar / Gujjar Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census of Punjab

In this post, I will look at the distribution of the Gujjar population in Punjab. The Gujjar were by the begining of the 20th Century becoming a caste associated with cultivation. However as the Pundit Harkishan Kaul, author of the 1911 Census writes:

Allied to Cultivators are the castes and tribes who, although pastoral by origin, have, for
generations, also cultivated land. These are Dogar, Gujar, Pachadha and Ahir, and cattle
rearing forms an important part of their means of livelihood, even now.

Therefore cattle rearing was still an important activity for the caste.

Gujar groups

The region of Gujrat, literally meaning the place of the Gujjars was and remains the centre of the tribe. The majority of the Gujjars were found in the foothills of the Himalyas, stretching from Attock to Ambala. A second group, largely nomadic was found in the Punjab Hill States, mainly in Chamba, Nalagarh, Bilaspur and Mandi, who were largely nomadic. These two groups were largely Muslim, although in Ambala there was a large Hindu minority. A third group found Lahore onwards to Ludhiana, largely cultivators and also Muslim. A fourth group were found in present day Haryana, largly still rearing cattle, with a slight Hindu majority. This last grroup spoke Haryanvi.

District / States

Muslim

Hindu

Sikh

Total

Gujrat 110,478  36 110,514
Hoshiarpur 52,378  20,072  390 77,840
Gurdaspur 50,517  28 50,545
Ambala 23,829 21,670  164 45,663
Rawalpindi 37,978 167 38,145
Patiala State 19,391 16,347 619  36,357
Ludhiana 32,313 682 113 33,108
Karnal  7,673 22,291 29,964
Delhi 2,559 25,671 28,230
Gurgaon 135 24,813 24,948
Jhelum 19,891 11 19,902
Jalandhar 19,415 442 19,857
Firuzpur 12,836 278 33 13,147
Hissar 3,641 7,305 10,946
Sialkot 10,030 57 10,087
Nalagarh State  3,623 5,400 440 9,463
Kangra  7,584 1,054 8,638
Lahore  8,246 112 8,358
Kapurthala State 7,286 400 27 7,713
Nabha State 3,700 3,236 23 6,959
Chenab Colony 6,402 154 24 6,580
Kalsia State 2,835 2,425 5,260
Amritsar 4,716 203 4,919
Bilaspur State 89 3,379 3,468
Rohtak 582 2,834 3,416
Nahan State 1,377 1,266 2,643
Malerkotla State 2,532 2,532
Gujranwala 2,482 41 2,523
Mandi State 805 1,232 2,037
Jind State 477 1,462 1,939
Chamba State 1,296 1,296
Faridkot State 834 41 875
Multan
725 37 762
Bahawalpur State 749 24 773
Montgomery 510 23 533
Jhang 518 518
Shahpur 476 476
Dera Ghazi Khan 380 380
Muzaffargarh 370 370
Mianwali  226 226

Other Districts

Total

 460,450

169,244

1,870

631,524

 

Mughal Population of Punjab according to the 1901 Census

In this post, I look at the distribution of the Mughal population in Punjab. The term Mughal in Punjab really meant anyone actually or putatively claim descent from Central Asians migrants. The Mughals of Delhi were connected with the royal dynasty that ruled India, but the Pothohar groups included people of very diverse origin.

District / States Population
Jhelum 21,424
Rawalpindi 20,377
Multan 8,038
Gujrat 6,272
Delhi 5,782
Lahore 4,683
Sialkot 3,811
Bahawalpur State 3,500
Amritsar 2,730
Gurdaspur 2,247
Patiala 2,195 
Firuzpur 2,177
Jalandhar 1,557 
Montgomery 1,430
Gurgaon 1,208
Shahpur 1,200
Hoshiarpur 1,177
Jind 854
Chenab Colony 845
Hissar 824
Karnal 818
Ambala 655
Gujranwala 621
Ludhiana 528
Kapurthala State 526
Other Districts 4,098
Total Population 98,277

 

