Muslim Labana of Punjab

In this post I will look at Muslim members of the Labana caste. I will ask the reader to look at my post on the distribution of Labana caste according to the 1901 Census of India. The Muslim Labana often refer to themselves as Rahmani. They are one of the lesser known communities of Punjabi Muslims.

Etymologically, the word  labana is derived from two Sanskrit words, where lun from Lavana which means salt and Vana from Vani which means to trade. The Labana, Lobana or Libana  were those who were involved in salt-carrying and salt trading. Originally, the Labanas were traders and carriers and were largely nomadic, like Banjaras and Lambadis. They used animal-powered transportation and moved with entire families, cattle and dogs, around the Punjab.  During the Mughal period (16 and 17th centuries), the Labana groups in Punjab were employed by various empires for transportation of military material. The Banjaras are the traditional peddlers of North India, and their place has been taken by the Labanas in Punjab. Indeed, both groups served under empires of Mughals, British, and Sikhs as a commissariat. Sir Horace Rose, early 20th Century British ethnologists observed the following about the Labanas:

 

Indeed the Labana is occasionally called a Banjara. In Ambala he is also said to be called Bahrupia, on account of his versatility in adopting different avocations. Headmen among the Labanas are called Naik, and under them work is carried

 

This shows a very close connection between the two groups. However, the Punjab experienced war and famine throughout the 18th Century, and many Labana settled down as agriculturists. By beginning of the 20th Century, the Labanas were largely agriculturists group. A major setback to their traditional profession was the introduction of  railways by British, so there dependence on agriculture increased.

 

The Labana are of a very mixed background as shown by the fact different groups had different origin stories. In Ludhiana they claimed descent from Chauhan Rajputs of Jaipur and Jodhpur. In Gujrat Labana groups claimed that they were originally Raghubansi Rajputs, while in Kapurthala descent was claimed from Gaur Brahmans, who had come from Rohilkhand. The Labana were largely Sikh, with two exceptions. Those of Firupzur district were entirely Muslim, and were found in Abohar. A bit further down along the Sutlej, in Bahawalpur State, many Labanas were also Muslim. Their villages are found mainly along Sutluj near Minchinabad, extending towards Abohar in British territory. In Bahawalpur, Muslim Labanas claimed to be Panwar Rajputs who had come from Delhi. There was also a single Muslim Labana village in Hissar District called Panniwala. The Labana spoke Labanki, which was very close Seraiki. This reflected a eastward migration from Bahawalpur towards Hissar.

 

After partition, Muslim Labanas from Firuzpur and Hissar migrated to Pakistan, where many are now found in Bhakkar District. I would ask the reader to look at Muhammad Alamgir’s excellent interview with a Muslim Labana from Hissar now settled in Multan.

 

Muslim Labana Population According to the 1921 Census of India

 

District / States Population
Firuzpur 2,730
Bahawalpur State 1,009
Dera Ghazi Khan 66
Hissar 54
Multan 51
Other Districts 152
Total 4,062

 

 

 

Daha Rajput

In this post, I wll look at the Daha Rajput tribe, now found mainly in Khanewal District of Punjab. The Daha were rulers of an independent principality in the Neeli Bar and are an extremely influential tribe in Khanewal District. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the Kathiato give more information on the Bar nomad tribes.

The Daha are a branch of the Panwar Rajputs (also pronounced as Parmar), who ancestor was Mahrajah Shri Khand, ruler of the state of Dharanagri in Malwa region of Central India. The ancient Paramar kings of Dharanagri claimed to be members of the Agnikula or Agnivansha (“fire clan”). The Agnikula myth of origin, which appears in several of their inscriptions and literary works, goes like this: The sage Vishvamitra forcibly took a wish-granting cow from another sage Vashistha on the Arbuda mountain (Mount Abu). Vashistha then conjured a hero from a sacrificial fire pit (agni-kunda), who defeated Vashistha’s enemies and brought back the cow. Vashistha then gave the hero the title Paramara (“enemy killer”). The earliest known source to mention this story is the Nava-sahasanka-charita of Padmagupta Parimala, who was a court-poet of the Paramara king Sindhuraja (ca. 997-1010). The Parmar ruled an important state in Malwa until their decline in the 13th Century.

Coming back now to the the Daha, 20th in descent of Shrikhand was an individual by the name of Dohaj. Dohaj was a prince of Dharanagri, and it was his son Daha, from which the Daha Rajputs get their name. Twentieth in descent from Daha, was an individual who converted to Islam and took the name Taqi Khan. A descentdant of Taqi Khan by name of Singhaar Khan left Malwa and settled in the Neeli Bar, near where Khanewal is located. This migration is set to have occurred in the 13th Century. The Daha were pastoralist at this point, although they built a fort near present day Khanewal. Both the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire maintained a very light control over the Bar nomads.

According to another tribal tradition, Daha, who was said to be a Muslim holy man, was married the daughter of Parihar Rajput, who were said to be the rulers of Multan. They claim kinship with the Bohar and Parhar Jats, who are also of Parihar Rajput ancestry. While another tribal tradition claims the tribe originated in Dharwar in central India, from where they migrated to Pakpattan. The tribe then spread to Khanewal and Multan. There original name was dharawal, or in English people of the town of Dharwar, which was shortened to Daha. During the period which saw the break up of the Mughal Empire (circa 18th Century), the Daha became effective rulers of the portion of the Neeli Bar that forms the modern Khanewal District. The town of Khanewal is name after Khan Daha, the founder.

With the collapse of Mughal authority in the 18th Century, the Daha chief Hasan Khan carved out an independent principality. The principality included Tulamba, Luddan and Tibbi Sultanpur. However, like many of these petty Muslim Rajput principalities, the Daha also saw the arrival of the Sikhs. During the rule of Ziarat Khan, the Daha chiefs acknowledged Sikh overlordship (around 1790). The Daha chiefs were granted lands in Bahawalpur such as Khairpur Tamiwali, to which they paid tribute to the Daudputra rulers of that state. When the region came under British rule in 1849, the Daha chief was Khan Mohammad Khan, who was made a zamindar by the new authorities. Like other Bar chiefs, Khan Mohammad lost his indipendence. When Khanewal was founded by the British, and the area opened up to canal colonization, the Daha were granted extensive estates by the colonial authorities. The current member of national assembly from Khanewal is Muhammad Khan Daha .

