Rajput Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

In this post, I look at the distribution of the Rajput population of Punjab, according to the 1901 Census. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the Rajputs of Punjab to get some background information.

 

District / State

Muslims

Hindus

Sikhs

Total

Main Clans

Kangra

889 153,100 57  154,046

Katoch, Indauria, Guleria, Jamwal, Jaryal (Jarral), Abhrol, Minhas, Pathania, Pathial, Dadwal and Jaswal

Rawalpindi

121,420  813  114  122,347

Bhatti, Alpial, Thathaal, Baghial, Bhakral, Nagial, Kanial, Chauhan, Dhamial, Janjua, Jodhra, and Minhas,

Bahawalpur State

101,870  3,152  2,035  107,057

Joiya, Wattu, Panwar, Sial, Khichi, Jatu and Tomar

Hoshiarpur

44,260  49,055  223  93,538 Ghorewaha, Manj, Naru, Luddu, Bhanot, Dadwal, Jaswal, Pathania, Janjua and Minhas
Multan 88,975  2,159  387 91,521  Sial, Panwar, Bhatti, Dhudhi, Minhas (Lodhra), Khichi and Noon
Firuzpur 79,868  4,282  1,034  85,184 Bhatti, Joiya, Panwar, Wattu, Manj, Sial, Dhudhi and Rathore
Karnal  66,780  15,529  197  82,506 Mandahar, Panwar, Bhatti, Barya (Brah), Chauhan, Pundir and Taoni
Gurdaspur  43,420  36,405  185  80,010 Minhas, Sulehria, Katil, Bhao, Bhatti, Pathania, Dadwal and Manj
Shahpur  72,096  897  184  73,177 Bhatti, Sial, Dhudhi, Chauhan, Bhon, Joiya, Khichi, Noon and Tiwana
Hissar   55,205  15,262  70,467 Jatu, Tomar, Panwar, Satraola, Raghubansi, Mandahar, Dhudhi, Khichi, Bhatti, Joiya and Chauhan
Ambala  48,746  18,373  128  67,247 Taoni, Chauhan, Ghorewaha, Dahya, Barya (Brah), Panwar and Raghubansi
Patiala State  52,052  12,628  616  65,296 Barya (Brah), Bhatti, Chauhan, Ghorewaha, Joiya, Mandahar, Mandahar, Atiras, Taoni, Panwar, Tiwana, and Wattu
Lahore   53,193  4,716 1,850   59,759 Bhatti, Naru, Panwar, Joiya and Dhudhi
Sialkot  47,919  11,515  232  59,666 Sulehria, Minhas, Bhatti, Katil, Janjua, Bajju and Pathial
Jhelum 57,316   251 57,567  Janjua, Bhatti, Bhakral, Minhas, Mair-Minhas, Chib, Chauhan, and Jalap
Montgomery  49,615  975  457  51,047 Wattu, Sial, Kathia, Bhatti, Joiya, Dhudhi, Khichi and Chauhan
Jalandhar  42,452  5,767 3,079   51,298 Ghorewaha, Manj, Naru, Barya (Brah), Bhatti and Chandel
Jhang  50,077  121  145 50,343 Sial, Chadhar, Gondal, Bhatti, Joiya and Dhudhi
Chenab Colony  40,129  1,129  2,677  43,935 Sial, Wattu, Khichi, Joiya, Bhatti, and Chauhan
Amritsar 32,929  2,342  209  35,480 Bhatti, Manj, Naru and Chauhan
Rohtak 27,238   7,412 1,331   34,650 Panwar, Chauhan, Mandahar, Barya (Brah), Jatu and Tomar
Ludhiana 27,798  344  29,473 Ghorewaha, Manj, Naru, Bhatti, Barya (Brah), Panwar and Taoni
Gurgaon  9,445  18,120  27,565 Bargujar, Chauhan, Jatu, Panwar and Tomar
Kapurthala State  23,788  927  27  24,742 Manj, Naru, Bhatti and Chauhan
Delhi  4,218  19,498  13  23,729 Chauhan, Gaurwa, Tomar and Panwar
Gujranwala  23,688  521 1,937  26,146 Bhatti, Joiya, Khichi and Sial
Gujrat  22,328  1,066 317   23,711 Chib, Minhas, Bhatti, Narma and Janjua
Muzaffargarh 14,699 335 1,949 16,983 Sial, Bhatti, Panwar, Dhudhi and Chauhan
Dera Ghazi Khan 14,693 193 99 14,985 Sial, Bhatti, Panwar, Joiya, Jamra and Tomar
Nabha State 6,578 3,937 286 10,801 Barya (Brah), Jatu, Chauhan, Tomar and Ghorewaha
Jind State 5,409 4,908 10,317 Mandahar, Panwar, Bhatti, Chauhan and Jatu
Bilaspur State 187 7,805 7,992 Pundir and Raghubansi
Mianwali 6,012 129 59 6,200 Joiya, Janjua, Bhatti, Sial, Kanial and Mekan
Mandi State 150 5,650 5,800 Mandial, Katoch and Chandel
Chamba State 185 4,301 4,486 Chambial, Katoch, Pathania
Faridkot State 3,685 181 19 3,885 Bhatti, Chauhan, Joiya and Manj
Nahan State 536 2,964 10 3,510 Taoni and Chandel
Kalsia State 2,432 649 25 3,106 Taoni, Atiras and Chauhan
Shimla 375 2,323 2,968 Shiam and Katoch
Bashahr State 2,570 2,570 Nanglu, Chandel and Chauhan
Malerkotla State 2,238 96 2,334 Barya (Brah), Manj, Bhatti and Ghorewaha
Dujana State 1,525 613 2,138 Chauhan, Jatu and Tomar
Nalagarh State 220 522 742 Chauhan and Chandel
Pataudi State 668 1,644 2,312 Chauhan, Jatu and Tomar
Suket State 1,178 1,178 Katoch
Other Districts
Total 1,397,347 432,360 17,885 1,797,592

 

 

 

 

 

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Khokhar Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this post I will give the distribution of the Khokhar population according to the 1901 Census. As the table shows, most of the Khokhar were found in the river valleys of the Jhelum, Chenab and Sutlej. I will ask the reader to look at my posts on the Bandial and Bhachar as well as the Khokhar of UP, which gives some background to this community.

