Baddun and Barwala Castes of Punjab

In this post, I will look at two little known communities found mainly in north eastern Punjab province, roughly the area stretching from Lahore to the Himalayan foothills of Sialkot and Narowal districts, between the Ravi and the Chenab rivers. Unlike earlier groups looked at, neither the Baddun nor the Barwala have played a major roles in the history of this region. However, they form an important element of the population of the upper Rechna Doab. On account of their lifestyles, they also suffered persecution at the hands of the British colonial regimes, particularly the Punjab Land Alienation Act, which restricted land ownership to certain communities. Its effect on both the Baddun and Barwala was that they were deprived the right to own property, rendering them landless. This legacy still affects both groups, with many members still in poor economic circumstances.

 

Baddun

The Baddun or sometimes called Badu are a community of Punjabi Muslims. So how did this community of Punjabi Muslims get the name Baddun. According to their own traditions, the word Baddun is a Punjabi mispronunciation of the Arabic Bedu, or nomad, and until the arrival of the British in 1848, the Baddun were entirely nomadic. Their ancestors are said to have first settled in Sindh, having come from Iraq. They then moved into the Rachna Doab, sometime during the rule of the Mughals. Here in the Rechna, the Baddun became classic peripatetic nomads. In this kind of nomadism, those who move from place to place offering services in specific trades to the settled communities. The Baddun provided work in straw, made pipe- bowls, with their women peddling goods. In addition, they also captured and trained bears, taking them from the hill country of Jammu just north of Sialkot. Most of these bears were latter sold on to the Qalandar communities, which are associated with bear entertainment. However, with partition in 1947, they have discontinued this activity, as Jammu now lies within Indian territory.

 

The etymology of the word Baddun is most likely from in Arabic bidun, meaning without, or in some cases outside. As peripatetic nomads, the Baddun would be seen as outside the community of settled villagers, therefore bidun or outsiders. A further distinction from the settled villagers was that the Baddun were and are followers of Imam Al-Shafi‘i, as opposed to the settled population who are followers of Imam Abu Hanifa. As Shāfiʿī Sunnis, the Baddun did eat crocodiles, tortoises and frogs, although this is no longer the case, which caused some tensions with other Muslim groups. The Baddun are further divided into three clans, the Wahla, Dhara and Balara, although all three intermarry.

 

 

Barwala

The other community that I will look in this post are the Barwala tribe, historically found in Sialkot, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur districts. They are largely Muslim, with a Hindu minority. Both groups lived interspersed prior to partition in 1947. In addition to the Hindu Barwala, the Muslim Barwala are said to have close relations with the Hindu Batwal caste. According Arthur Horace Rose, the early 20th Century British administrator and ethnographers, both the Barwala and Batwal are the same community. However, geographically, Batwals were found largely in Jammu and the Himachal region, and were Hindu, while the Barwala were found in the plains stretching from Hoshiarpur to Sialkot, and were largely Muslim.

There are essentially two traditions as to the origin of the Barwala. The traditional occupation of the Barwala was the manufacture of mats and winnowing fans, and the name is probably derived from bara or baria, the kind of grass used as the main raw material. Another tradition is that in Barwala is the mispronunciation of the word. Batwal or batwar, which means a tax collector in the Pahari dialect of Kangra region of Himachal. When the Batwals, migrated from the Himalayan hills of the Kangra and Chamba region, their name was changed to Barwala. While in the hills, the Batwal are largely Hindu, there migration to the plains led to a significant portion also converting to Islam. In this region, other than the manufacture of mats, the Barwala were also the traditional village watchmen. In the plain country, according to Rose, other groups of lower castes who took to the occupation of manufacturing of mats and winnowing fans, were are all included under the generic term of Barwala, if they were involved. Perhaps the most outlandish origin story is that the name of Barwala is said to be a corruption of baharwala or “outsider,” because, like all outcasts, they live in the outskirts of the village.

 

But the beginning of the 20th Century, many Barwala in the Sialkot and Gurdaspur areas had begun to till land, largely as tenants and field labourers of the Rajputs, whose caste traditions prevented them from cultivating with their own hands. In the traditionally feudal setup of early 20th Century village Punjab, the Barwala were required to attend upon village guests, fill pipes, bear torches, and carry the bridegroom’s palanquin at weddings and the like, and receive fixed fees for doing so. The post of village chaukidar was also heredity within particular Barwala communities. The Barwala community is sub-divided into clans or gots, who traditionally did not intermarry. In Sialkot the Barwala gots are

Dhaggi

Jhanjotra

Kiath

Nandan

Lakhutra

Sangotra

Lahoria

Sargotra

Mohan

Sindhia

Bhagga

Kaith

 

Distribution of Muslim Barwala in Punjab by District According to 1901 Census of India

 

District Muslim
Amritsar 15,772
Sialkot 14,960
Gurdaspur 11,363
Gujranwala 6,089
Lahore 5,676
Chenab Colony 2,672
Hoshiarpur 2,344
Jalandhar 2,198
Kapurthala State 672
Gujrat 373
Other districts 350
Total Population in UP 62,466

 

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Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1891 Census of India

In 1891 the total Rajput population was 1,983,299 of which Muslims were 1,559,977. I would also ask the reader to look at my other posts such as Muslim Rajput clans of British Punjab according to the 1901 Census of India.