In terms of distribution, they are found mainly in Vehari, Khanewal, D G Khan, D I Khan,Faisalabad, Multan and Rajanpur districts. Important Daha villages starting with Khanewal District include Dera Nishat Khan Daha, Rajanpur District Kotla Esan and Kotla Daha, and in Muzaffargarh District, their main villages are Head Bakaini, Mahiwal Daha, Sardar Mohammed Daha, Mohammed Daha, Chak Ali Daha and Ali Daha. 

Noon / Nun Rajput

In this post, I will look at the Noon, sometimes spelt Nun, tribe of Rajputs. Two of their branches, those of Shujabad near Multan and Hamooka near Khushab achieved political power, although Noons are  also found in Bhakkar, Jhang and Faisalabad.  The Noons of Khushab are closely connected with  the Tiwana, and I would ask the reader to look at my post on that tribe.

Origin Myth
The Noon are a tribe of Jat and Rajput status, found in mainly in Shujabad Tehsil of Multan District. According to one of their traditions, they are descended Noon, a Bhatti Rajput, who said to have left Delhi. According to other traditions, Kalyar was a son of Rana Raj Wadhan, who had four other sons, (1) Utterā, (2) Nun, (3) Kanjun, (4) Hatar. The tradition is that the ancestors of Raj Wadhan lived in ancient times near Ghajni (which is said to have existed near Rawalpindi), from where they migrated to Delhi, which after a time they left for Bhatner (now known as Hanumangarh). In the 7th century of the Hijra Raj Wadhan together with his tribe left Bhatner and settled near Chhanb Kulyar (now in the Lodhran District), which in those days lay on the southern bank of the Sutlej and formed part of the dominions of Rai Bhutta, the ruler of a city, the greater part of which was destroyed by the Sutlej flowing over it; but parts of its ruins are still to be seen on the right bank of the Ghāra (in Lodhran District). Rana, Raj Wadhan had a beautiful daughter whom Rai Bhutta, desired to marry. The request was refused by Kalyar, the eldest son of Raj Wadhan ; and the result was that a sanguinary battle took place in which Rai Bhutta, was slain. The tract of the country thus conquered by the Kalyars became known as Chhanb Kalyar, which name it still retains. At this time Sher Shah Sayyid Jalal was living in Uch, where Rana Raj Wadhan and his sons went to see him and embraced Islam. Raj Wadhan remained at Uch, Uttera, occupied the  Viah  (Bias), Nun, also known as Nano began to live on the banks of the Ravi, (and that tribe is now dominant in Shujabad tahsil), Kanjun at the Donari Mari, and Kalyar made Chhanb Kulyar his residence. Hatar was deprived of his share of the inheritance. Although, as my post on the Hattars show, they are now a substantial tribe in Sargodha District. Rajah Nanoo had sevens sons. One was said to have settled in Mitha Tiwana, another at Kahror Pacca in Lodhran District, one was settled in Shikarpur in Sindh and four were settled in Shujabad in Multan after accepting Islam on the hands of Makhdoom Jalaluddin Jahanian Jahangasht of Uch. All Noons except of those Sargodha write Rana as their title, except those of Mitha Tiwana, who use the title Malik.

Noon of Shujabad

There is however another tradition among the Noon of Shujabad, who claims descent from a Rajah Ganj, a Chandravanshi Rajput. The Rajah was prince of Thana Bhawan, which is a town in Uttar Pradesh, located  near the city of Delhi. A descendent of Rajah by the name of Nano converted to Islam at the hands of Makhdum Jahanian (b 1308- d 1384). The tribe, according to this tradition, gets its name Noon from Nano, and after their conversion to Islam they settled near Multan. They remained a pastoralist tribe living near the banks of the Chenab until the rule of the Mughal Emperor Akbar (r. 1556 to 1605). He granted the title of rana, which is a historical title meaning lord, and used by Rajput groups in South Asia, to their chiefs. The various Noon of Shujabad claim descent from six brothers, Ranjha, Janah, Ali Sher, Langa, Umar and Walan. These six brothers are said to have fled from near Multan, and founded the town of Bangala. From this original settlement, they founded further villages such as Basirpur, Mohanpur, Kachotha, Sat Burji and Jalalabad. A number of further settlements were established during the rule of the  governor of Multan, Nawab Muzaffar Khan. Two of the most important villages were those of Basti Mithu, Mari Noon and Dadu, while their other villages include Garwezpur, Basti Dad and Panoi. During the later Mughal period (18th Century), the Noon of Shujabad were independent, their most important chief being Rana Mithu. Rana Mithu’s son, Rana Gamah acknowledge Sikh sovereignity, and was an important courtier in Ranjit Singh’s court. When Sikh rule ended in 1848, his nephew, Rana Ahmed Yar Khan  was appointed zaildar. The Noon’s of Shujabad are still active in politics, with Rana Ijaz Ahmad Noon , serving as a Member of the Punjab Assembly.

In addition to the Shujabad Noons, another branch of the family is settled in Kahror Pacca in Lodhran District.

Noon of Khushab / Sargodha

This branch of the Noon tribe also traces its descent from Rajah Ganj. Rajah Nano here did not settle in Shujabad, but arrived with his kinsmen in the Thal.  Here they established close relationship with their neighbours, the Tiwanas, with whom they have long inter-married. While the arrival of the Sikh reduced the power of the Shujabad Noons, the Sikh power strengthened the Khushab Noons. Their chiefs, Malik Bakhsh Khan and his son Malik Jahan Khan served in the army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, and held some villages in jagir, which were then lost in the last period of Sikh rule. Malik Fateh Khan, the Noon chief at time of the annexation of Punjab by the British in 1848, helped the British put down a Sikh uprising in 1849. The Malik was giving an estate by the British as a reward. From this branch of the Noon family came the Pakistani prime minister Feroze Khan Noon.

The Noon established fifteen villages in Sargodha District in the late 19th Century, after a grant of the large jagir. The most important of which are Alipur Noon, Nurpur Noon, Sardarpur Noon and Sultanpur Noon.

Distribution of Noon Rajputs According to the 1901 Census of India

District / State
Population
Multan 3,653
Shahpur 1,213
Total Population 4,866

Population of Noon Jats According to the 1901 Census

District / State
Population
Chenab Colony 172
Other Districts 205
Total Population 377

Barya/ Varyah and Taoni Rajput tribes of Punjab

This post will look at two Rajput tribes, who were found in what is now the Punjab state in India, namely the Varya (also spelt Braah, Brah, Baria, Warya, Waria, Warah) and Taoni. The Varya were much more widespread than the Taoni, but both tribes were centred mainly in what were the Phulkian States (Patiala and Nabha). These two tribes had much in common, both were largely Muslim by the beginning of the 20th Century, used the title Rana, and had seen their political power weakened by the rise of the Sikhs. Unlike some of tribes of Rajput status that I have looked earlier, in particular in the Pothohar region, the distinction between Rajput and Jat was very clear in the region inhabited by these two tribes.