District / States Population
Shahpur 24,351
Bahawalpur State 16,540
Jhang 16,398
Multan 11,606
Chenab Colony 8,511
Montgomery 8,093
Mianwali
4,573
Dera Ghazi Khan 4,199
Muzaffargarh
4,020
Jhelum
3,865
Gujrat
1,638
Lahore  1,503
Firuzpur  1,169
Sialkot  784
Other Districts  4,713
Total Population 107,943

 

Bhatti Rajput Population of Punjab according to the 1901 Census

This is my third post looking at the distribution of Rajput tribes in Punjab. This one will look at the Bhattis, who in population numbers were the largest tribe in the Punjab. Although found in almost every district, but had especial concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot, Gujranwala) and the Pothohar regions. I will also ask the reader to look at my post on the Muslim Bhatti of Uttar Pradesh, to get some background on the tribe.

 

 

District / States

Muslim

Hindu

Sikh

Total

Rawalpindi

 36,268      36,268
Multan  25,675  195  81  26,951
Lahore  21,470  142    21,612
Firuzpur  18,585  204   18,789
Amritsar  16,417  87  14 16,518
Gujranwala  12,934 12,934
Montgomery  12,759  31 12,790
Gurdaspur  11,675  40 11,715
Jhelum  10,664 10,664
Chenab Colony  9,730  35  564 10,329
Sialkot  9,853 9,853
Jhang  7,737 7,737
Dera Ghazi Khan  7,272 7,272
Shahpur  7,205  61 7,266
Hissar 5,986 596 6,582
Jalandhar 6,484 58 6,542
Muzaffargarh 5,442 5,442
Patiala State 5,180 221 5,401
Kapurthala State 4,958 228 5,186
Hoshiarpur 3,274 313 3,587
Gujrat 1,784 1,784
Ludhiana 1,748 18 1,766
Ambala 1,416 1,416
Faridkot 1,381 11 1,392
Karnal 775 58  19 852
Nabha State 721  10 731
Mianwali 590 590
Delhi 326  83 409
Rohtak 368 23 391
Jind 263 56 319
Gurgaon 119 70 189

Other Districts

 

 

 

 

Total

 249,230

 2,551

 718

 252,449

 

Panwar / Parmar Rajput population According to the 1901 Census of Punjab

The Panwar, sometimes pronounced as Parmar or even Puar were the third largest Rajput tribe in the Punjab. The eastern Panwar, who numbered around 33,553, or 50% of the total population were like the Chauhans, a tribe of Ranghar pastoralists, concentrated in Haryana. A second group, who numbered 19,689, about 30% of the population were concentrated in south west Punjab, especially in Bahawalpur State, and the neighbouring areas of Multan, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Mianwali and Firuzpur in present East Punjab. These Panwar, many of whom considered themselves to be Jats, were Seraiki speaking farmers. In between these groups were the Sikh Panwars of the Rechna Doaba, Muslims Panwars of Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana, the Mahton Panwars of the same region, and the Panwar Rajputs of the Pabbi Hills in the Jhelum/Gujrat region. It is worth pointing that several West Punjabi tribes such as the Bangial, Hon, Sohlan, Narma, Dhudhi, Mekan and Tiwana claim to be descended from the Panwar Rajputs. They are now fairly distinct from the parent tribe, and were recorded seperately.

District / States

Muslim

Hindu

Sikh

Total

Rohtak

 13,931

 2,785

   16,716

Bahawalpur State

 9,845

 348

 223

 10,416

Hissar

 6,165

 1,240

 7,405

Firuzpur

 5,453  157  69  5,679

Multan

 5,445

 221

 

 5,666

Jind State

769

 

 2,839

 

 3,608

Karnal

2,009

 288

 11  2,308

Patiala State

1,353

 180

 157

1,690

 

Montgomery

 1,451  24 1,475

 

Ludhiana

1,392

 

63

1,455

Lahore 1,212 23 220 1,455
Gurgaon 920 355 1,275
Muzaffargarh 695
62 100 857
Dera Ghazi Khan 849   849
Jhelum 649 649
Chenab Colony 295 29 205 529
Jalandhar 425 18 443
Mianwali 426 426
Dehli 135 272 407
Gujranwala 16  380 396
Sialkot 278 74 352
Ambala 242 57 299
Rawalpindi 157 157
Dujana State 104 40 144
Shahpur 48  83 131
Gurdaspur 127 127
Gujrat 111 111
Hoshiarpur 108 108

Other Districts

 

 

 

Total

55,067

9,309

1,614

65,990

Chauhan Rajput Population According to the 1901 Census of Punjab

In this post, I look at the distribution of the second largest Rajput tribe in Punjab. Most of the Punjab Chauhans were Ranghars, living in Haryana. The Ranghars were Rajput groups who had converted to Islam. The majority were found in Ambala, Karnal, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hissar regions, about 101,380 about 63% of the total Chauhan population. The Rewari Ranghars, in what was then Gurgaon District, and were entirely Chauhan gave great trouble to the British. Outside Haryana, the Chauhans, also largely Muslim were found throughout Punjab. The Haryana Chauhans are often known as Raos, which is really a title and not clan name. In central Punjab, especially in the Majha, most Chauhan considered themselves as Jats. After Partition, almost all the Chauhan Ranghars migrated to Pakistan.

