Bachgoti Khanzadeh of Awadh

In this post I will look at Bachgoti clan of the Khanzadas of the Awadh region of eastern Uttar Pradesh. The reader is requested look at my posts on the Ahbans and Bhale Sultans, which give some background to the history of the Khanzada of Awadh. The Bachgoti were first to acquire the name Khanzada, which now used by all the clans that claim descent from Rajputs or Thakurs of Awadh, who have converted to Islam. The Bachgoti played an important role in the late middle ages and early modern history of Awadh. They were at one time substantial landowners, but with the carrying out of land reform by the government of India after independence in 1947, they lost many of their larger estates.

 

Origin

The Bachgotis and their branches such as their branch Rajkumars, were substantial landowners in the Awadh region throughout late middle ages up to the end of British rule in 1947. According to clan traditions, in 1248, during the reign of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, their ancestor Bariar Singh, a Chauhan, fled from his home and established himself first in the village of Jamnawan and afterwards in Bhadaiyan in what is now Sultanpur District of Uttar Pradesh. There are conflicting opinions as to where he was born; some say it was Sambhal, others Mainpuri, the undoubted home of the Chauhans, while according to the late 19th Century colonial scholar Sir H. Elliot opined that it was Sambhar in Ajmer. According to William Crook, after the fall of Prithvi Raja of Delhi the Chauhans were especially singled out for extermination by the Muslim conquerors, and this may be a reason for Bariar Singh’s migration. This Bariar Singh claimed direct descent from Chahir Deo, the brother of Prithvi Rajah, the last Chauhan ruler of India.

 

In another account of the Bachgoti origin story, the father of Bariar Singh, who had already twenty-two sons, decided to take a young bride, who stipulated that her son, if she bore him offspring, should be heir. When a son was born, the other twenty-two brothers dispersed, and Bariar Singh came to eastern Awadh. This story goes on to say that he joined the imperial forces of Alaudin Khilji, and for his assistance in overthrowing the Bhars he was given the conquered country of the Bhar Raja Dhim Sen. What we can make of these origin stories is that Bariar singh was a Chauhan, who may have come from the territory round Delhi to Awadh, and overthrew the Bhars, like many other Rajput adventurers.

 

Bariar Singh had four sons, known by the names of Ghunghe, Asal, Ghatam Deo, and Raj Sah. The last named is said to have been by a second wife, the daughter of Raja Man Singh of Jaipur, and to have succeeded to throne, as opposed to his elder brothers. From these four have sprung the various Bachgoti taluqdari families. In my article on the Ahbans, I have looked at the status and origin of the taluqdari families of Awadh. Each of the four brothers is said to have received land in what is now Sultanpur, Ambedkar Nagar and Faizabad districts. Asal is said to have received the pargana called by his name, and from him are descended the present bhaiychara communities of that tract. Ghunghe was given Chanda, which was held in part by his descendants including the taluqdars of Garabpur, Rampur, and Partabpur until independence in 1947. Ghatam Deo received Bahra and Mahrupur in the Partabgarh district, while from Raj Sah, the heir, come the taluqdars of Dhadaiyan, Dera, Hasanpur, Kurwar, Nanamau, Meopur, and Damodra.

 

We now come to the story of the Khanzadas, all of whom claim descent from Raj Sah. Raj Sah is said to have had three sons, lshri Singh, Chakrasen Singh, and Rup Chand. The Khanzada families are descendants of Rup Singh, the second son of Raj Sah. His son, Jura Rai, had two sons, Jai Chand and Pirthipal Singh, from whom are descended the great Khanzada families and the Rajas of Kurwar. Tilok Chand, the son of Jai Chand, was a contemporary of Babar and was captured by the Mughal. He is said to have converted to Islam, taking the name Tatar Khan, and received the title of Khan-i-Azam, meaning the greatest among the khans. One of his sons, Fateh Sah, was born before his fathers conversion and retained the name of Bachgoti; his descendants still hold the Dhamaur estate. The other son, Bazid Khan, was brought up as a Muslim, styling himself Khanzada. Over time other families of convert Rajput ancestry have also adopted the name khanzada, such as the Ahbans, Bisen, Bhale Sultans, Bhatti and Gautams.

The Maniarpur Khanzadas

Khankhanan Khan, fifth in descent from Tatar Khan, had two wives. By the first marriage he had issue, Bahadur Khan, the father of Ismail Khan; and by the second, Hayat Khan and Dalel Khan. According to the author of colonial gazetteer of Sultanpur District, the Maniarpur estat was founded as such:

“they received the Maniarpur estate of 109 villages as their share, but it would appear that they never obtained the claim that they asserted. It is known that Hayat Khan quarrelled with Zabardast Khan, the son of Ismail Khan, and was killed by him, so that the whole property remained in the hands of the elder branch. Hayat. Khan left six sons, Darya Khan and five others. Shortly after his death, Darya Khan and one or two of his brothers went by night to Hasanpur, and stole quietly into the fort to find Zabardast Khan alone and fast asleep. On finding him thus in their power, they desisted from the intended murder, but took his turban, sword, and shoes and left their own instead. When he awoke in the morning, Zabardast Khan recognised the position, and being deeply moved by their generous forbearance set off for Maniarpur to make peace unattended. Darya Khan fled on his approach, but Zabardast Khan secured an interview with Hayat Khan’s widow, and thus effected a reconciliation. Darya Khan took up his residence at Hasanpur and was entrusted with the management of the whole estate: and at the same time, in conjunction with his brothers, received a grant of eleven villages for his support.”