The historical homeland of the tribes was the Puadh, (sometimes anglicized as Poadh or Powadh) region. This is a historic region in north India that comprises parts of present-day Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and the U.T. of Chandigarh, India. It has the Sutlej river in its north and covers the regions immediately south of the Ghaggar river. In Haryana, the region includes Pinjore, Panchkula, Naraingarh, Kalka, Ambala and Yamunanagar districts. Other areas include Jagadhri, Kalesar, Pehowa, Gulha tehsil of Kaithal district and Fatehabad district. The people of the area are known as Puadhi and speak the Puadhi dialectof Punjabi. Among the Rajput tribes, the Varya and Taoni were pre-eminent in the Puadh region.

The Puadh region consists of the eastern districts of Punjab, the north-western portions of Haryana and the southernmost strip of Himachal Pradesh.

Map of the Puadh Region Source Wikepedia

Chhat and Makan

The Rajputs of the Puadh had an interesting institution, that of the Chhat and Makan. The author of the Hoshiarpur Gazetteer describes it as such:

The word chhat is explained as an abbreviation of chhatar makan, equivalent to taj or “ crown.” It may possibly be translated canopy. The canopy used to be one of the insignia of sovereign power. A chhat makan is a village which enjoys a pre-eminence over, or is held in special veneration by, the other villages of the brotherhood (biradari). It is generally called simply chhat. A makan is a village of lower grade than a chhat. The title of makan is earned for a village by some person’s performing a meritorious deed at a wedding or a funeral, and it is then said of it that ‘village so and so ia a makan, koi lallu panju gaon nahin — “it is not an ordinary village, but a famous place.” Tika is the title of the heir-apparent to a reigning prince. Hence it is applied to villages which are the seats of a prince’s rule It would appear that a chhat makan was originally a tika, a tika being a village which is the seat of a house still actually ruling or exercising authority in some way.

Baria / Varya

The Varya or Baria had a number of origin myths . They generally placed themselves within theSuryanvanshi division of the Rajputs. It seems that there original settlement was in Patiala. The name Baria / Varya is very likely  derived from Sanskritic: Varaha which means boar, which was very likely their totem. Another form of the name appears to be Warah, which is used by those of Jalandhar.

There is general agreement that the ancestor of the tribe was Binepal of Bhatinda, and had emigrated at a very distant past from Udaipur. The Varya are descendants of Warah, whose grandson Rājā Banni Pāl, is said to have founded Bhatinda, after conquering Bhatner and marrying the daughter of its Rajā. Banni Pāl’s son Udasi was defeated by a king of Delhi but received a jagir. His son Sundar had seven sons, of whom the eldest founded Badhar in Nabha. (Cf. Barian). Rai Kalu of Kakra near Bhawanigarhwas said to be the first Varya chief to have embraced Islam in the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar (October 1542[a]– 27 October 1605). Different groups of Varya them began to convert, but there still many Varya who are Hindu such as those of Bakhtri in what is now Sangrur District. In the Patiala State, the Varya, both Hindu and Muslim owned nearly 30 villages in the tehsils of Sunam, Bhawanigarh and Amargarh. At the beginning of the 20th Century, they were organized along chhats or villages of the first rank and makans or villages of the second rank, other villages being inferior to these in social status. The author of the Patiala Gazetteer wrote the following:

Barahs have 12 chhats and 24 makans, the chhats in this State being Samana, Talwandi, Kakra, Bhumsi, Jhal, Jhondan, in Nabha Baena, Badbar, Baragraon, in Jind Bazidpur, and in British territory Budlida and Moranda

According to another tradition, the tribe is descended from a Warah, whose grandson Rajah Banni Pal, who is said to have founded Bhatinda, after conquering Bhatner and marrying the daughter of the Raja. Banni Pal’s son Udasi was defeated by a Sultan of Delhi but latter received a jagir. His son Sundal had seven sons, of whom the eldest found Badhar in Nabha. Malwa Ithaas states that Raja Vineypal Variah, who was a descendant of Vikramaditya, built the fort of Bhim Garh, that evolved into the town of Bathinda on the banks of the Sutlej in 655 CE and established his rule. This rule contained property from Bhatner,Lahore, Sarhind, Mandlik, Licchabadi, Thanesar, Bhadhaur, Dango, Peshawar, and most of Punjab. This kingdom had two capitals, one at Batthinda and one at Lahore. It also states that Variah was a son of Varga, 26th generations down from Bikarmaditya. Variah’s descendants were Taskmas, Ajaypal, Abhaiypal, Vineypal, Lakhanpal, Rattanpal, Naiyapal, Nainpal, Vijaypal, , Jashpal, Satpal, Gunpal, and finally Gillpal whose descendants are the various Gill Clans in Punjab. According to Malwa Ithass the last Raja of this clan was Jayapal whose grandson was killed by Mahmud Ghaznavi in 1008 CE .During the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, most of the tribe converted to Islam.

In Jallandhar, the Varya had a tradition their ancestor Mal, a descendent of Raja Karan of the Mahabharat, came from Jal Kahra in Patiala in around 1500. While those of Sialkot, where they are found in small numbers and rank as Jats, not Rajputs, say they are of Chandravanshi descent. However, most Varya Rajputs consider themselves to be Rajputs of the Suryanvashi lineage. The Varya may be connected with the Barhaiya Rajputs in the Azamgarh and Ghazipur in Uttar Pradesh, who also connect themselves with Udaipur.

After the partition of Punjab in 1947, the Muslim Varya migrated to western Punjab, where they are found in districts such as Faisalabad and Sahiwal.

Population of Baria Rajputs According to the 1901 Census of India

District / States Muslim Hindu Total
Patiala State 11,168 306 11,474
Nabha State 4,498 33 4,531
Hissar 1,451 1,451
Ludhiana 1,433 1,433
Jalandhar 647 19 666
Malerkotla State 528 528
Ambala 389 49 438
Hoshiarpur 288 41 329
Firuzpur 286   286
Rohtak 265 265
Karnal 220 220
Lahore 141   141
Other Districts
366 19 285
Total Population 21,986  467 22,453

Taoni

The Taonis claim Chandravanshi descent from the legendary king of Punjab Uggar Sain, who is said to have migrated from Agroha in 6th Bikrami and settled  in Ambala. One of the descendent, Rai Amba, is said to have founded the city of Ambala. While the Patiala Taonis claim descent from Raja Gopal (7th in descent from Uggar Sain). Over time, two distinct Taonis principalities arose, one based in Ambala, the other in Banur.