District / States

Muslim

Hindu

Sikh

Total

Karnal

 27,518

 6,154

 53 33,725

Ambala

 22,333

 8,252

 27

30,612

Hissar

 9,108

 1,895

11,003

Gurgaon

 4,439  6,218 10,657

Delhi

 1,122

 7,073

 

8,195 

Patiala State

 6,511

 1,634

 32

8,177

Rohtak

 5,211

1,679

  6,890

Kapurthala State

 5,386

121

 

5,507 

Jhelum

 5,140



5,140

Multan

 3,283

 186

29

3,498

Firuzpur  2,499  588 100 3,187 
Rawalpindi 3,029  18  14 3,061
Nabha State 949 2,039 2,988 
Lahore  1,393 644 303 2,349
Chenab Colony 1,426 66  781 2,273
Kalsia State  782  1,229  16 2,027
Jind State  963  1,003 1,966
Shahpur  1,463  315  52 1,830
Amritsar 1,307  260 1,567
Ludhiana  1,349  143  58 1,550
Pataudi State  431  1,081 1,512
Jalandhar  1,028  326  74 1,428
Montgomery  1,206  195 1,401
Muzaffargarh  564 16 585 1,165
Gujranwala  221 834  84 1,139
Gurdaspur  916  113  15 1,044
Hoshiarpur  699  217 916
Sialkot  710  42 752
Jhang 506 39  79 624
Kangra  58  485 543
Dera Ghazi Khan  453  21 474
Mianwali 197 197
Gujrat 79     43 122

Other Districts

 

 

 

3,023

Total

 114,428

 43,003

 6,164

160,542

Khanzada of Mewat

In this post, I will look at the Khanzada, a grouping of Muslim Rajputs traditionally found in the Mewat region, which is much larger then the current district of Mewat. It covered a considerable part of the princely states of Bharatpur and Alwar, and the southern portion the British Punjab district of Gurgaon. I also wish to point out that the Khanzada of Mewat have no connection with the Khanzada of Awadh.

British Colonial Writers and the Khanzada

According to the British colonial ethnographer William Crooke, there two etymologies for the name of ”Khanzada”. He favours that of “descendants of the Khan” but notes the “probably less correct explanation ‘descendants of a slave'”. While another colonial ethnographer Denzil Ibbetson notes that the Khanzadas self-identified as being of the Jadubansi gotra in the 1881 Punjab census and he speculated that their communal name could be translated as “the son of a Khan ” and is the Muslim equivalent to the Hindu word ”Rajput” (“son of a Raja”). From this he concluded that

there can be little doubt that the Khanzadas are to the Meos what the Rajputs are to the Jats.

This may be the case, but the Khanzada deny any connections with the Meo community, historically intermarrying with groups like the Rewari Ranghars and Qayamkhani, both claiming Chauhan ancestry, and Rajput status. The Khanzada were also rulers of the Mewat state from 1372 till 1527, until a branch of Kachwaha Rajputs conquered the region.


Alexander Cunningham, noted that ”khanzada” and ”khanazada” are different words, and that descendants of people who took the name of Khan upon conversion to Islam would indeed be referred to as ”khanzada”. He uses the historic writings in Babur’s autobiography, Tarikh-i-Salatin Afaghana and Abu Fazl’s ‘Ain-i-Akbari to demonstrate that the corruption of meaning was a relatively recent occurrence. Powlett, author of the Alwar State Gazetteer in the late 19th Century records a distinction in Mewat between the Khanzadas and the more numerous Meos. He says that, although both groups were Muslim, the former term referred to the ruling group of Mewat and the latter to a group of lower social standing. Although the two communities would combine on occasion in raids and battles, there was as a rule no love lost between them. He thought that the Khanzadas were probably the group being referred to by Persian historians when they wrote of the “Mewatti chiefs. Crooke, who recognises the noble status, says nonetheless that “I have a suspicion that they are more intimately connected than they acknowledge with the Meos.

 

Origin Myths

 

The Khanzadas themselves claim to be Yaduvanshi Rajputs, with a genealogy going back Krishna. There is a community tradition that their origins can be traced to the Jadaun Rajput, Lakhan Pala and to the area of Karauli. This raja was in turn a descendant of Adhan Pala and therefore of Tahan Pala, who founded Tahangarh near to Bayana in the eleventh century AD, and of Bijah Pala, the founder of Bijai Garh. Bijah Pala was the 88th generation sprung from Krishna, and therefore Lakhan Pala was the 94th generation. According to these traditions, which Powlett regards as being of extremely dubious authenticity, Lakhan Pala became a Muslim in the time of Firoz Shah and established himself at Kotila. From there he controlled Mewat and other areas. Cunningham is of the opinion that Lakhan Pala’s two sons, Sambhar and Sopar, took the names Bahadur Khan and Chajju Khan, respectively, upon their conversion to Islam. He also says that Lakhan Pala’s four brothers went on to establish the Jadaun branches of the [[Meo]]s. Lakhan Pala’s two sons, Sambhar and Sopar, took the names Bahadur Khan and Chajju Khan, respectively, upon their conversion to Islam. He also says that Lakhan Pala’s four brothers went on to establish the Jadaun branches of the Meos.

 

Khanzada Leaders and the Mewat State

The Khanzada were affective rulers of the Mewat, and in this section, I give a brief historical sketch.

Bahadur Khan

Bahadur Khan (also known as Bahadur Nahar), is said to have received the title of ”Nahar” (”Tiger”), from Firoz Shah, an emperor of Delhi, in recognition of him having killed a tiger single-handed. Powlett, who relies heavily on the accounts of Persian historians such as Ferishta records that Bahadur Khan was a Jadaun Rajput by birth and “the reputed founder of the Khanzada race”, who had his stronghold at Kotila. Powlett believes that either Bahadur Khan or his father probably converted to Islam in order to please Firoz Shah and thereby obtain power, since it appears that they were members of a family that had previously held royal powers but had lost them. Cunningham, who conducted archaeological surveys of India, believes that Bahadur Khan and his brother were the converts, and that in return for doing so Firoz Shah granted them Tijara and Jhirka. In recognition of the grant, the name of the latter was changed to Firozpur-Jhirka.