Kashmiri Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this post, I will look at the distribution of the Kashmiri population in Punjab, according to the 1901 Census. Almost all the Punjab Kashmiris were Muslims, Hindus in 1901 numbered just 366, all found in Lahore city. The Kashmiris of Punjab are ethnic Kashmiris, who have historically migrated from the Kashmir Valley and settled in the Punjab region. Groups from Chibhal (Mirpur / Poonch) and Duggar, such as the Barwala, Gujjar or Jat, tended to be absorbed into Barwala, Jat and Gujar already long settled in Punjab. Ethnic Kashmiris from Valley begun to migrate to the Punjab region during Dogra and Sikh rule of the region starting from the 18th Century. One of the causes of the migration was the 1833 famine, which resulted in many people leaving the Kashmir Valley and migrating to the Punjab, with the majority of weavers leaving Kashmir. Weavers had been settled for generations in the cities of Punjab such as Amritsar and Ludhiana. In 1901, the urban areas of Amritsar, Jalandhar and Ludhiana were home to large communities of Kashmiri Muslims, many of whom were weavers. A second groups of Kashmiris were those of Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Gujrat, a mix of urban and rural settlers, many of whom were engaged in cultivation. The five districts with the largest Kashmiri population were Sialkot, Gujrat, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, and Amritsar. In the first three districts, Kashmiris were a mix of cultivators and urban traders, but in the later two, the Kashmiris were largely weavers. In Punjab, the Kashmiri had formed a caste, slightly above the kammi, but below the zamindar. Like the Rawals and Kathiks looked at in other posts, they were not gazetted as an agricultural tribe, which meant they could not own land. Many Kashmiris therefore migrated to East Africa or Malaysia, in the beginning of the 20th Century. Almost all the Kashmiri by the beginning of the 20th Century were Punjabi speaking.

District Population
Sialkot 32,479
Gujrat 32,842
Rawalpindi 24,922
Gujranwala 23,837
Amritsar 21,844
Lahore 16,076
Jhelum 12,335
Gurdaspur 9,241
Ludhiana 4,766
Chenab Colony 4,631
Firuzpur 2,103 
Jalandhar 2,056 
Chamba State 1,854
Kangra 1,097 
Hoshiarpur 636
Patiala State 544
Kapurthala State 468
Nabha State 423 
Shahpur 310
Shimla 143
Multan 131
Other Districts 714
Total Population 193,452

 

 

Distribution of the Tagah/Tyagi. Ror and Reya castes according to the 1901 Census

In this post, carrying from the theme of distribution of different communities according to the 1901 Census, I look at the distribution of the Tyagi (then known as Tagah), Reya and Ror castes.

Tagah Distribution in Punjab

While the Tyagi were split between Hinduism and Islam, the other two castes are almost entirely Hindu. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the Tyagi were found in parts of Punjab that now form the state of Haryana. Most were found in Sonepat, a region which was part of Delhi District in 1901. The Muslim Tyagis of Haryana all migrated to Pakistan in 1947.

District / States Hindu Muslim Total
Delhi 6,083 2,690 8,773
Karnal 2,281 2,185 4,466
Gurgaon 11 185 196
Rohtak 143 143
Other Districts
12
Total Population 8,376 5,214 13,590

Tyagi Population of the Unite Provinces (Uttar Pradesh)

In UP, Tyagis, both Hindu and Muslim were found largely in the Doab, indeed most were found in the Upper Doab, which extends from Haridwar on the north to Aligarh on the south.

District Hindu Muslim Total
Meerut 41,230 19,886 61,116
Moradabad 13,816 8,001 21,817
Saharanpur 15,542 2,960 18,502
Muzaffarnagar 10,448 7,510 17,958
Bulandshahr 10,420 669 11,093
Bijnor 8,207 491 8,698
Aligarh 4,618 12 4,630
Mathura 3,026 40 3,066
Agra 1,860 36 1,896
Dehra Dun 499 499
Other Districts
     
Total Population 109,576 39,605 149,181

Ror Caste in Punjab

The Ror were largely Hindu (44,511), with only a smaller number being Sikh (142) or Muslim (118). In 1901, they were found in Rohtak, Delhi and Karnal Districts and the princely state of Jind State. The real seat of the Ror is located in the great Dhak jungles south of Thanesar in the Karnal District. Pandit Harkishan Kaul, the Census Commisioner of Punjab in 1911 wrote the following:

They claim a Rajput origin and their social status is the same as that of Jats. Their chief occupation is agriculture and they have been declared an agricultural tribe in the districts of Rohtak, Delhi and Karnal. The above figures include 214 males and 204 females returned under Aroras opposite Rohtak in Imperial Table XIII, which has since been found to belong to Rors. These persons have been returned mostly from one village Jawahra in the Gohana Tahsil of the Rohtak District.

 

District Population
Karnal 42,187
Jind 1,290
Delhi 651
Rohtak 450
Other Districts 193
Total Population 3,971

Ror population in the United Provinces

In UP, the Ror were found largely in the Doaba region.