Whether this story is entirely true is not certain. What is clear, though is that there was internecine conflict between the various branches of the Khanzada family. The 109 villages formed the nucleus of the present Maniarpur taluqa. During the rule of Darya Khan, they received considerable additions, by taking advantage of his influential position to ,enlarge his boundaries whenever the opportunity occurred; but at his death, which happened about 1743 .A.D., a division of the estate took place among his sons and brothers, and the separate properties created were too small to be important. However, the majority of them were re-united by Roshan Zaman Khan. Roshan Zaman Khan died in 1818; and was followed by his brother, Basawan Khan, who survived him but two or three years.

The taluqa consisted of the estates of Maniarpur and Pali in Sultanpur district, comprising 72 villages and five pattis, and three villages and one patti in Faizabad. The present Rajah is Sarfaraz Husain.

 

Gangeo Khanzadas

The third Khanzada family of taluqdars was that of Gangeo, which was a cadet branch of the Hasanpur family. It was founded by Wazir Khan, a cadet of the main branch of Hasanpur, and was then passed on to Jahangir Bakhsh. The taluqa consisted of 18 villages and four pattis in the Baraunsa and Miranpur parganas, known as the Gangeo and Bahmarpur estates, and Samdabad Shahpur, a property of five villages in Faizabad. The current Rajah is Tafazzul Hussain Khan

 Meopur Baregaon Estate in Faizabad

In neighbouring Faizabad District was the estate of Meopur Baregaon. According to their origin story, Umresh Singh the son of Sarabdawan Singh, obtained as his share the taluqa known as Meopur Baragaon. This then passed to his elder brother was Jagdeo Singh, who became a Muslim under the name of Husain Ali. He then abdicated his property in favour of Umresh Singh and moved to Faizabad city, where he lived in receipt of an allowance of Rupees 4,000 a year from the estate. The property originally consisted of 38 villages in Surhurpur, all acquired since the beginning of the nineteenth century. It disappeared, however, soon after the first regular settlement, for the whole estate was sold by a decree of the civil court in 1875. The villages constituting this taluqa at the time of sale lay in Akbarpur, Majhaura and Surhurpur, the village of Baragaon from which it derived its name being in the last-mentioned pargana. It consisted in all of 21 villages and three pattis in this district, and was It consisted in all of 21 villages and three pattis in this district, and was sold village by village, the principal purchasers being Khattris. The family however remains settled in Faizabad.

 Distribution

The Bachgoti Khanzada are found mainly in the districts of Ambedkar Nagar (Tanda), Faizabad and Sultanpur. They are Sunni Muslims, except the taluqdar families, but incorporate many folk beliefs. The Bachgoti speak both Awadhi and Urdu.

 

 

 

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Baghial, Manyal and Rupyal tribes

In this post I return the Chibhal country, and look at three tribes, namely the Baghial, Rupyaal and Manyal, who are found in this region. While Manyal are found entirely in the old Poonch Jagir, the other two are also found in Mirpur and the Pothohar regions. Like other tribes in the region, some sections of these tribes call themselves Jats, while other are Rajputs. The Manyal are also known as Malik Manyal, and have a lot in common with the Safial tribe discussed elsewhere. While Safial are concentrated in the Darhal region, the Manyal are found mainly in the Budhaal region. Both groups are collectively known as Malkana.

Baghial

I shall start of by looking at the Baghial. Like other clans looked in my posts, the Baghial have a number of traditions as to their ancestry. They are found in Pothohar, Mirpur and the old Poonch Jagir. Those of Rawalpindi claim to of Panwar (Agnivanshi) lineage, while those of Mendhar considers themselves to of Thakyal (Suryavanshi) lineage. It could be that indeed these two Baghial are distinct clans. However, the Mendhar Baghial to have legends that a branch of their tribes settled in the Pothohar region. Just one more point, the Baghial are entirely distinct from the Bughial, who are branch of the Ghakkar tribe.

The Panwar Baghials

According to the Baghial of Pothohar, they are closely related to the Bangial, a tribe of Jat/Rajput status found throughout northern Punjab. In Pothohar, the Baghial are found entirely in Rawalpindi District, where they occupy five villages in Gujar Khan Tehsil. They are often confused with the Bughial, who are clan of the Gakhar tribe, but with whom they have no relations. The common ancestor of both tribes is Bangash Khan, the Baghial being descended from his eldest son Bugha Khan, which would therefore make them also of Panwar ancestry. Another difference relates to the fact that while Bangial are found throughout northern Punjab, the Baghial are concentrated in Rawalpindi, and only claim to be of Rajput status. Important Baghial villages include Dhamali, Loona, Dhok Sumbhal, Kanoha in Kallar Syedan Tehsil, Pind Dara, Supiyali Baghial and Maira Mohra, all in Rawalpindi Tehsil.