 

However, Cunningham does also note that “Some say that it was their father Lakhan Pal who first embraced Islam”. The first known reference to Bahadur Khan relates to his capture of Firozabad in 1389This action was in support of Abubakar, a grandson of Firoz Shah, who was contesting Muhammad Shah (also called Nasiruddin) for the throne of Delhi following the death of Firoz Shah in 1388. The support met with only temporary success as Muhammad Shah, who was an uncle of Abubakar, soon overturned his nephew and imprisoned him for life. Bahadur Khan, however, was allowed to flee. Two years later, Bahadur Khan took advantage of Muhammad Shah’s ill health in order to launch an attack on Delhi. Although he came close to the gates, he was rebuffed and a counter-attack on Kotila by Muhammad Shah caused him to depart for Firozpur-Jhirka.

 

Muhammad Shah died in 1392. Bahadur Khan, together with Ikbal Khan, then held the balance between two rival claimants of the throne, Mahmud Shah and Nusrat Shah. They would not allow either claimant to gain an advantage over the other and so for three years there were two emperors of Delhi. Timur had occupied Delhi by 1398 and Bahadur Khan watched the confusion of unfolding events from the distance of Kotila. Eventually, he and others paid homage to the conqueror: Timur arranged to meet Bahadur Khan and was much pleased to receive a present of two white parrots from the Khanzada leader. Cunningham reports a traditional account that in 1400 Bahadur Khan was murdered on the instructions of his father-in-law, the Hindu Rana Jamuwas, who disapproved of his Islamic conversion. In revenge for this act, Malik Alauddin, who is called the head of the family, killed Rana Jamuwas. A tomb at Tijara, from whence Malik Alauddin came, is reputed to be that of Bahadur Khan’s son, variously named as Alauddin Khanzada or Alauddin Firoz, although this is not certain.

 

The tomb of Bahadur Khan himself is located in Kotila. An inscription on its gateway suggests that it was constructed between 1392–1400 AD, having been started by Bahadur Khan and completed by his successor.

 

Jallu Khan

 

Bahadur Khan had at least two sons, the elder being Kalnash and a younger one called Mubarak. Mubarak allied himself with Ikbal Khan, the power behind the weak kingship of Mahmud Shah, but was then killed by his ally, who had become suspicious of his intentions. There appears to be little record of Kalnash, although he had travelled with his father for the audience with Timur. At some point after the death of Bahadur Khan, power appears to have passed to Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar

Khizr Khan had ingratiated himself with Timur and by that means had obtained virtual control of North India. He had invaded Mewat as early as 1411, did so again in 1413, and then, having become king of Delhi, he razed Kotila in 1421, forcing Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar into the surrounding hills. Khizar Khan was succeeded by Syed Mubarak (also known as Mubarak Shah) in the same year. Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar probably died a year later.

Jallu (or Jalal) Khan and Kaddu, both grandsons of Bahadur Khan, found themselves having to adopt scorched earth tactics subsequent to the death of Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar. Syed Mubarak had taken up the challenge of subduing the rebellious people of Mewat in 1424 and the attempt failed as the Mewatis laid waste their own territories before retreating to the hills. Similar tactics were adopted by Jallu and Kaddu in 1425 when Syed Mubarak renewed his attempt to quell resistance. He had more success on this occasion: the Mewatis had first retreated to Indor but he succeeded in forcing them from there to the hills, and destroyed the town in the process. Nonetheless, the subsequent surrender was a short-lived affair, and further incursions into Mewat proved to be necessary.

Kaddu had been killed by 1427, when another attempt to crush the rebellious Mewatis met with such resistance from Jallu – and from Ahmad Khan and Malik Fakaruddin, who were probably also of the same family – that it failed. They had again adopted a scorched earth policy, and retreated this time to the fort at Alwar. There was more success in the following year, when the Mewatis were forced to pay tribute to the ruler of Hindustan, but Rewari at least appears to have remained under Mewati control

 

Jallu is claimed to have captured Amber, the stronghold of the [[Kachwaha]] rajas, and removed one of its gates to Indor. The fort at Indor, which lay about 6km to the north of Kotila and south of Delhi, was a Khanzada stronghold much favoured by Jallu. He died around 1441, and Cunningham notes that he “is the great hero of the Khanzadas, who are never tired of relating his gallant deeds”.

 

 

A brother of Jallu, Ahmad, succeeded him and lived in relative peace until perhaps 1466, although he had to give up Tijara and pay tribute to [[Bahlol Lodi]] in order to achieve this.

Adil Khan

Cunningham refers to Adil Khan as the successor to Ahmad Khan. He considers it most likely that this person was a son of Ahmad. There was at least one other son, Alawal Khan, whom Cunningham notes Powlett describing as the destroyer, in 1482, of the power of the Nikumbha Rajputs, a Suryavanshi community who had established most of the forts then in existence in Alwar and in northern Jaipur, including probably those at Indore and at Alwar itself.

 

Hasan Khan Mewati

Perhaps the most famous Khanzada leader is Hasan Khan Mewati. Cunningham believes him to have been the son of Adil and a nephew of Alawal

The back-and-forth quest for control continued for much of the fifteenth century. However, 1526 saw the arrival of a new force in the form of Babur. This warrior, who claimed to be a representative of Timur, desired to surpass that man’s achievements by establishing an empire in the region rather than merely raiding it. Babur had won the Battle of Panipat (1526) in order to gain possession of Delhi and Agra, at which point Powlett describes that

“Then it was that the Rajputs made their last great struggle for independence. They were led by Rana Sankha, a chief of Mewar, who invited the Mewatti chief, Hasan Khan, to aid the nation from which he had sprung in resisting the new horde of Musalmans (Muslims) from the north.”