There conversion to Islam is said to have occurred during the rule  Shahab-ud-din of Ghor (1149 – March 15, 1206). After the defeat of Prithvi Raj Chauhan at Tarain, Dhirpal, embraced Islam and took the name  Nawab Abdul-Karim. His tomb is said to be at Banur; which became an import Taoni centre. Prior to partition the Muslim Taonis were numerous in that tehsil and in  Patiala, Rajpura and Ghanaur all located within the Patiala State. While the Hindu Taonis held Bular (in tehsil Patiala), Lilru, Nagla and Khelan in Bathinda. The Toani are divided into twelve clans, said to be named after the sons· of Raja Gopal; vis., Dhirpali, Ambpali, Bhitiian, Motian, Rai Ghazi, Jaisi, Sarohd, Ajemal, Jhagal and Lagal, the last six holding the title of rai.

At the beginning of the 20th Century, they occupied the low hills and sub-montane in the north of Ambala district including the Kalsia State, and some of the adjoining Patiala territory. Prior to partition the Muslim Taonis in Patiala territory were numerous in that tehsil and in  Patiala, Rajpura and Ghanaur. While the Hindu Taonis held Bular (in tehsil Patiala), Lilru, Nagla and Khelan in tehsil Bathinda, and Dhakansu, Tepla, Banwari, Pabra and Dhamoli in  Rajpura. About their Chhats and makans, the author of the Phulkian States gazetteer wrote the following:

Socially they have 14 chhats and 24 makans, the chhats in this State – being Banur, Shamdo, Kauli,, Ghanaur, Patton, Khera Gujju, Suhron, Ajrawar, Chamaru, Manakpur and Jausla, and in British territory Kharar, Khanpur and Morinda,

The Bacchal clan of Jats, which occupies the same region like Taoni, are descended from Taoni Rajput from a Jat wife.

After partition in 1947, the Muslim Taonis moved to Pakistan. They are now found mainly in Sialkot and Okara districts, a few are also found in Mandi Bahauddin District. In Sialkot, they are found in Gondal (Radial) and also in Daburji Mallian villages. Some of the Taoni families are settled in Gujranwala (Buddha Goraya & Bhakhranwali) and Khanewal as well in Tehsil Samundri Chack no 47 GB.

Population of Taoni Rajputs according to the 1901 Census

District / States Muslim Hindu Total
Ambala 8,531 1,255 9,786
Patiala State 8,516 899 9,415
Karnal 752 76 828
Kalsia State 325 325
Ludhiana 209 10 219
Other Districts
 51 97 148
Total Population 18,384 2,337 20,711

 

Chadhar

This post will look at the Chadhar, a tribe found among both Rajputs and Jats. Interestingly, in different parts of Punjab, the way to pronounce the word Chadhar differs. For example it is commonly pronounced Chadhar but in some areas of the Punjab, like the cities of Jhang and other adjoining districts, it is pronounced as Chadhrar, while in the Majha, Doaba and Malwa areas it is pronounced as Chandhar.
Chadhars claim descent from Chandarh, the son of Raja Ravilan of the lineage of king Pandu of the Mahabharata. They belong to the Chandra Vanshi branch of the Rajputs, and it is widely believed that they are a branch of the Tomar Rajputs, with the branch of the tribe of in Jhang saying that they are the descendants of Raja Toor and that they migrated into the Punjab fromRajputana.

Origin

Found along the whole length of the Chenab and Ravi valleys, but far most numerous in Jhang, where they for the most part regard themselves as Rajputs, the Chadhars claim to be descended from Rajah Tur, Tunwar.  According to their traditions, in 1193 AD, when Mohammad Shahabuddin Ghauri invaded India, the clan moved from Rajasthan to the Punjab. Some went to Bahawalpur, where they were converted to Islam by Pir Shershah (Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari) of Uchch Sharif. If this tradition iss correct, they have been Muslims now for over 8 centuries. However, its worth mentioning, there are still Chadhars in the Doaba who are Sikh by faith.

From Bahawalpur, they migrated north, along the course of the rivers Ravi River and River Chenab. They clashed with those tribes already settled in the region such as the Kharal, Harals and Sial tribes over the possession of essential water resources. They are generally recognized by their neighbours as a branch of the Tomar Rajputs. The northern most Chadhar are found in villages in Pind Dadan Khan tehsil of Jhelum, as such the tribe is very widely spread.

Interestingly, the Chandarhs were the villains in the famous Punjabi romance story of Mirza Sahiban. It is said that Mirza Kharal, the hero of the story, was slain by Chadhars as Sahiban, the heroine was betrothed to Zahir Khan, the son of Jham Khan, a Chandarh Jatts. Because of this murder, it is said that there were many battles between Chandarh and Kharals.
Chadhar sub clans.

 According Chadhar genealogists, they are divided into several sub-clans, most of which are found in Jhang. These include:
1. Aasi
2. Wejhwe
3. Wijhalke
4. Warbhu
5. Kulle
6. Kaloke
7. Jappa
8. Lune or Loone
9. Sajanke
10. Nalere (sometimes pronounced Lalere)
11. Kangar
12. Rajoke
13. Kamoke
14. Harya
15. Paroke
16. Jatoke
17. Deoke
18. Moona
19. Majoka
20. Paajike
21. Chookhia
22. Wallara
23. Thabal,
24. Sajankey,

Many Chadar villages are named after these sub-tribes like Wijhalke and Kaloke and Chak Sajanke and Chak Loone and Mauza Wllara on the right and left banks of the Chenab in the Chiniot District. Well known villages of Chandarhs in other areas of Punjab include Chandarh, Rajeana, Dhaaban, Awan and Rampur.

About their clans, the British colonial ethnographer E. D. Maclagan wrote the following:

The Chaddrars are Tunwars. Their chief tribes in the Sandal Bar are the Rajokes, Kamokes, Jappas, Luns, Pajikes, Deokes, Ballankes, Saiokes, etc. The Chadhars of the Bar are said to have expanded from Dhaban, a small rahna or encampment south-west of Khurianwala. The Luns of Awanwala in the Bar say they have been there for seven generations. At Bajla rahna there is a separate class of Luns or Lunas called Bala Luns, who celebrate marriages, wash the dead and so forth, and act more or less as mullas

Rajputs or Jats?