The Thakyal Baghials

In the Poonch Jagir, mainly in present day Mendhar, the Baghial claim to be a branch of the Thakyal Rajputs. The Thakyal Rajputs are of Suryavanshi lineage. The Thakyals are named after Raja Jothar Singh Thakyal who established the Bhimber state in northern Punjab at the foothills of the Himalayas. There was a Thakyal Rajput by the name of Rusmi Dev who lived in a place called Thakar Dhooli, near the village Dhuruti, located near Ziarat Saen Kamla Badshah, now located some two kilometres on the Pakistan side of the Line of Control dividing Jammu and Kashmir.

 

Rusmi Dev in his descendants established a presence in the Rajouri and Mendher areas, and threw a challenge to the rule and authority of Jayrah clan. The relationship between the Thakyals and the Jayrahs deteriorated resulting in a war between the two clans. Led by Rusmi Dev, Thakyals defeated the Jayrahs (Jarals) and he took over as a ruler of this tiny state. It was a time when Islam was fast spreading all over Hindustan. With influence of Islam growing in the land Rusmi Dev, he also embraced Islam and changed his name to Rustam Khan. He ruled his territory till his death and was laid to rest in Dhuruti where his tomb still exists. Rustam Khan had four sons. His eldest son was named as Bagh Khan. Bagh Khan migrated Mendhar area and founded a village known as Sangal, presently called Narol. The other three were Sangi Khan, Kangi Khan and Kaloo Khan. Sangi Khan’s descendants live in Muzafarabad and Bagh in Azad Kashmir, Abbottabad in the Hazara region, and Gujarkhan and Rawalpindi in Punjab. It could that the Panwar Baghial of Pothohar are really Sangi Khan’s branch of the tribe.

The Baghial first settled in Sangal area now called Narol but later speard over to a number of villages like Kalaban, Salwah, Harni and Gursai. There are few Baghial families living in Sarhutti, Ari and Galhutta.

The Jat Baghials

A second group of Baghial are found in Haveli Baghal, a village in Dadyal Tehsil of Mirpur. Unlike the Mendhar Baghial, this lineage considers itself to be Jat, and intermarries with other clans of Jats such as the Rachyal and Roopyal. In Mendhar itself, the Baghial of the villages of Thera, Banola and Kasblari, consider themselves as Jats, and intermarry with other Jat clans.

Manyal

The Manyal trace descent to the town of Rajouri, and the ruler of the town called Manipaal, who lived around the late 12th Century. Manipal belonged the Pal lineage of Rajputs, who around this time were rulers of several principalities in the Pir Paanjal region. In some sources, Mani pal is referred to as Amna pal. It is traditionally believed that ‘Pal’ originated from Sanskrit ‘Pala’ meaning protector or keeper. The Pal Rajahs of the Pir Panjaal claimed a mythical origin from the Pala dynasty of Bengal. Manipal’s ancestral is said to have to come from the Pal kingdom and settled in Rajouri, where are said to have overthrown the Khasiya. Several rulers in what is now Himachal Pradesh also claim to be Pal Rajputs, such as the rulers of Bhajji. Manipal’s own rule was overthrown by Rai Noorudin Khan, founder of the Jarral Rajput line of rulers in Rajouri. Noorudin Khan arrived as a refugee from Kangra, and was greeted by Manipal, who offered his hospitality. The Rai took advantage of this, and seized the throne of Rajauri. In this way Raja Noor-Ud-Din laid the foundation of Muslim Jarral rule in Rajouri in 1194 A.D, which lasted till 21st October 1846 A.D. The Rai took advantage of this, and seized the throne of Rajauri. Manipal and his supporters fled to the region of Budhaal. A branch of his family settled in Majwhaal in Kotli District.

 

In exile in Budhaal, a prince seventh in decent from Manipal is said to have met a Sufi saint by the name of Doodh Haqani, and converted to Islam. He was then known as Din Mohammad. His Fathi Mohammad settled in ‘Moharra’, and was nicknamed Manyaala, on account of his descent from Raja Amna Pal, his clan is still known as Manyaal. Din Mohammad’s son Fateh Mohammad is said to have seized Thakyala from the Thakyal Rajputs. Fateh Mohammad established his base at Mohra village, and all the current Manyals trace their descent from him. They are also known as Malik or Malik Manyaal. The Manyal have produced Sain Bahadur, a famous Naqsbandi Sufi of the Chibhal region. Other than Mohra, the Manyal are also found in Gonthal. The bulk of the tribe remains in Budhaal tehsil.