Babur was frustrated by Hasan Khan, with whom he had attempted to curry favour in order to obtain support against the Hindus. Hasan Khan had refused to co-operate and, according to Babur, was “the prime mover in all the confusions and insurrections of the period. The position taken by Hasan Khan was probably with an eye to regaining possession of Tijara, whose possessor at that time had allied with Babur. Babur’s difficulty was removed around the time of his victory over the Rajputs and Mewatis at the Battle of Khanwa, near to Fatehpur Sikri on 16 March 1527: Hasan Khan either died in that conflict, as Babur claimed, or was assassinated soon after at the behest of members of his family

 

Hasan Khan’s tomb is thought to be at Bhartari, near to Tijara, although the structure carries no indicative markings.

Mughal period

Nahar Khan, the son of Hasan Khan, sued for peace with Babur subsequent to the Battle of Khanwa and thereafter it appears that the Khanzadas lived in relative obscurity. By now, their seats of power at Tijara and at Alwar were both under the control of others. Powlett, writing in 1878, says that

 

The political power of the Khanzada chiefs of Mewat was now permanently broken, and they do not again appear, like Bahadur Khan and Hasan Khan, as the powerful opponents or principal allies of emperors.;… [They] still retained local importance, which did not quite disappear until the present century.

A part of that local importance was signified by the marriage of Babur’s successor, Humayun, and also of Humayun’s powerful aide, Bairam Khan, with great-nieces of Hasan Khan.  Additionally, according to Powlett, Khanzadas were

 “distinguished soldiers” in the armies of the Mughal empire. There was one brief flaring, during the rule of[Aurungzeb, when Ikram Khan Khanzada succeeded in gaining the War flags of the Governor of Tijara, but the once fractious Mewat region was generally peaceful under Mughal rule.

The Rise of the Alwar State

Pratap Singh, Thakur of Macheri, a Kachwaha Rajput of the Naruka branch, became a distinguished soldier of fortune in the Jaipur State Forces, who eventually entered the Imperial (Mughal) service. He gained many victories against the Jats, receiving Imperial recognition of dominion over some of the territories he conquered. He established an independent Alwar state in 1770, and assumed the title of Maharao Raja of Alwar after successfully conquering the famous fort of that city. Alwar State remained a semi-independent princely state until the Partition of India. The Khanzadas were reduced to the status of zamindars, although many continued to serve in State Forces. However, the Chaudharis of Tijara and Nawabs of Shahabad remained important Khanzada estates within the Alwar Kingdom.

British Period

Percy Powlett notes in 1878 that what ever local importance the Khanzadas may have once had, it disappeared during the nineteenth century. He says that they were by this time

y were by this time they are not numerically insignificant and cannot now be reckoned among the aristocracy. In social rank they are far above the Meos, and though probably of more recent Hindu extraction, they are better Musalmans.

 

Despite their Muslim faith, they did in the 19th Century still use the services of Brahmins during their marriage ceremonies, and also followed some other Hindu customs for that purpose. There were 26 Khanzada villages in Alwar and the population was economically weak, in part because their productivity in agriculture was hampered by the non-involvement of women. Some had migrated from the Mewat region and others were employed by both the British and the state armies, but agriculture was the primary occupation. According to the 1901 Census, the total Khanzada population was 13,925, of which 3,971 lived in Punjab, almost all in Gurgaon, and  9,954 in Rajputana, mainly in Alwar and Bharatpur.

Partition and Settlement in Sindh

At the time of Partition in 1947, the entire Khanzada population had leave the states of Bharatpur and Alwar and Gurgaon. Most Khanzada have settled in Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas and Badin in Sindh.

 

Meo and Khanzada Population According to 1901 Census of Punjab, Rajputana and the United Provinces

This is seventh post looking at the distribution of communities, namely the Khanzada and Meo, that were gazetted as agriculturalist in census of 1901 in the Punjab province. In this post, I will also look at the distribution of both communities in Rajputana and the United Provinces as well. Both groups were entirely Muslim. The Meo and Khanzada were concentrated in the Mewat region, in what is now south east Haryana and north east Rajasthan and claimed a Rajput status. Both groups claimed a similar origin from the Jadaun clan of Rajputs. The Meo and Khanzada were also found in Alwar and Bharatpur states in what was then the Rajputana Agency. In UP, the Meo were found largely in two regions, Rohilkhand, and the Doab region of western UP. Most of the Meo in UP were called themselves Mewati. The total Meo population in 1901 was 374,923, of which 147,198 (39%) were found in Punjab, 168,596 (45%) were found Rajputana (modern Rajasthan) and the remainder 59,129 (16%) were found in UP. I would also ask the leader to look at my post on the Khanzadas to get some background information on the tribe.

 

Meo of Punjab

Most of the Meo population was concentrated as I have said in the introduction in the Mewat region, roughly the eastern portion of Gurgaon, and southern bits of Delhi. Outside these areas in Hissar and Karnal, there were a few isolated villages of the Meo.

 

The Meo of Dera Ghazi Khan

The Meo of Dera Ghazi Khan had separated from the main body of the Meo through a migration in the 16th Century. Most of the Meo of this region considered themselves as Jat, and were Seraiki speaking. They had lost all contact with the main body of the Meo.

 

Meo Population of Punjab

 

District Population
Gurgaon 128,760
Delhi
8,268
Firuzpur 4,378
Jalandhar 1,385
Dera Ghazi Khan 880
Karnal 813
Ambala 580
Hissar 543
Other Districts 1,591
Total Population 147,198

Meo Population of Rajputana

 

District Population
 Alwar State  113,154
Bharatpur State
51,546
 Kotah State  1,072
Marwar (Jodhpur State) 1,000
 Jaipur State 654
 Mewar (Udaipur State)  559
 Tonk  State  208
 Jhalawar 125
 Other States and Agencies 278
Total Population 168,596

Meo Population of the United Provinces

District Population
Bulandshahr 9,840
Bareilly 9,374
Rampur State 7,356
Aligarh 6,557
Meerut 5,184
Mathura 3,813
Pilibhit 3,262
Moradabad 2,513
Nainital 2,106
Etah 1,793
Lakhimpur Kheri 1,217
Badaun 1,081
Agra 873
Muzaffarnagar 779
Etawah 603
Shahjahanpur 534
Lucknow 418
Bijnor 365
Rae Bareli 355
Unao 253
Barabanki 220
Farrukhabad 216
Sahanranpur 210
Sultanpur 207
Total Population 59,129

 

Khanzada Population of Punjab

Almost all the Khanzada were found in Gurgaon, where in 1901, they owned nine villages near town of Nuh and to the north of Firozpur.