Jhang Chadhars claim that they are Rajputs, while Chadhras of some areas of Punjab claim to be Jats, in particular those found in the Manjha and Sialkot-Gujrat sub-mountain region. According to the Census of 1881, 26404 Chandars recorded themselves as Jats and 177,746 recorded themselves as Rajputs. Furthermore, the gazetteer of Jhang District (1881 – 1884), Chandarhs are considered to be good farmers and rarely indulged in cattle rustling or theft unlike their neighbours, the Sials, Kharals and others. The distinction in the valley of the Jhelum is not quite that clear, however, with regards to the Chadhars, their neighbours generally if sometimes grudgingly accept their status as Rajput

Distribution

Chadhars occupy a large area of land on the left bank of the Chenab, in the Jhang District, starting from Khiwa (along the boundaries of the Sials) to the adjoining areas of Sayyids of Rajoea Sadaat. Their main village is Tahli Mangeeni which is said to be their throne or Takht. Other villages include Chak 20 Gagh and Thatha Jhamb.

The Chadhars are found in districts of Jhang, Faisalabad, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Sheikhupura, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Lahore, Khanewal, Multan, Bhakkar, Bahawalpur, Okara and also in some parts of Sindh. There is also a village named Chadhrar near Tank, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Some of the Chadhars settled in the Firozpur District in Indian Punjab and founded the village of Chandarh near Mudki. Others settled in Nakodar near Jalandhar. As Muslim Jats, most of the Chadhar Jats shifted from Ferozepur to Amritsar, and Gurdaspur after partition. Most of these Chadhars are now found in Faisalabad.

Chadhars of Chakwal, Jhelum, Khushab and Mianwali:

In Chakwal District, where the northern most Chadhar settlements are found, important villages include Dhok Chadhar, Dhok Miyal, Punjain and Chak Baqar Shah. In Jhelum District, they are found in the village of Abdullahpur and in Lilla town. While accross the Jhelum river in Mandi Bahauddin, they are found in the villages of Beerpindi Jharana, Bosaal, Bukkan, Gohri and Mangat, Mian da Lok. In Mianwali District, they are found in Sultanwala.

Distribution of Chadhar Jats According to the 1901 Census of India

District Population
Chenab Colony 8,691
Jhang 6,345
Multan 3,734
Shahpur 3,303
Montgomery 2,495
Amritsar 1,733
Mianwali 1,226
Montgomery 525
Other Districts 1,128
Total Population 29,180

 

 

Pachhada

In this post, I will look at a Muslim community called the Pachhada historically found in what is now the state of Haryana in India. Their ancestral homeland was the Ghagar River Valley and the semi-desert territory that now forms part of the Sirsa, Fatehabad, Hissar and Mahendragarh districts of Haryana, and the Ganganagar district of Rajasthan. They were a nomadic and pastoral community and are closely related to the Rath community of Rajasthan. Most reared the local Rathi cattle breed and would migrate with flocks to the rivers Sutlej and Ravi, and as such were also known as Rathi. In neighbouring Rajasthan, Muslim pastoral nomads of Bikaner and Ganganagar are still known as Rath, which literally means a charioteer.

The  term  Pachhada  was historically  applied  collectively  to  miscellaneous  Muslim  tribes  that  inhabited  the  Ghaggar  valley  and  villages  adjacent thereto  in  what were the  Sirsa  and  Fatehabad  Tehsils of the erstwhile Hissar District.  The  word  is  derived from the Punjabi “pachham,”  meaning  west,  and  da meaning from, so literally westerners, and was used by the Jats and Ranghars to describe tribes which had settled in the region after the famous chalisa famine. The Chalisa famine of 1783–84 in the Indian subcontinent followed unusual El Niño events that began in 1780 and caused droughts throughout the region. Chalisa (literally, “of the fortieth” in Hindustani) refers to the Vikram Samvat calendar year 1840 (1783). This led to the depopulation of the Ghaghar valleys as pastoralists such as the Bhatti moved further west. As things settled, a number of clans moved from Sutlej valley, in what is modern day Pakistani Punjab and settled in the region. In terms of their dialect of Punjabi, it was very close to that to that spoken in the Neeli Bar region. The tribes never used the term Pachhada to describe themselves as the author of the Hissar District gazetteer notes:

Neither the name Pachhada, nor the name Rath is used by these people when speaking of themselves, unless, indeed, the  person who calls himself a Pachhada is a man  of low caste such as a  Mochi or a Lohar, in which case the  name Pachhada is used to conceal  the real caste. The majority of the persons called Pachhadas claim to be Rajputs,  and  when  asked  their  caste  usually  answer “Pachhada sadaunde,” they call us Pachhadas.

The tribes themselves have called themselves Rajputs, and had intermarried with long settled Rajputs of the Ghaghar such as the Bhatti and Chauhan. Groups that were sometimes included within the Pacchada category included the Wattu , Joiya and  Kharal, however the term was strictly used to refer to four tribes, namely:

Tribes Origin Stories
Sohu Traditionally, the Sohu claim to be Chauhan Rajputs, but the they have a number of traditions as to their origin. The Sohus of the village of Bhirrana, the head-quarters of the clan, stated that at the turn of the 20th Century that their  ancestor  came  some  eight  generations  ago  from Rawalpindi,  under  a  leader  named  Jatu, via Bhatner  and Rania, to Bhirrana: Jatu returned to Rawalpindi, while Lal, his  son,  remained  as  leader,  and  he  is  regarded  as the  founder of the present Sohu clan.

Another version is that the Sohus are Chauhans who came via Delhi from Jilopattan near Jaipur, and settled on the  Ravi, whence they again migrated to Sirsa.

 Sukheras They claim descent from the Tunwar  Rajputs  of  Bahuna.  Thirpal,  a  Tomar  of  that place, married a Jatni, and was in consequencv outcasted. Thirpal  is  said  to  have  settled  in  Basti  Bhiman  near Fatehabad,  and  his  descendants  subsequently  spread into Sirsa  and  as  far  as  Abohar.  They  were,  however,  driven backagain  and  settled  in  Begar;  it  and  Basi  Bhiman  was their chief  villages.  They  take  their  name  from  Sukha,  the son of Thirpal.
Hinjraon This clan  claimed  descent  from  the  Siroha Rajputs, and was said to have migrated from the banks of the  Ravi into this district. Their principal ·village was Hinjraon  in the Fatehabad  Tehsil of the then Hissar District. However, according to other traditions, they are infact Hanjra Jatts who arrived from the banks of the Ravi, in present day Okara.
Chotias or Bhanekas According to their tribal traditions, they  were originally Chauhan Rajputs,  but they appear in reality to be  Dandiwal  Jats,  who  were  converted  to  Islam  a  few generations ago. The Dandiwals themselves claim to have been originally  Chauhans,  and  state  that  they  emigrated  from Delhi via Jaisalmer to Sirsa

From the origin myths of these tribes, it is clear the Pachhada sat on the boundary between Jat and Rajputs, and at time intermarried with both groups.