 

Rupyal

The Rupyal, or The Rupyal or sometimes pronounced as Ruplaal claim descent from the legendary Raja Salvahan, the founder of the city of the Sialkot. He is said to have had 15 sons, the sixth one being called Roop or Roopa. Roopa was said to have left the Sialkot and settled in Pind Dadan Khan, sometime around the conquest of that region by Mahmood of Ghazni. Fourteenth in descent from Rajah Roopa Dev was an individual named Mal. Mal is said to have converted to Islam and adopted the name Rai Jalaluddin. After his conversion, the Rai is said to have left Pind Dadan Khan and settled in Poonch. This settlement occurred in the 15th Century, but happened before the invasion of Kashmir by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, according to Mohamad Din Fauq. The Rai settled in Sarhroon in Poonch. In Sarhoon, there was long settled a clan of local notables called the Chaudhary. When the Mughal Emperor Jahangir visited Kashmir, the Chaudharys provided him with excellent hospitality. As a result, the Emperor granted Sarhoon to the Chaudharys. This caused conflict with Rai Sher Khan, who was then chief of the Rupyaals, who over powered the Chaudhry’s and established Rupyaal rule over the Sarhoon and the villages nearby. The Rai remained rulers of this petty state until the hills of the Chibhal were conquered by the Dogras in the early 19th Century. The Poonch branch, and Pothohar branch of Rupyals consider themselves to be Rajputs, while those in Mirpur call themselves Jats, and intermarry with other tribes of Jat staus.

 

The Rupyal are a tribe found mainly in the Mirpur District, Haveli District and the Pothohar region of the Punjab, Pakistan. In Mirpur they are found in Pandkhor and villages in Dadyal tehsil. In the old Poonch Jageer, their villages include Miani Basti (Haveli), Choi, Degwar Maldyaal, and Chathra. A second cluster of Rupyaal villages are found in Mang Dhagron in Sudhnoti District.

In Punjab they are found mainly in Rawalpindi District, with Doberan in Kahuta and their villages in Kallar Syedan tehsil include Nothia Shareef, Mohra Ropial, Chapri Akkoo, Chanam Shareef and Chauntra. In Jhelum, they are found in Makhiala.

 

Rajput Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

In this post, I look at the distribution of the Rajput population of Punjab, according to the 1901 Census. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the Rajputs of Punjab to get some background information.

 

District / State

Muslims

Hindus

Sikhs

Total

Main Clans

Kangra

889 153,100 57  154,046

Katoch, Indauria, Guleria, Jamwal, Jaryal (Jarral), Abhrol, Minhas, Pathania, Pathial, Dadwal and Jaswal

Rawalpindi

121,420  813  114  122,347

Bhatti, Alpial, Thathaal, Baghial, Bhakral, Nagial, Kanial, Chauhan, Dhamial, Janjua, Jodhra, and Minhas,

Bahawalpur State

101,870  3,152  2,035  107,057

Joiya, Wattu, Panwar, Sial, Khichi, Jatu and Tomar

Hoshiarpur

44,260  49,055  223  93,538 Ghorewaha, Manj, Naru, Luddu, Bhanot, Dadwal, Jaswal, Pathania, Janjua and Minhas
Multan 88,975  2,159  387 91,521  Sial, Panwar, Bhatti, Dhudhi, Minhas (Lodhra), Khichi and Noon
Firuzpur 79,868  4,282  1,034  85,184 Bhatti, Joiya, Panwar, Wattu, Manj, Sial, Dhudhi and Rathore
Karnal  66,780  15,529  197  82,506 Mandahar, Panwar, Bhatti, Barya (Brah), Chauhan, Pundir and Taoni
Gurdaspur  43,420  36,405  185  80,010 Minhas, Sulehria, Katil, Bhao, Bhatti, Pathania, Dadwal and Manj
Shahpur  72,096  897  184  73,177 Bhatti, Sial, Dhudhi, Chauhan, Bhon, Joiya, Khichi, Noon and Tiwana
Hissar   55,205  15,262  70,467 Jatu, Tomar, Panwar, Satraola, Raghubansi, Mandahar, Dhudhi, Khichi, Bhatti, Joiya and Chauhan
Ambala  48,746  18,373  128  67,247 Taoni, Chauhan, Ghorewaha, Dahya, Barya (Brah), Panwar and Raghubansi
Patiala State  52,052  12,628  616  65,296 Barya (Brah), Bhatti, Chauhan, Ghorewaha, Joiya, Mandahar, Mandahar, Atiras, Taoni, Panwar, Tiwana, and Wattu
Lahore   53,193  4,716 1,850   59,759 Bhatti, Naru, Panwar, Joiya and Dhudhi
Sialkot  47,919  11,515  232  59,666 Sulehria, Minhas, Bhatti, Katil, Janjua, Bajju and Pathial
Jhelum 57,316   251 57,567  Janjua, Bhatti, Bhakral, Minhas, Mair-Minhas, Chib, Chauhan, and Jalap
Montgomery  49,615  975  457  51,047 Wattu, Sial, Kathia, Bhatti, Joiya, Dhudhi, Khichi and Chauhan
Jalandhar  42,452  5,767 3,079   51,298 Ghorewaha, Manj, Naru, Barya (Brah), Bhatti and Chandel
Jhang  50,077  121  145 50,343 Sial, Chadhar, Gondal, Bhatti, Joiya and Dhudhi
Chenab Colony  40,129  1,129  2,677  43,935 Sial, Wattu, Khichi, Joiya, Bhatti, and Chauhan
Amritsar 32,929  2,342  209  35,480 Bhatti, Manj, Naru and Chauhan
Rohtak 27,238   7,412 1,331   34,650 Panwar, Chauhan, Mandahar, Barya (Brah), Jatu and Tomar
Ludhiana 27,798  344  29,473 Ghorewaha, Manj, Naru, Bhatti, Barya (Brah), Panwar and Taoni
Gurgaon  9,445  18,120  27,565 Bargujar, Chauhan, Jatu, Panwar and Tomar
Kapurthala State  23,788  927  27  24,742 Manj, Naru, Bhatti and Chauhan
Delhi  4,218  19,498  13  23,729 Chauhan, Gaurwa, Tomar and Panwar
Gujranwala  23,688  521 1,937  26,146 Bhatti, Joiya, Khichi and Sial
Gujrat  22,328  1,066 317   23,711 Chib, Minhas, Bhatti, Narma and Janjua
Muzaffargarh 14,699 335 1,949 16,983 Sial, Bhatti, Panwar, Dhudhi and Chauhan
Dera Ghazi Khan 14,693 193 99 14,985 Sial, Bhatti, Panwar, Joiya, Jamra and Tomar
Nabha State 6,578 3,937 286 10,801 Barya (Brah), Jatu, Chauhan, Tomar and Ghorewaha
Jind State 5,409 4,908 10,317 Mandahar, Panwar, Bhatti, Chauhan and Jatu
Bilaspur State 187 7,805 7,992 Pundir and Raghubansi
Mianwali 6,012 129 59 6,200 Joiya, Janjua, Bhatti, Sial, Kanial and Mekan
Mandi State 150 5,650 5,800 Mandial, Katoch and Chandel
Chamba State 185 4,301 4,486 Chambial, Katoch, Pathania
Faridkot State 3,685 181 19 3,885 Bhatti, Chauhan, Joiya and Manj
Nahan State 536 2,964 10 3,510 Taoni and Chandel
Kalsia State 2,432 649 25 3,106 Taoni, Atiras and Chauhan
Shimla 375 2,323 2,968 Shiam and Katoch
Bashahr State 2,570 2,570 Nanglu, Chandel and Chauhan
Malerkotla State 2,238 96 2,334 Barya (Brah), Manj, Bhatti and Ghorewaha
Dujana State 1,525 613 2,138 Chauhan, Jatu and Tomar
Nalagarh State 220 522 742 Chauhan and Chandel
Pataudi State 668 1,644 2,312 Chauhan, Jatu and Tomar
Suket State 1,178 1,178 Katoch
Other Districts
Total 1,397,347 432,360 17,885 1,797,592