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 297,343 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Khokhar 137,883 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot, Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Gurdaspur
Chauhan 132,116 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe, in central found mainly in Lahore, Amritsar and Jallandhar
Sial 106,146 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Gondal 62,071 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Shahpur
Panwar 54,892 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe; a smaller grouo also found in Jhelum
Kharal 51,586 Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Joiya 47,773 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Janjua 36,970 a western group in Rawalpindi and Jhelum and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Ghorewaha 34,192 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Manj 26,983 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Wattu 24,150 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Bahawalpur to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Sulehri / Sulehria 24,345 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Naru 22,680 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana – by early 20th Century, several Naru were settled in Faisalabad and Sahiwal in the canal colonies
Tomar / Tonwar 21,691 Modern Haryana (especially Rohtak and Panipat), Ambala, and in the Bahawalpur Stater
Bariah also pronounced as Varya 19,463 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Ranjha 18,490 Jhelum / Chakwal
Taoni 17,730 Ambala – a Ranghar grouping
Manhas / Minhas 16,026 From Rawalpindi to Hoshiarpur – a Muslim Dogra grouping
Dhudhi 11,286 Sargodha, Jhang, Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Bhakral 11,207 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Jatu 10,837 Modern Haryana (especially Hissar and Gurgaon), Ambala, and Rohtak. They are a Ranghar tribe
Satti 10,799 Rawalpindi
Dhanyal 8,524 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Khichi 7,845 Sargodha, Jhang and Sahiwal
Mekan 7,733 Sargodha (Shahpur District), Jhang and Rawalpindi
Chib 6,673 Gujrat, a Muslim Dogra clan
Mandahar 4,022 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and Hissar. They are a Ranghar tribe
Khanzada 3,471 Gurgaon – a branch of the Jadaun clan
Tiwana 3,120 a western group in Kushab and eastern group in Patiala
Raghubansi / Raghuvanshi 3,060 Ambala – a Ranghar clan
Kanial 2,725 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Katil 2,461 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Pundir 2,117 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar group with villages near the Yamuna river
Bargujar 2,046 Gurgaon – a Ranghar tribe found in Rewari
Kethwal 1,849 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Jadaun 1,353 Gurgaon and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Bagri 1,186 Hissar and Firuzpur, in areas bordering Bikaner. Rajasthani immigrants
Rathore 1,067 Hissar, Firuzpur and Bahawalpur, in areas bordering Bikaner. Rajasthani immigrants
Chandel 912 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Patiala and Ludhiana
Khoja 841 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Jaswal 558 Hoshiarpur
Gaurwa 546 Gurgaon – Ranghar group
Atiras 477 Patiala State
Pathial 470 Kangra and Hoshiarpur
Luddu 258 Hoshiarpur
Guleria 248 Hoshiarpur
Dhanwal 214 Sahiwal and Okara
Dadwal 147 Hoshiarpur
Pathania 138 Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Katoch 101 Hoshiarpur
Miscellaneous clans 299,166 throughout Punjab

 

Population of Muslim Jat Clans of British Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

Bellow is a breakdown of the larger Jat clans by population. I would also the reader to look at my posts Population of Muslim Jat Clans of British Punjab According to the 1891 Census of India/ and Major Muslim Jat clans, which gives a brief description of the main clans.

 