 

The Pachhada were of among a number of Rajput pastoralist groups found the Ghaghar valley and north Rajasthan, and were often closely identified with the Ranghar and Bhatti communities, who have similar customs and traditions. With the establishment of British rule in the early 19th Century, the new authorities took the view that all pastoral nomads in the Ghaghar valley were a threat to their newly established control, and took stringent measures against all the nomad groups of the region such as the Ranghar, Johiya and Bhatti. Land was allocated to peasant settlers, and an attempt was made to forcibly settle the Pachhada. As a result of these policies, the Pacchada played an important role in the attack on Sirsa in the 1857 Indian War of Independence.

After the reestablishment of British colonial authority, the Pacchada were severely punished by British. There were considerable confiscations of land, and the Pachhada were forcibly settled. By the early 20thcCentury, the Pachhada were settled agriculturists, although animal husbandry remained an important subsidiary occupation. At the time of the partition of India in 1947, the Hissar District fell within the territory of India, and all the Pachhada immigrated to Pakistan.In their new homeland in Pakistani Punjab, mainly in Okara, Sahiwal, Muzaffargarh and Layyah districts, the Pacchada maintain their distinct identity. Many still speak the Haryanvi language. The Pacchada are entirely Sunni, and their customs are similar to other Haryana Muslims settled in Pakistan such as the Ranghar and Meo.

Pacchada Population According to the 1901 Census of India

District Population
Hissar 30,484
Other Districts 633
Total Population 31,117

The Pachhada were essentially a tribe of the Hissar region, the Pachhadas in other districts were either soldiers serving in the army or migrant labourers.

Baghial, Manyal and Rupyal tribes

In this post I return the Chibhal country, and look at three tribes, namely the Baghial, Rupyaal and Manyal, who are found in this region. While Manyal are found entirely in the old Poonch Jagir, the other two are also found in Mirpur and the Pothohar regions. Like other tribes in the region, some sections of these tribes call themselves Jats, while other are Rajputs. The Manyal are also known as Malik Manyal, and have a lot in common with the Safial tribe discussed elsewhere. While Safial are concentrated in the Darhal region, the Manyal are found mainly in the Budhaal region. Both groups are collectively known as Malkana.

Baghial

I shall start of by looking at the Baghial. Like other clans looked in my posts, the Baghial have a number of traditions as to their ancestry. They are found in Pothohar, Mirpur and the old Poonch Jagir. Those of Rawalpindi claim to of Panwar (Agnivanshi) lineage, while those of Mendhar considers themselves to of Thakyal (Suryavanshi) lineage. It could be that indeed these two Baghial are distinct clans. However, the Mendhar Baghial to have legends that a branch of their tribes settled in the Pothohar region. Just one more point, the Baghial are entirely distinct from the Bughial, who are branch of the Ghakkar tribe.

The Panwar Baghials

According to the Baghial of Pothohar, they are closely related to the Bangial, a tribe of Jat/Rajput status found throughout northern Punjab. In Pothohar, the Baghial are found entirely in Rawalpindi District, where they occupy five villages in Gujar Khan Tehsil. They are often confused with the Bughial, who are clan of the Gakhar tribe, but with whom they have no relations. The common ancestor of both tribes is Bangash Khan, the Baghial being descended from his eldest son Bugha Khan, which would therefore make them also of Panwar ancestry. Another difference relates to the fact that while Bangial are found throughout northern Punjab, the Baghial are concentrated in Rawalpindi, and only claim to be of Rajput status. Important Baghial villages include Dhamali, Loona, Dhok Sumbhal, Kanoha in Kallar Syedan Tehsil, Pind Dara, Supiyali Baghial and Maira Mohra, all in Rawalpindi Tehsil.

The Thakyal Baghials

In the Poonch Jagir, mainly in present day Mendhar, the Baghial claim to be a branch of the Thakyal Rajputs. The Thakyal Rajputs are of Suryavanshi lineage. The Thakyals are named after Raja Jothar Singh Thakyal who established the Bhimber state in northern Punjab at the foothills of the Himalayas. There was a Thakyal Rajput by the name of Rusmi Dev who lived in a place called Thakar Dhooli, near the village Dhuruti, located near Ziarat Saen Kamla Badshah, now located some two kilometres on the Pakistan side of the Line of Control dividing Jammu and Kashmir.

 

Rusmi Dev in his descendants established a presence in the Rajouri and Mendher areas, and threw a challenge to the rule and authority of Jayrah clan. The relationship between the Thakyals and the Jayrahs deteriorated resulting in a war between the two clans. Led by Rusmi Dev, Thakyals defeated the Jayrahs (Jarals) and he took over as a ruler of this tiny state. It was a time when Islam was fast spreading all over Hindustan. With influence of Islam growing in the land Rusmi Dev, he also embraced Islam and changed his name to Rustam Khan. He ruled his territory till his death and was laid to rest in Dhuruti where his tomb still exists. Rustam Khan had four sons. His eldest son was named as Bagh Khan. Bagh Khan migrated Mendhar area and founded a village known as Sangal, presently called Narol. The other three were Sangi Khan, Kangi Khan and Kaloo Khan. Sangi Khan’s descendants live in Muzafarabad and Bagh in Azad Kashmir, Abbottabad in the Hazara region, and Gujarkhan and Rawalpindi in Punjab. It could that the Panwar Baghial of Pothohar are really Sangi Khan’s branch of the tribe.

The Baghial first settled in Sangal area now called Narol but later speard over to a number of villages like Kalaban, Salwah, Harni and Gursai. There are few Baghial families living in Sarhutti, Ari and Galhutta.

The Jat Baghials

A second group of Baghial are found in Haveli Baghal, a village in Dadyal Tehsil of Mirpur. Unlike the Mendhar Baghial, this lineage considers itself to be Jat, and intermarries with other clans of Jats such as the Rachyal and Roopyal. In Mendhar itself, the Baghial of the villages of Thera, Banola and Kasblari, consider themselves as Jats, and intermarry with other Jat clans.