 

 

 

 

 

The Population of Kharal and Kathia tribes according to the 1901 Census of Punjab

In this post, I look at the distribution of the Kathia and Kharal tribes according to the 1901 Census. Like the Khokhars, these two tribes were separately enumerated from the general Rajput category. Both claim Panwar Rajput ancestry. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the Kathia. Time permitting, I wish to write a post on the Kharals.

 

Kharal Population

District / States

Muslim

Hindu

Sikh

Total

Montgomery

20,866     20,866
Chenab Colony 7,244   7,244
Bahawalpur State 5,738     5,738
Multan 4,748     4,748
Gujranwala 3,035     3,035
Jhang 1,785     1,785
Patiala State   1,177 532 1,709
Mianwali 1,207 1,207
Firuzpur 903    903
Muzaffargarh 723 723
Lahore 193 193

Other Districts

 

 

 

 

Total

47,331

 

 

49,040

Kathia Population of the Punjab

 

District Population
Montgomery 2,419
Total Population 2,419

 

Khokhar Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this post I will give the distribution of the Khokhar population according to the 1901 Census. As the table shows, most of the Khokhar were found in the river valleys of the Jhelum, Chenab and Sutlej. I will ask the reader to look at my posts on the Bandial and Bhachar as well as the Khokhar of UP, which gives some background to this community.

District / States Population
Shahpur 24,351
Bahawalpur State 16,540
Jhang 16,398
Multan 11,606
Chenab Colony 8,511
Montgomery 8,093
Mianwali
4,573
Dera Ghazi Khan 4,199
Muzaffargarh
4,020
Jhelum
3,865
Gujrat
1,638
Lahore  1,503
Firuzpur  1,169
Sialkot  784
Other Districts  4,713
Total Population 107,943

 

Panwar / Parmar Rajput population According to the 1901 Census of Punjab

The Panwar, sometimes pronounced as Parmar or even Puar were the third largest Rajput tribe in the Punjab. The eastern Panwar, who numbered around 33,553, or 50% of the total population were like the Chauhans, a tribe of Ranghar pastoralists, concentrated in Haryana. A second group, who numbered 19,689, about 30% of the population were concentrated in south west Punjab, especially in Bahawalpur State, and the neighbouring areas of Multan, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Mianwali and Firuzpur in present East Punjab. These Panwar, many of whom considered themselves to be Jats, were Seraiki speaking farmers. In between these groups were the Sikh Panwars of the Rechna Doaba, Muslims Panwars of Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana, the Mahton Panwars of the same region, and the Panwar Rajputs of the Pabbi Hills in the Jhelum/Gujrat region. It is worth pointing that several West Punjabi tribes such as the Bangial, Hon, Sohlan, Narma, Dhudhi, Mekan and Tiwana claim to be descended from the Panwar Rajputs. They are now fairly distinct from the parent tribe, and were recorded seperately.