Tribe Population Distribution
Wariach 58,936 Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sialkot, Lahore and Amritsar
Cheema 39,358 Patiala, Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat and Chenab Colony
Bajwa 27,609 Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Jallandhar and Patiala State
Chandhar/ Chadhar 27,422 Montgomery, Amritsar, Firuzpur, Lahore, Jhang, Muzaffargarh, Mianwali, Multan, Jhelum, Shahpur and Chenab Colony
Sandhu 25,786 Hissar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Montgomery, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Amritsar, Shahpur (Sargodha), Chenab Colony, Jhang and Multan
Tarar 25,606 Lahore, Gujrat, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Jhelum and Chenab Colony
Gill 19,894 Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Firuzpur, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Virk 19,703 Gujranwala, Chenab Colony, Gujrat, Dera Ghazi Khan, Sialkot, Lahore and Amritsar
Ghumman 16,893 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Hanjra 15,892 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Montgomery, Shahpur, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Bains 14,398 Ambala, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Shahpur, Chenab Colony, Multan and Dera Ghazi Khan
Bhutta 14,208 Shahpur, Jhelum, Mianwali, Multan and Chenab Colony
Goraya 14,076 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Bhatti 13,682 Shahpur, Jhelum, Mianwali and Chenab Colony
Langrial 12,960 Sialkot, Gujrat and Multan
Dhillon 12.913 Ambala, Hissar, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot Mianwali, and Chenab Colony
Sipra 12,558 Patiala, Montgomery, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Shahpur (Sargodha), Chenab Colony, Jhang, Multan and Bahawalpur
Heer 11,839 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Montgomery, Shahpur, Mianwali, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Soomra / Samra 11,509 Mianwali, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalpur
Chatha 11,483 Patiala, Lahore, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat and Chenab Colony
Sahi 11,478 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujrat, Jhelum and Sialkot
Sidhu 11,322 Hissar, Jallandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Sialkot, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat and Chenab Colony
Parhar 11,099 Shahpur, Bahawalpur, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Thaheem 11,023 Multan, Bahawalpur, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Kahlon 10,809 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Kapurthala, Jalandhar and Chenab Colony
Langah 10,808 Shahpur, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Mianwali, Multan and Bahawalpur
Harral 10,599 Gujranwala, Shahpur, Mianwali, Gujrat, Jhang, and Chenab Colony
Chachar 10,079 Bahawalpur and Dera Ghazi Khan
Randhawa 9,617 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala and Sialkot
Chhina 8,492 Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Rawalpindi, Mianwali, Chenab Colony and Dera Ghazi Khan
Panwar or Puar 7,900 Bahawalpur and Firuzpur
Chelar 7,529 Bahawalpur
Babbar 6,657 Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffargarh
Kang 6,580 Patiala, Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Multan, Muzaffargarh and Chenab Colony
Sandhel 6,215 Dera Ghazi Khan, Mianwali, Muzaffargarh, Bahawalpur
Maan 5,939 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Aulakh 5,838 Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Amritsar, and Jallandhar
Sarai 5,746 Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Ambala and Jallandhar
Janjua 5,394 Mianwali, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Jodhra 5,157 Attock
Mangat 5000 Patiala, Ludhiana, Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sialkot
Autrah 4,962 Multan, Mianwali and Muzaffargarh
Ghallu 4.906 Multan, Muzaffargarh and Bahawalpur
Buttar 4,923 Dera Ghazi Khan, Ludhiana, Firuzpur, Lahore, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala and Sialkot
Dhariwal 4,884 Ambala, Hissar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Chahal 4,466 Ambala, Ludhiana, Firuzpur, Amritsar, Lahore, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Sahu 4,294 Multan and Muzaffargarh
Dosanjh 4,198 Kapurthala and Jalandhar
Sial 4,169 Rawalpindi and Mianwali
Jakhar 4,165 Hissar, Firuzpur, Bahawalpur, Mianwali, Montgomery, and Multan