District Population
Gurgaon  3,901
Other Districts  70
Total Population  3,971

Khanzada Population of Rajputana

 

District Population
Alwar State  8,503
Bharatpur State 814
Jaipur State 97
Other States and Agencies 540
Total Population  9,954

Dogar Population of Punjab and the United Provinces according to 1901 Census

In this second post looking at 1901 Census, I will look at the distribution of the Dogar population. Like the Kamboh in my first post, the Dogar were gazetted as an agriculture tribe. However, the Dogar were almost entirely Muslim, out of a total population of 75,080, only 95 were Hindu, 9 were Sikh and 4 were Jain. The Dogar were historically a pastoralist group, that by beginning of the 20th Century stretched from Sialkot in the west to Bulandshahr in the east.I wish to add that the Dogars have nothing to do with the Dogras, who are found largely in the Jammu region. Almost 70% of their territory went to India in 1947, leading to the migration of the Dogars to Pakistan. The only exception are the UP Dogars, who have largely remained in India.

Dogar Groups: The Ghaghar – Sutlej groups

The Dogar were found largely in the valley of the Sutlej, in Firuzpur, Faridkot State and the territory of Montgomery (present day Sahiwal and Okara) and the grasslands located between the Ghaghar and the Sutlej rivers, in what then the princely states of Nabha and Patiala and the Hissar territory, presently western Haryana. This region was home to the larger Dogar population, almost a third

The Himalayan Group

A second cluster of Dogars were found along the Himalyas, stretching from Hoshiarpur to Sialkot. The Dogars of Lahore, Gujranwala, Jalandhar and Ludhiana were culturally related to the Himalayan group of Dogars.

The Haryana and UP group

A final group was found in Karnal and Rohtak, and this group extended into the United Provinces, present day Uttar Pradesh. They differed from other Dogars in that they spoke Haryanwi, and not Punjabi. Karnal was home to the largest cluster. The Bulandshahr Dogars were migrants from Rohtak, mainly from the village of Parah in that district, settling in UP the mid 19th Century.

Dogar Population of Punjab

District Population
Firuzpur 16,402
Patiala 11,243
Hissar 7,623
Lahore 7,503
Hoshiarpur 5,388
Jalandhar 4,409
Amritsar 4,128
Gurdaspur 2,615
Ludhiana 2,411
Sialkot 2,302
Karnal 2,064
Montgomery 1,675
Gujranwala 1,048
Faridkot 946
Ambala 386
Jind 230
Rohtak 210
Other Districts 34
Total Population 75,080

Dogar Population of the United Provinces

 

District Population
Bulandshahr 215
Total Population 215

Lilla and Phaphra

In this post, I will look at two tribes, namely the Phaphra and Lilla, who live in close proximity to each other in the Pind Dadan Khan region of Jhelum. Both of them have been called Jat, and here I wish to make a point. Both these tribes claim to an extra sub-continental descent, the Phaphra claim to be Mughal, while the Lilla Qureshi. Yet, the definition of Jat is elastic enough in this region for both these tribes to be included in the Jat category. What makes someone a Jat here is whether other tribes of Jat status will intermarry with them. I would also ask the reader to look at my article on the Jalap, which gives some background on the Jats of the Jhelum region.

Phaphra

Phaphra is small tribe of Mughal status, also found in Pind Dadan Khan plains located north of the river Jhelum.

The tribe claims to be Barlas Mughals, and get its name from an ancestor named Phaphra, who settled in the district in the 15th Century. So who exactly are the Barlas, and I shall briefly look at this group of medieval Mongols. According to the Secret History of the Mongols, written during the reign of Ögedei Khan [r. 1229-1241], the Barlas shared ancestry with the Borjigin, the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors, and other Mongol clans. The leading clan of the Barlas traced its origin to Qarchar Barlas, head of one of Chagatai’s regiments. Qarchar Barlas was a descendant of the legendary Mongol warlord Bodonchir (Bodon Achir; Bodon’ar Mungqaq), who was also considered a direct ancestor of Genghis Khan. Due to extensive contacts with the native population of Central Asia, the tribe had adopted the religion of Islam, and the Chagatai language, a Turkic language of the Qarluq branch, which was heavily influenced by Arabic and Persian. Timur, the ancestor of the Mughal dynasty belonged to the Barlas clan, and therefore that would connect the Paphra with the Mughals.

As their little historic evidence to connect the Phaphra with the Mughals, there is some scepticism as to their claim of Mughal ancestry. British settlement documents from the late 19th and early 20th Century refer refer to them as a “semi-Jat tribe”. As I have already mentioned, the word Jat in the Jhelum region often means a cultivator. The fact that the Phaphra often intermarry with neighbouring tribes such as the Lilla and Gondal, who are considered as Jat often reinforces the perception that the Phaphra are Jat.

According to Phaphra traditions, they came to this district from the direction of Faridkot, in what is now in East Punjab India. They settled in India around 15th Century, slightly earlier then the Mughal takeover of the Punjab. The Phaphra settled here as agriculturists, getting their name from their leader at that time Phaphra. However some other traditions claim he was called Nittharan. According to a family tree kept by Chaudharies of Gharibwal, the largest landowners among the tribe, gives their genealogy as follows:
Harbans or Shah Ibrahim (a descendent of Timur), Tilochar, Shah, Mal, Phaphra, Pheru, Vatra, Jatri, Harsh or Arif, Tulla, Nado, Hardev, Mahpal, and finally Nittharan.