Manyal

The Manyal trace descent to the town of Rajouri, and the ruler of the town called Manipaal, who lived around the late 12th Century. Manipal belonged the Pal lineage of Rajputs, who around this time were rulers of several principalities in the Pir Paanjal region. In some sources, Mani pal is referred to as Amna pal. It is traditionally believed that ‘Pal’ originated from Sanskrit ‘Pala’ meaning protector or keeper. The Pal Rajahs of the Pir Panjaal claimed a mythical origin from the Pala dynasty of Bengal. Manipal’s ancestral is said to have to come from the Pal kingdom and settled in Rajouri, where are said to have overthrown the Khasiya. Several rulers in what is now Himachal Pradesh also claim to be Pal Rajputs, such as the rulers of Bhajji. Manipal’s own rule was overthrown by Rai Noorudin Khan, founder of the Jarral Rajput line of rulers in Rajouri. Noorudin Khan arrived as a refugee from Kangra, and was greeted by Manipal, who offered his hospitality. The Rai took advantage of this, and seized the throne of Rajauri. In this way Raja Noor-Ud-Din laid the foundation of Muslim Jarral rule in Rajouri in 1194 A.D, which lasted till 21st October 1846 A.D. The Rai took advantage of this, and seized the throne of Rajauri. Manipal and his supporters fled to the region of Budhaal. A branch of his family settled in Majwhaal in Kotli District.

 

In exile in Budhaal, a prince seventh in decent from Manipal is said to have met a Sufi saint by the name of Doodh Haqani, and converted to Islam. He was then known as Din Mohammad. His Fathi Mohammad settled in ‘Moharra’, and was nicknamed Manyaala, on account of his descent from Raja Amna Pal, his clan is still known as Manyaal. Din Mohammad’s son Fateh Mohammad is said to have seized Thakyala from the Thakyal Rajputs. Fateh Mohammad established his base at Mohra village, and all the current Manyals trace their descent from him. They are also known as Malik or Malik Manyaal. The Manyal have produced Sain Bahadur, a famous Naqsbandi Sufi of the Chibhal region. Other than Mohra, the Manyal are also found in Gonthal. The bulk of the tribe remains in Budhaal tehsil.

 

Rupyal

The Rupyal, or The Rupyal or sometimes pronounced as Ruplaal claim descent from the legendary Raja Salvahan, the founder of the city of the Sialkot. He is said to have had 15 sons, the sixth one being called Roop or Roopa. Roopa was said to have left the Sialkot and settled in Pind Dadan Khan, sometime around the conquest of that region by Mahmood of Ghazni. Fourteenth in descent from Rajah Roopa Dev was an individual named Mal. Mal is said to have converted to Islam and adopted the name Rai Jalaluddin. After his conversion, the Rai is said to have left Pind Dadan Khan and settled in Poonch. This settlement occurred in the 15th Century, but happened before the invasion of Kashmir by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, according to Mohamad Din Fauq. The Rai settled in Sarhroon in Poonch. In Sarhoon, there was long settled a clan of local notables called the Chaudhary. When the Mughal Emperor Jahangir visited Kashmir, the Chaudharys provided him with excellent hospitality. As a result, the Emperor granted Sarhoon to the Chaudharys. This caused conflict with Rai Sher Khan, who was then chief of the Rupyaals, who over powered the Chaudhry’s and established Rupyaal rule over the Sarhoon and the villages nearby. The Rai remained rulers of this petty state until the hills of the Chibhal were conquered by the Dogras in the early 19th Century. The Poonch branch, and Pothohar branch of Rupyals consider themselves to be Rajputs, while those in Mirpur call themselves Jats, and intermarry with other tribes of Jat staus.

 

The Rupyal are a tribe found mainly in the Mirpur District, Haveli District and the Pothohar region of the Punjab, Pakistan. In Mirpur they are found in Pandkhor and villages in Dadyal tehsil. In the old Poonch Jageer, their villages include Miani Basti (Haveli), Choi, Degwar Maldyaal, and Chathra. A second cluster of Rupyaal villages are found in Mang Dhagron in Sudhnoti District.

In Punjab they are found mainly in Rawalpindi District, with Doberan in Kahuta and their villages in Kallar Syedan tehsil include Nothia Shareef, Mohra Ropial, Chapri Akkoo, Chanam Shareef and Chauntra. In Jhelum, they are found in Makhiala.

 

Rajput Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census

In this post, I look at the distribution of the Rajput population of Punjab, according to the 1901 Census. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the Rajputs of Punjab to get some background information.

 

District / State

Muslims

Hindus

Sikhs

Total

Main Clans

Kangra

889 153,100 57  154,046

Katoch, Indauria, Guleria, Jamwal, Jaryal (Jarral), Abhrol, Minhas, Pathania, Pathial, Dadwal and Jaswal

Rawalpindi

121,420  813  114  122,347

Bhatti, Alpial, Thathaal, Baghial, Bhakral, Nagial, Kanial, Chauhan, Dhamial, Janjua, Jodhra, and Minhas,