District / States

Muslim

Hindu

Sikh

Total

Rohtak

 13,931

 2,785

   16,716

Bahawalpur State

 9,845

 348

 223

 10,416

Hissar

 6,165

 1,240

 7,405

Firuzpur

 5,453  157  69  5,679

Multan

 5,445

 221

 

 5,666

Jind State

769

 

 2,839

 

 3,608

Karnal

2,009

 288

 11  2,308

Patiala State

1,353

 180

 157

1,690

 

Montgomery

 1,451  24 1,475

 

Ludhiana

1,392

 

63

1,455

Lahore 1,212 23 220 1,455
Gurgaon 920 355 1,275
Muzaffargarh 695
62 100 857
Dera Ghazi Khan 849   849
Jhelum 649 649
Chenab Colony 295 29 205 529
Jalandhar 425 18 443
Mianwali 426 426
Dehli 135 272 407
Gujranwala 16  380 396
Sialkot 278 74 352
Ambala 242 57 299
Rawalpindi 157 157
Dujana State 104 40 144
Shahpur 48  83 131
Gurdaspur 127 127
Gujrat 111 111
Hoshiarpur 108 108

Other Districts

 

 

 

Total

55,067

9,309

1,614

65,990

Chauhan Rajput Population According to the 1901 Census of Punjab

In this post, I look at the distribution of the second largest Rajput tribe in Punjab. Most of the Punjab Chauhans were Ranghars, living in Haryana. The Ranghars were Rajput groups who had converted to Islam. The majority were found in Ambala, Karnal, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hissar regions, about 101,380 about 63% of the total Chauhan population. The Rewari Ranghars, in what was then Gurgaon District, and were entirely Chauhan gave great trouble to the British. Outside Haryana, the Chauhans, also largely Muslim were found throughout Punjab. The Haryana Chauhans are often known as Raos, which is really a title and not clan name. In central Punjab, especially in the Majha, most Chauhan considered themselves as Jats. After Partition, almost all the Chauhan Ranghars migrated to Pakistan.

District / States

Muslim

Hindu

Sikh

Total

Karnal

 27,518

 6,154

 53 33,725

Ambala

 22,333

 8,252

 27

30,612

Hissar

 9,108

 1,895

11,003

Gurgaon

 4,439  6,218 10,657

Delhi

 1,122

 7,073

 

8,195 

Patiala State

 6,511

 1,634

 32

8,177

Rohtak

 5,211

1,679

  6,890

Kapurthala State

 5,386

121

 

5,507 

Jhelum

 5,140



5,140

Multan

 3,283

 186

29

3,498

Firuzpur  2,499  588 100 3,187 
Rawalpindi 3,029  18  14 3,061
Nabha State 949 2,039 2,988 
Lahore  1,393 644 303 2,349
Chenab Colony 1,426 66  781 2,273
Kalsia State  782  1,229  16 2,027
Jind State  963  1,003 1,966
Shahpur  1,463  315  52 1,830
Amritsar 1,307  260 1,567
Ludhiana  1,349  143  58 1,550
Pataudi State  431  1,081 1,512
Jalandhar  1,028  326  74 1,428
Montgomery  1,206  195 1,401
Muzaffargarh  564 16 585 1,165
Gujranwala  221 834  84 1,139
Gurdaspur  916  113  15 1,044
Hoshiarpur  699  217 916
Sialkot  710  42 752
Jhang 506 39  79 624
Kangra  58  485 543
Dera Ghazi Khan  453  21 474
Mianwali 197 197
Gujrat 79     43 122

Other Districts

 

 

 

3,023

Total

 114,428

 43,003

 6,164

160,542

Meo and Khanzada Population According to 1901 Census of Punjab, Rajputana and the United Provinces

This is seventh post looking at the distribution of communities, namely the Khanzada and Meo, that were gazetted as agriculturalist in census of 1901 in the Punjab province. In this post, I will also look at the distribution of both communities in Rajputana and the United Provinces as well. Both groups were entirely Muslim. The Meo and Khanzada were concentrated in the Mewat region, in what is now south east Haryana and north east Rajasthan and claimed a Rajput status. Both groups claimed a similar origin from the Jadaun clan of Rajputs. The Meo and Khanzada were also found in Alwar and Bharatpur states in what was then the Rajputana Agency. In UP, the Meo were found largely in two regions, Rohilkhand, and the Doab region of western UP. Most of the Meo in UP were called themselves Mewati. The total Meo population in 1901 was 374,923, of which 147,198 (39%) were found in Punjab, 168,596 (45%) were found Rajputana (modern Rajasthan) and the remainder 59,129 (16%) were found in UP. I would also ask the leader to look at my post on the Khanzadas to get some background information on the tribe.

 

Meo of Punjab

Most of the Meo population was concentrated as I have said in the introduction in the Mewat region, roughly the eastern portion of Gurgaon, and southern bits of Delhi. Outside these areas in Hissar and Karnal, there were a few isolated villages of the Meo.