Nittharan is said to have five sons namely; Gharib, (descendants in Gharibwal), Samman (Sammanwal), Ichhcin (son’s name Sau, descendants in Sauwal), Rao (Rawal), and Dhudhi (Dhudhi, and Qadarpur). Some of the earlier names are clearly Hindu, although this does not itself preclude their claim to Barlas ancestry. But there position in Jhelum society was more akin that of the Jats then the Mughals. Their headmen use the title Chaudhary, and their customs are very similar to the Gondals, the largest Jat tribe in their vicinity. The Phaphra are now divided into two rival clans, the Dhudhial, from the village of Dhudhi Paphra and Sadowalia from those who belong to the village of Sadowal.

The Paphra occupy a compact area of about 25 square miles at the foot of the Salt Range, east of Pind Dadan Khan in Jhelum District .The main Mughals Phaphra villages are Chak Danial, Chak Shadi, Chakri Karam Khan, Dewanpur, Dhudi Paphra, Ghareebwal, Jutana, Karimpur, Kaslian, Kot Phaphra, Kot Shumali, Rawal, Sidhandi, Sammanwal, Sadowal, Saowall, Shah Kamir, Qadirpur, Thil, Warnali, and Warra Phaphra, all in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District. In Chakwal District they are found in Dhok Virk and Jotana. Mohra Phaphra is a lone Phaphra village in Rawalpindi District. Across the Jhelum, in Mandi Bahauddin District the Paphra are also found in villages of Phaphra, Chak No 29 and Nurpur Piran.

Lila

The next tribe I will look are the Lila, who are also found above the Jhelum in Pind Dadan Khan District.

According to their tribal traditions, they originally located in Arabia, being relations of the Prophet on his mother’s side. This would make the Lila’s Qureshi by origin. They then left Arabia under the leadership of an individual named Haris, who migrated to India, with a band of 160 men and settled at a place called Masnad in Hindustan, which they say still exists as a small town or village, though its exact situation is not known. This happened in the time of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. However, the Lilla did not stay long in Masnad, and moved to Multan. There they became disciples of the pir Ghaus Shah. The Pir warned them that they would prosper as long as they remained united, but that any disagreements within the tribe would lead to their ruin.

Accompanied by Ghaus Shah, the tribe settled in Shahidiwalian, near present day Gujranwala. After they had been settled there for some time the locals of the place began to get tired of the trouble they caused, and made complaint to the Emperor at: Delhi, who ordered that they should be moved on.

The local governor was ordered to expel them and succeeded in dividing the tribe into two factions, which fought a pitched battle. The defeated party dispersed and its descendants are now found near the Chenab, mainly in what’s now Mandi Bahaudin District, while the others, weakened by the struggle, migrated to the Pind Dadan Khan plain, led by Lilla Buzurg, whose is considered the ancestor by all the present Lillas. When Lilla arrived at their present location, the tract was then occupied a tribe of Hal Jats. As I have already mentioned in the section on the Hal, the Lillas proceeded exterminated this tribe, barring one pregnant woman, who had managed to escape. According to the tribal traditions of the Awan, who villages border those of the Lilla, they were first settle the area by the Jhelum, which was a swamp.Despite the claim to Qureshi ancestry, the Lilla are considered as Jats by their neighbours and intermarry with other tribes of Jat status such as the Gondal, Jethal, Phaphra and Wariaches.

The four ancestral villages of the tribe are Lilla Bhera (also known as Mainowana), Lilla Bharwana, Lilla Hindwana, and Lilla Guj, which are said to be named after their founders, Maino, Bharo, Hindo, and Guj. Each of these villages are named after their founders, Maino, Bharo, Hindo, and Guj. The tribe holds about 40 square miles of territory between Pind Dadan Khan town and the Salt Range in the Jhelum District, and form the majority in the villages of Chak Hameed, Jalalpur Sharif, Lilla Handwana, Lilla Goj, Lilla Bhera (also known as Mainowana) and Rawal in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. There also a second cluster of Lilla villages on the banks of the Jhelum River in Khushab District, such as Kotla Jagir, Mohibpur and Waheer. While in Mandi Bahauddin District, they are found in Bohat, and further south in Sargodha District, they are found in Bhikhi Khurd, descendants of the second group of Lillas who dispersed to the Chenab.

Tribes of the Thal Desert: The Tiwana

In this post I will look at Tiwana, or sometimes spelt Tawana. I would ask the reader to look at my other articles on the tribes of the Thal, which gives some background information on the Thal and its inhabitants. Perhaps more then any other tribe, the Tiwana represent the culture and tradition of the Thal desert. They have much in common with the Aheers, with whom they intermarry. What perhaps makes the Tiwana unique however is their insistence that they are Rajputs, a claim not made by other Thal tribes. So who are these Tiwana, and the answer is never simple. According to their own traditions, they are Panwar Rajputs. What is interesting about this region of Punjab is the persistence of claims towards Panwar or Parmar ancestry, despite the fact this region never formed part of the medieval Parmar state. The Tiwanas of the Thal are still found mainly in Khushab district. Another branch of the Tiwana tribe, which was partly Sikh and partly Muslim were found in Samana, which was part of the Sikh ruled state of Patiala. The Muslim Tiwanas left Samana after partition, and are now found dispersed throughout central Punjab. This article will focus of the Khushab Tiwanas, with some reference to the Samana clan.

According to Tiwana tribal traditions, they descend from Rai Shankar, who is also said to be the ancestor of the Sial tribe. So this is there story. Rai Shanker, a Panwar Rajput, lived in Daranagar, which was said to be located midway between Allahabad and Fatehpur, in what is now Uttar Pradesh. Other traditions refer to a a group of Panwars migrating to Jaunpur from Dara Nagar where Shanker was born. Three sons were born to Shanker, who were named Ghaiyyo, Taiyyo and Saiyyo and from whom descend the Sial tribe of Jhang, Tiwanas of Khushab and Ghebas of Pindigheb. According to another tradition, Sial was the only son of Rai Shanker and the ancestors of the Tiwanas and Ghebas were merely related to Shanker by paternal descent. Shanker’s clansmen lived in unity until his death, but afterwards they developed severe disputes and clashes which led to his son Sial migrating to Punjab during the period 1241-46 A.D. during the reign of Alauddin Ghauri, son of Sultan Ruknuddin or Masud Shah Alauddin.