Bahawalpur State

101,870  3,152  2,035  107,057

Joiya, Wattu, Panwar, Sial, Khichi, Jatu and Tomar

Hoshiarpur

44,260  49,055  223  93,538 Ghorewaha, Manj, Naru, Luddu, Bhanot, Dadwal, Jaswal, Pathania, Janjua and Minhas
Multan 88,975  2,159  387 91,521  Sial, Panwar, Bhatti, Dhudhi, Minhas (Lodhra), Khichi and Noon
Firuzpur 79,868  4,282  1,034  85,184 Bhatti, Joiya, Panwar, Wattu, Manj, Sial, Dhudhi and Rathore
Karnal  66,780  15,529  197  82,506 Mandahar, Panwar, Bhatti, Barya (Brah), Chauhan, Pundir and Taoni
Gurdaspur  43,420  36,405  185  80,010 Minhas, Sulehria, Katil, Bhao, Bhatti, Pathania, Dadwal and Manj
Shahpur  72,096  897  184  73,177 Bhatti, Sial, Dhudhi, Chauhan, Bhon, Joiya, Khichi, Noon and Tiwana
Hissar   55,205  15,262  70,467 Jatu, Tomar, Panwar, Satraola, Raghubansi, Mandahar, Dhudhi, Khichi, Bhatti, Joiya and Chauhan
Ambala  48,746  18,373  128  67,247 Taoni, Chauhan, Ghorewaha, Dahya, Barya (Brah), Panwar and Raghubansi
Patiala State  52,052  12,628  616  65,296 Barya (Brah), Bhatti, Chauhan, Ghorewaha, Joiya, Mandahar, Mandahar, Atiras, Taoni, Panwar, Tiwana, and Wattu
Lahore   53,193  4,716 1,850   59,759 Bhatti, Naru, Panwar, Joiya and Dhudhi
Sialkot  47,919  11,515  232  59,666 Sulehria, Minhas, Bhatti, Katil, Janjua, Bajju and Pathial
Jhelum 57,316   251 57,567  Janjua, Bhatti, Bhakral, Minhas, Mair-Minhas, Chib, Chauhan, and Jalap
Montgomery  49,615  975  457  51,047 Wattu, Sial, Kathia, Bhatti, Joiya, Dhudhi, Khichi and Chauhan
Jalandhar  42,452  5,767 3,079   51,298 Ghorewaha, Manj, Naru, Barya (Brah), Bhatti and Chandel
Jhang  50,077  121  145 50,343 Sial, Chadhar, Gondal, Bhatti, Joiya and Dhudhi
Chenab Colony  40,129  1,129  2,677  43,935 Sial, Wattu, Khichi, Joiya, Bhatti, and Chauhan
Amritsar 32,929  2,342  209  35,480 Bhatti, Manj, Naru and Chauhan
Rohtak 27,238   7,412 1,331   34,650 Panwar, Chauhan, Mandahar, Barya (Brah), Jatu and Tomar
Ludhiana 27,798  344  29,473 Ghorewaha, Manj, Naru, Bhatti, Barya (Brah), Panwar and Taoni
Gurgaon  9,445  18,120  27,565 Bargujar, Chauhan, Jatu, Panwar and Tomar
Kapurthala State  23,788  927  27  24,742 Manj, Naru, Bhatti and Chauhan
Delhi  4,218  19,498  13  23,729 Chauhan, Gaurwa, Tomar and Panwar
Gujranwala  23,688  521 1,937  26,146 Bhatti, Joiya, Khichi and Sial
Gujrat  22,328  1,066 317   23,711 Chib, Minhas, Bhatti, Narma and Janjua
Muzaffargarh 14,699 335 1,949 16,983 Sial, Bhatti, Panwar, Dhudhi and Chauhan
Dera Ghazi Khan 14,693 193 99 14,985 Sial, Bhatti, Panwar, Joiya, Jamra and Tomar
Nabha State 6,578 3,937 286 10,801 Barya (Brah), Jatu, Chauhan, Tomar and Ghorewaha
Jind State 5,409 4,908 10,317 Mandahar, Panwar, Bhatti, Chauhan and Jatu
Bilaspur State 187 7,805 7,992 Pundir and Raghubansi
Mianwali 6,012 129 59 6,200 Joiya, Janjua, Bhatti, Sial, Kanial and Mekan
Mandi State 150 5,650 5,800 Mandial, Katoch and Chandel
Chamba State 185 4,301 4,486 Chambial, Katoch, Pathania
Faridkot State 3,685 181 19 3,885 Bhatti, Chauhan, Joiya and Manj
Nahan State 536 2,964 10 3,510 Taoni and Chandel
Kalsia State 2,432 649 25 3,106 Taoni, Atiras and Chauhan
Shimla 375 2,323 2,968 Shiam and Katoch
Bashahr State 2,570 2,570 Nanglu, Chandel and Chauhan
Malerkotla State 2,238 96 2,334 Barya (Brah), Manj, Bhatti and Ghorewaha
Dujana State 1,525 613 2,138 Chauhan, Jatu and Tomar
Nalagarh State 220 522 742 Chauhan and Chandel
Pataudi State 668 1,644 2,312 Chauhan, Jatu and Tomar
Suket State 1,178 1,178 Katoch
Other Districts
Total 1,397,347 432,360 17,885 1,797,592

 

 

 

 

 

Khokhar Population of Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this post I will give the distribution of the Khokhar population according to the 1901 Census. As the table shows, most of the Khokhar were found in the river valleys of the Jhelum, Chenab and Sutlej. I will ask the reader to look at my posts on the Bandial and Bhachar as well as the Khokhar of UP, which gives some background to this community.

District / States Population
Shahpur 24,351
Bahawalpur State 16,540
Jhang 16,398
Multan 11,606
Chenab Colony 8,511
Montgomery 8,093
Mianwali
4,573
Dera Ghazi Khan 4,199
Muzaffargarh
4,020
Jhelum
3,865
Gujrat
1,638
Lahore  1,503
Firuzpur  1,169
Sialkot  784
Other Districts  4,713
Total Population 107,943

 

Bhatti Rajput Population of Punjab according to the 1901 Census

This is my third post looking at the distribution of Rajput tribes in Punjab. This one will look at the Bhattis, who in population numbers were the largest tribe in the Punjab. Although found in almost every district, but had especial concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot, Gujranwala) and the Pothohar regions. I will also ask the reader to look at my post on the Muslim Bhatti of Uttar Pradesh, to get some background on the tribe.

 

 

District / States

Muslim

Hindu

Sikh

Total

Rawalpindi

 36,268      36,268
Multan  25,675  195  81  26,951
Lahore  21,470  142    21,612
Firuzpur  18,585  204   18,789
Amritsar  16,417  87  14 16,518
Gujranwala  12,934 12,934
Montgomery  12,759  31 12,790
Gurdaspur  11,675  40 11,715
Jhelum  10,664 10,664
Chenab Colony  9,730  35  564 10,329
Sialkot  9,853 9,853
Jhang  7,737 7,737
Dera Ghazi Khan  7,272 7,272
Shahpur  7,205  61 7,266
Hissar 5,986 596 6,582
Jalandhar 6,484 58 6,542
Muzaffargarh 5,442 5,442
Patiala State 5,180 221 5,401
Kapurthala State 4,958 228 5,186
Hoshiarpur 3,274 313 3,587
Gujrat 1,784 1,784
Ludhiana 1,748 18 1,766
Ambala 1,416 1,416
Faridkot 1,381 11 1,392
Karnal 775 58  19 852
Nabha State 721  10 731
Mianwali 590 590
Delhi 326  83 409
Rohtak 368 23 391
Jind 263 56 319
Gurgaon 119 70 189

Other Districts

 

 

 

 

Total

 249,230

 2,551

 718

 252,449