 

The Meo of Dera Ghazi Khan

The Meo of Dera Ghazi Khan had separated from the main body of the Meo through a migration in the 16th Century. Most of the Meo of this region considered themselves as Jat, and were Seraiki speaking. They had lost all contact with the main body of the Meo.

 

Meo Population of Punjab

 

District Population
Gurgaon 128,760
Delhi
8,268
Firuzpur 4,378
Jalandhar 1,385
Dera Ghazi Khan 880
Karnal 813
Ambala 580
Hissar 543
Other Districts 1,591
Total Population 147,198

Meo Population of Rajputana

 

District Population
 Alwar State  113,154
Bharatpur State
51,546
 Kotah State  1,072
Marwar (Jodhpur State) 1,000
 Jaipur State 654
 Mewar (Udaipur State)  559
 Tonk  State  208
 Jhalawar 125
 Other States and Agencies 278
Total Population 168,596

Meo Population of the United Provinces

District Population
Bulandshahr 9,840
Bareilly 9,374
Rampur State 7,356
Aligarh 6,557
Meerut 5,184
Mathura 3,813
Pilibhit 3,262
Moradabad 2,513
Nainital 2,106
Etah 1,793
Lakhimpur Kheri 1,217
Badaun 1,081
Agra 873
Muzaffarnagar 779
Etawah 603
Shahjahanpur 534
Lucknow 418
Bijnor 365
Rae Bareli 355
Unao 253
Barabanki 220
Farrukhabad 216
Sahanranpur 210
Sultanpur 207
Total Population 59,129

 

Khanzada Population of Punjab

Almost all the Khanzada were found in Gurgaon, where in 1901, they owned nine villages near town of Nuh and to the north of Firozpur.

District Population
Gurgaon  3,901
Other Districts  70
Total Population  3,971

Khanzada Population of Rajputana

 

District Population
Alwar State  8,503
Bharatpur State 814
Jaipur State 97
Other States and Agencies 540
Total Population  9,954

Dogar Population of Punjab and the United Provinces according to 1901 Census

In this second post looking at 1901 Census, I will look at the distribution of the Dogar population. Like the Kamboh in my first post, the Dogar were gazetted as an agriculture tribe. However, the Dogar were almost entirely Muslim, out of a total population of 75,080, only 95 were Hindu, 9 were Sikh and 4 were Jain. The Dogar were historically a pastoralist group, that by beginning of the 20th Century stretched from Sialkot in the west to Bulandshahr in the east.I wish to add that the Dogars have nothing to do with the Dogras, who are found largely in the Jammu region. Almost 70% of their territory went to India in 1947, leading to the migration of the Dogars to Pakistan. The only exception are the UP Dogars, who have largely remained in India.

Dogar Groups: The Ghaghar – Sutlej groups

The Dogar were found largely in the valley of the Sutlej, in Firuzpur, Faridkot State and the territory of Montgomery (present day Sahiwal and Okara) and the grasslands located between the Ghaghar and the Sutlej rivers, in what then the princely states of Nabha and Patiala and the Hissar territory, presently western Haryana. This region was home to the larger Dogar population, almost a third

The Himalayan Group

A second cluster of Dogars were found along the Himalyas, stretching from Hoshiarpur to Sialkot. The Dogars of Lahore, Gujranwala, Jalandhar and Ludhiana were culturally related to the Himalayan group of Dogars.

The Haryana and UP group

A final group was found in Karnal and Rohtak, and this group extended into the United Provinces, present day Uttar Pradesh. They differed from other Dogars in that they spoke Haryanwi, and not Punjabi. Karnal was home to the largest cluster. The Bulandshahr Dogars were migrants from Rohtak, mainly from the village of Parah in that district, settling in UP the mid 19th Century.

Dogar Population of Punjab

District Population
Firuzpur 16,402
Patiala 11,243
Hissar 7,623
Lahore 7,503
Hoshiarpur 5,388
Jalandhar 4,409
Amritsar 4,128
Gurdaspur 2,615
Ludhiana 2,411
Sialkot 2,302
Karnal 2,064
Montgomery 1,675
Gujranwala 1,048
Faridkot 946
Ambala 386
Jind 230
Rohtak 210
Other Districts 34
Total Population 75,080

Dogar Population of the United Provinces

 

District Population
Bulandshahr 215
Total Population 215

Description of Major Muslim Communities in India: The Khokhar

In this post I return to the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP), and look at one of the lesser known communities, that of the Khokhar. There are in fact two distinct communities of Khokhars in UP, those of Sambhal and Kot. While the Khokhar of Punjab are well known, very little has been written about the Khokhars of UP, and this post will try to provide some information. These two settlements are quite distant from each other, the distance between Sambhal and Kot being almost 500 kilometres. Each group of Khokhars have their own origin stories and I will treat them separate. The Sambhal Khokhar are really a sub-group within Ranghar community of western Uttar Pradesh. Just a brief note about the Khokhars, they are a well known tribe from the Punjab, whose homeland is the the Salt Range