District Population
Saharanpur 1,020
Bulandshahr 1,100
Muzaffarnagar 754 
Mathura 148
Other Districts 73 
Total Population 3,095

 

Reya caste Population

According to tribal traditions, they were originally Rajputs, who adopted the practice of widow remarriage, a practice forbidden among higher caste Hindus, and as such became distinct from the Rajputs. Their customs are similar to other Hindu agrarian castes of the region such as the Ror and Jats. They are only found in nine villages, with their ancestral home being Mehrauli

District Population
Delhi 2,285
Total Population 2,285

Arain Population of Punjab according to the 1901 Census

In this post, I look at the distribution of the Arain, the third largest Muslim group in Punjab in 1901, and fifth largest over all. They were almost entirely Muslim, with a small Hindu majority found largely in what is now Haryana. The Arain were found throughout Punjab, except the Pothohar region, where there place was taking by the Malyar caste. The Arain shown in Rawalpindi were largely recent immigrants working in the Cantonment. In  terms of Arain sub-groups, you had two distinct groups, the Sirsawal, or Ghagharwal and Sutlejwal. The former were Punjabi speaking found in territory stretching from Ambala to Gujrat. In 1901, the Sutlejwal Arain had begun to settle in the Canal Colonies, with found in Lyalpur and Montgomery Districts, which were the focus of the canal colonization regimes.

Historic Distribution

Historically, the Arain community was concentrated in territory that is now part of Indian Punjab, especially the Jalandhar Doab. According to 1911 Census of India, the highest concentrations of Arains was in the Kapurthala State, where they accounted for 16% of the population, and neighbouring Jalandhar District, where they formed 15% (about one third of the Muslim population) of the population. By the late 19th Century, the Arain were encouraged by the British colonial authorities to settle in the new canal colonies in the Sandal Bar and Neeli Bar regions, and by 1911 Arain formed 12% of the population of Lyalpur District and 7% of Montgommery District. Other districts with large Arain populations were Lahore (10%), Gurdaspur (7%), Ferozepur (6%), Gujranwala, Sialkot (6%) and Multan (5%). In the Phulkhian States, Hoshiarpur, Karnal, Delhi and Hissar they formed less than five percentage of the population. North and west of the Jhelum, they were practically absent in the Pothohar region, the Salt Range and the Thal Dessert, where their place was and still taken by the Maliar caste. Those few Arains who were found in this region are often treated as sub-tribe of the Jats. In essence the Arain were found in territory stretching from the Chenab in the west to the Sultlej in the east, in what was the Punjabi speaking heartland of the British colonial province of Punjab. This was also the region that suffered the worst violence during the partition of India in 1947, with almost the entire Arain population of Indian Punjab migrating to Pakistani territory. However, there are still a small number of Muslim Arains still found in Malerkotla, Sangrur and Patiala districts.

The bulk of the Arain population is now settled in the districts of Faisalabad, Sahiwal and Toba Tek Singh, with a large number of refugees settled by the Thal Development Authority in the districts of Khushab, Mianwali, Bhakkar and Layyah.

 

District / States Muslim Hindu Total
Jalandhar  143,472 143,472
Lahore  127,668  127,668
Chenab Colony  70,234 12  70,246
Sialkot  67,208  67,208
Firuzpur  64,703  64,703
Gurdaspur 64,147  64,147
Kapurthala 50,558  50,558
Amritsar 47,329  195  47,524
Patiala State 47,065  957  47,022
Bahawalpur State 38,488  38,488
Hoshiarpur 35,092  35,092
Multan 32,410  32,410
Ludhiana 32,200  32,200
Montgomery  31,063  31,063
Gujranwala  30,082  34  30,116
Ambala  29,445  23  29,468
Gujrat  22,228  22,228
Karnal  12,516  296  12,812
Muzaffargarh
 8,999   8,999
Jhang
8,312   8,312
Shahpur 6,981   6,981
Dera Ghazi Khan
5,651   5,651
Hissar
5,495   5,495
Mianwali
4,378
  4,378
Nabha State
3,986
   3,986
Kalsia State
3,246   3,246
Jind State
 3,222 3,222
Faridkot State
 2,962 2,962
Delhi
1,948
  1,948
Malerkotla 1,865
1,865
Rawalpindi 1,208  1,208
Kangra 720  720
Mandi State  405  405
Nahan State  371  371
Suket State 212
212
Shimla 153    153
Other Districts
     
Total Population 1,005,188 1,596
1,006,784

The Population of Kharal and Kathia tribes according to the 1901 Census of Punjab

In this post, I look at the distribution of the Kathia and Kharal tribes according to the 1901 Census. Like the Khokhars, these two tribes were separately enumerated from the general Rajput category. Both claim Panwar Rajput ancestry. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the Kathia. Time permitting, I wish to write a post on the Kharals.

 

Kharal Population

District / States

Muslim

Hindu

Sikh

Total

Montgomery

20,866     20,866
Chenab Colony 7,244   7,244
Bahawalpur State 5,738     5,738
Multan 4,748     4,748
Gujranwala 3,035     3,035
Jhang 1,785     1,785
Patiala State   1,177 532 1,709
Mianwali 1,207 1,207
Firuzpur 903    903
Muzaffargarh 723 723
Lahore 193 193

Other Districts

 

 

 

 

Total

47,331

 

 

49,040

Kathia Population of the Punjab

 

District Population
Montgomery 2,419
Total Population 2,419