It important to note, that almost all the Panwar clans like the Mekan and Dhudi have traditions that they migrated to Punjab during the early 13th Century. The other Panwar groupings also have traditions of accepting Islam at the hands of a Sufi saint. For the Tiwanas, this occurred when Teu, their ancestor arrived at Ajodhan, now named Pak Pattan, and embraced Islam at the hands of Hazart Baba Baba Fariduddin Ganj Shaker. However, the Tiwanas of the Thal also have traditions that they migrated from Samana, so it is likely the Samana was the original area of settlement. What is also a point to note is that the Samana Tiwana were the only Jat clan in the region which a slight majority of Muslims.

Tiwana of Patiala

Teo’s descendants founded the village of Mataur, near Narwana, in present day Jind District. The village remains’ the centre of Tiwanas who have remained Hindus. A group of Tiwanas left Mataur and settled near Samana, and founded the village of Chinhartal, which situated 15 miles from Patiala. A second group migrated and settled in the Thal desert, from which descend the Khushab branch.

The village of Chinhartal was divided into three different sections (known as patties in Punjabi). These three sections were Nanda Patti, Tiloka Patti, and Gaddo Patti, named after an ancestor. Tiloka patti was the largest patti in the village. Gaddo and his descendants had embraced Islam in A.D. 1533. During the Mughal period, Muslim Tiwana Chaudharis, descendants of Gaddo, Majlis Khan and Wazir Khan, were the prominent chiefs in the Malwa region. With the rise of the Sikhs in Patiala, the Muslim branch of the Tiwanas declined, and were reduced to village headmen. Abar Muhammad popularly known as Abri was the village numberdar right up to partition in 1947. The Muslim Tiwanas of Patiala all emigrated to Pakistan in 1947.

Tiwana of Khushab

The Tiwana rose as major landowners in the Thal in the 18the Century, a position that was confirmed by the British colonial authorities. Mughal authority rapidly collapsed in the Punjab in early 1700s, wth both the Sikhs and Afghans vying for power. In the Thal region, the Tiwana under Malik Sher Khan made themselves masters of Nurpur and the surrounding country, and after the death of the Awan chieftain Gul Jahannia of Warchha, succeeded in establishing a partial authority over the Awans settlements along the base of the Salt range. They also seized Shekhowal and several other villages on the right bank of the Jhelum from the Baloch rulers of Sahiwal. However, the Malik’s attempt was unable to capture Khushab, for although Lal Khan, the Baloch ruler was killed in the defence of the town, the Tiwanas were driven off, and Jafar Khan, the deceased chieftain’s son and successor, remained in possession, until Ranjit Singh absorbed the minor principality.

Tiwana power was now reduced the lands near their most important village, Mitha Tiwana, and here too, faced the rising power of the Sikhs. Ranjit Singh sent a well equipped force against them under Misr Diwan Chand in 1816. The Tiwana Malik was forced to leave Mitha for Nurpur, in the heart of the Thal, hoping that the scarcity of water and supplies might prevent the Sikh army from succeeding. But the Sikh commander, sank wells as he advanced, so that after a time the Tiwana, finding resistance hopeless, abandoned Nurpur, and took refuge with their old enemy, the Nawab of Dera Ismail Khan. The Nawab decided that this was the time to finish his Tiwana rivals, plundered them and turned them out. After this, for nearly two years, Malik Khan Muhammad and his sons wandered from place to place, subsisting on the charity of their neighbours but finding this kind of life insupportable, they determined efforts to recover their former possessions.

The Tiwanas were able to raise a force from the Thal tribes, and after surprise attack, seized Mitha. The Sikh garrison, completely taken by surprise, abandoned the place and fled, and the Maliks were once more masters of the land of their ancestors. This success was however short-lived, as in 1818, the ousted Sikh Governor returned with a strong force, and the Maliks were once again forced into exile. The possessions of tho Tiwana Chiefs were then given in jagir to the famous Sikh general Hari Singh, Nalwa, and were held by him till his death at Peshawar in 1837. Khan Muhammad, the Tiwana chieftain then travelled to Lahore to convince Ranjit Singh that it would be bad policy to drive the Tiwanas to desperation. Tiwanas as loyal subjects of the Sikh could act as intermediaries between them and the Jats of the Thal. They were therefore granted an estate on the west bank of the Jhelum, covering much of the norther corner of the Thal.
Kadir Bakhsh, the new Tiwana chieftain, became close friends with the Dogra warlord Raja Gulab Singh, and became an important courtier of Ranjit Singh. At the death of Hari Singh Nalwa, the Tiwana recovered almost all their lands. The next Tiwana chieftain, Fateh Khan, Kadir Bakhs cousin, took a prominent part in the politics of the Sikh Durbar. However, when the British conquered the Malik Fateh Sher Khan, the son of Fateh Khan, and Malik Sher Muhammad Khan, the son of the KAdir Bakhsh, switched to the British side. The descendants of Malik Sher Mohammad became the Maliks of Mitha Tiwana, the most important of the Tiwana estates. Other important estates of the Tiwana include Hadali, Hamooka,

They are now found mainly in Khushab, where important Tiwana villages include Thatta Tiwana, Mitha Tiwana, Noorpur Tiwana, Girot, Hadali, Hamoka, Kalurkot, Kundian, Jhabrian, Waracha, Sakesar, Megha, and Thai Dandan

Distribution of Muslim Tiwana in Punjab by District According to 1901 Census of India

 

District Population
Patiala State 3,039
Shahpur (Sargodha & Khushab districts) 2,971
Other districts 316
Total Population 6,326