As in common among Punjabi tribal groupings, the Khokhar have a number of origin stories. According to one of tradition, the Khokhars are connected with the Awans, making Khokhar one of Qutub Shah’s sons, the semi-mythical ancestor of the Awn tribe. Many Khokhar groups in the Salt Range now call themselves Khokhar Qutb Shahis, literally descendants of Qutub Shah. Another Khokhar tradition makes them descended from Zahhak , a mythical figure from ancient Iran, who’s descendent Rustam Raja arrived in Punjab sometime in the beginning of the Common Era and was nicknamed Khokhar. What is clear is by the arrival of Mohammad Ghori, the Khokhars were in possession of the Salt Range, and when Ghori tried to conquer the region he was murdered by them. The Khokhars remained rebellious throughout the Delhi Sultanate period, and it is very likely both the colonies of Khokhar now present in UP are result of deportations from the Punjab. I will first look at the Khokhar of Sambhal, who accept a Punjabi origin.

Denzil Ibbetson, the 19th Century colonial scholar of Punjab, commenting on the returns of 1881 Census of Punjab, noted the following in connection with the Khokhars:

Under the head Khokhar only represent a fraction of the Khokhars in the Panjab. The Khokhars are ordinarily considered a Rajput tribe, and most of the Khokhars of the districts have so returned themselves. Many of the Khokhars of western districts again, and all those of the frontier, have been re turned as Jats; while only in the Rawalpindi and Multan divisions are separate figures shown for the Khokhar caste. How far this inclusion is due to Khokhars having actually returned themselves as Rajput or Jat by caste and Khokhar by tribe, and how far to the action of the divisional offices, I cannot say exactly till the detailed clan tables are ready.

Its clear that the Khokhar of Punjab are a quasi-Rajput tribe, their historic homeland is located between the valleys of the Chenab and Jhelum, home such tribes as the Bandial, Ghanjera and Rehan, all of whom are clans of the Khokhar, and I have looked at elsewhere. The most important Khokhar family is that of the Rajahs of Ahmedabad, located in Jhelum District. It is this family that produced the famous Muslim League leader Rajah Ghazanfar Ali Khan.

The use of the tem Pathan in the Fatehpur region where Kot is located often also covers Rajput and quasi-Rajput groups. So the use of the term by the Khokhars of Kot must seen in that way.

Khokhar of Sambhal

The city of Sambhal, now a district headquarters is long associated with the Khokhar tribe, who were substantial landowners throughout the late Mughal and Rohila rule of the region. According to tribal traditions, the Khokhars of Sambhal are said to who have come from the Bulandshahr District and to have settled near Sambhal in the days of the Mughal emperor Babar. The Khokhars first arrived in Bulandshahr, at the invitation of Sikander Lodhi, who was the Sultan of Delhi between 1489 and 1517 It said that these Khokhars came from Koh-Jud, a name used for the Salt Range in medieval Muslim writing in India. Interestingly, Sambhal was one of the capitals of Sikander Lodhi. With overthrow of the Lodhi, there ancestor was given the jagir of Sambhal by the Mughal Emperor Babur. This came with the title of Chadhary, which was hereditary in the family till end of British rule in India in 1947. The Khokhars of Sambhal have always had close relations with the Lalkhani Rajputs of Bulandshar and Aligarh. They are said to have been guest of the Lalkhanis in Bulandshar during their stay there before moving to Sambhal.

Khokhar of Kot

The Khokhars of Kot, a town in Fatehpur District have a very different origin myth. First of all the Khokhars of Kot have been in UP for much longer, according to their traditions, the tribe settled in Kot during the rule of Allaudin Khilji ( r . 1296–1316). They are said to be descended from four brothers, of whom the eldest was Malik Bhil or Babar, who were granted the estate of Kot, which at that time was held by a Bhar Raja. In this eastern region, the Bhar, a local ethnic group were the local rulers. The Khokhars were sent by Ala.-ud-din to supress the Bhars, which they did. The dispute is to the origin of these Khokhars. Unlike the Sambhal branch, the Khokhars of Kot have no tradition of a Punjabi origin. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the Khokhars made strong claims of a Pashtun origin. However, more recently, a small number of Khokhar are claiming an Uzbek origin. What’s interesting is the author of the Gazetteer of Fatehpur makes reference to an inscription making reference to the Khokhar conquest to 590 Hijra (1203/1204 CE). This would be mean that the Khokhars arrived in the region around the reign of Shahabuddin Mohammad Ghori. If we accept either of the traditions, the Khokhars of Kot have long been settled in the Fatehpur region. They were effectively the local rulers, but by the arrival of the British, they landholdings were extremely small. The Khokhars of Kot call themselves Pathans, which in eastern Uttar Pradesh does not donate a ethnicity, rather a status. What is interesting is that over the almost millennia in India, they have maintained the name Khokhar, which is clearly associated with the Salt Range region of Punjab. It is very likely, they are Punjabi Muslim tribe, who served in either in the army of Shahabuddin Mohammad Ghori or Allaudin Khilji. Once settled in eastern UP, as they became large landowners, they acquired the status of being Pathans.
Outside Kot, they are found in the villages of Arhaiya, Urha, Shahnagar, Rahmatpur, Sheopuri, Kali, Ghazipur and Parwezpur.