Lak 3,971 Shahpur, Jhang, Chenab Colony, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Bhullar 3,905 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Jalandhar and Lahore
Naij 3,894 Bahawalpur
Bohar 3,833 Bahawalpur and Dera Ghazi Khan
Khaki 3,801 Multan, Muzaffargarh and Bahawalpur
Khokhar 3,735 Gujranwala
Malana 3,609 Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Dahya 3,602 Ambala, Bahawalpur, Hissar, Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Mohana 3,591 Dera Ghazi Khan
Deo / Dev 3,549 Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Mianwali and Chenab Colony
Lodike 3,269 Gujranwala
Malak 3,264 Bahawalpur
Atwal 3,200 Jalandhar and Amritsar
Lali 3,137 Shahpur and Jhang
Samma 3,084 Bahawalpur
Kharal 3,046 Gujranwala
Kalru 2,956 Multan and Muzaffargarh
Kanyal 2,944 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Khera or Khaira 2,942 Lahore, Amritsar and Sialkot
Sahotra 2,805 Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar and Chenab Colony
Maitla 2,765 Dera Ghazi Khan and Multan
Phor 2,738 Multan and Dera Ghazi Khan
Lakaul 2,675 Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
Dhotar 2,545 Gujranwala and Gujrat
Gondal 2,508 Jhelum, Rawalpindi and Chenab Colony
Bassi 2,449 Jalandhar and Kapurthala
Sohal 2,383 Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Sialkot
Sangi 2,338 Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalpur, Firuzpur and Kapurthala
Naul 2,311 Jhang
Aura 2,329 Rawalpindi
Kalasra 2,284 Mianwali and Muzaffargarh
Bahiniwal / Wahiniwal 2,227 Montgomery, Hissar, Rohtak and Firuzpur
Daha 2,222 Muzaffargarh, Multan and Bahawalpur
Dhamial 2,209 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Johal 2,199 Amritsar, Kapurthala, Jalandhar and Chenab Colony
Nonari 2,086 Multan, Muzaffargarh, Montgomery and Bahawalpur
Channar 1,959 Multan and Bahawalpur
Lang 1,873 Multan
Mahil 1,861 Ambala, Hoshiarpur and Amritsar
Nanwai 1,833 Bahawalpur
Uttera 1,817 Multan and Bahawalpur
Kalial 1,791 Rawalpindi
Sudhan 1,765 Rawalpindi
Pannun 1,752 Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Chenab Colony
Chhajra 1,648 Dera Ghazi Khan
Barra 1,597 Dera Ghazi Khan
Bhachar 1,588 Mianwali
Jakhlan 1,584 Dera Ghazi Khan
Kalwar 1,582 Bahawalpur
Khatreel 1,578 Rawalpindi
Rehan 1,573 Jhang and Shahpur
Hans 1,542 Multan, Muzaffargarh and Montgomery
Waseer 1,513 Chenab Colony
Jhammat 1,508 Mianwali and Jhelum
Turk 1,499 Mianwali
Kohawer 1,487 Mianwali
Kahka 1,453 Bahawalpur
Gandhi 1,452 Mianwali
Bal 1,439 Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana
Marral or Marhal 1,434 Karnal, Patiala and Jhang
Sahmal 1,417 Jhang and Chenab Colony
Tulla 1,403 Sargodha
Asar 1,400 Mianwali
Sanda 1,398 Bahawalpur and Mianwali
Gilotar 1,394 Jhang
Dumra 1,357 Mianwali and Dera Ghazi Khan
Turkhel 1,344 Mianwali
Sekhon 1,335 Gujranwala
Kahu 1,331 Chenab Colony
Dahar / Dahiri 1,327 Bahawalpur
Kalu 1,301 Mianwali
Kalu 1,301 Mianwali
Jhullan 1,285 Bahawalpur
Lohanch 1,275 Mianwali and Muzaffargarh
Wagha 1,273 Chenab Colony
Rawn 1,213 Multan
Bhidwal 1,207 Mianwali
Hanbi 1,207 Dera Ghazi Khan
Bhangu 1,186 Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Chenab Colony
Khandoa 1,168 Mianwali
Chaudhari 1,162 Bahawalpur
Ser 1,144 Mianwali
Uttra 1,145 Mianwali
Kalyar 1,123 Multan
Rawn 1,212 Multan
Talokar 1,096 Mianwali
Jhawari 1,092 Shahpur
Mahe 1,050 Multan
Ganja 1,047 Bahawalpur
Tonwar / Tomar 1,038 Bahawalpur
Dhindsa 1,032 Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Chenab Colony
Kachela 1,010 Multan
Samtia 1,007 Mianwali
Joiya 993 Bahawalpur, Firuzpur and Mianwali
Duran 977 Bahawalpur
Panjootha 966 Shahpur
Grewal 965 Ludhiana
Dhudhi 965 Mianwali
Dhandla 929 Dera Ghazi Khan
Bhaya 923 Bahawalpur
Kajla 922 Dera Ghazi Khan
Hidan 915 Jhang
Dab 908 Jhang
Bar 899 Chenab Colony
Minhas 824 Jhelum
Dakah 823 Bahawalpur
Gorchhar 807 Mianwali
Shajra 796 Multan and Bahawlpur
Bhumla 793 Mianwali
Lar 778 Multan and Muzaffargarh
Mahaar 773 Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur
Kanera 765 Dera Ghazi Khan
Wahla 756 Chenab Colony
Kalhora 725 Bahawalpur
Panuhan 723 Multan
Jora 718 Shahpur
Jappa 706 Jhang
Jatal 703 Rawalpindi
Kolar 661 Bahawalpur
Burana 657 Shahpur
Khichi 651 Bahawalpur
Mahesar 648 Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur
Baghial 647 Rawalpindi
Dhandhu 643 Bahawalpur
Khombra 637 Bahawalpur
Dhamtal 635 Rawalpindi
Manela 628 Bahawalpur
Kanju 626 Multan
Raad 618 Multan
Khatti 612 Dera Ghazi Khan
Butta 610 Chenab Colony
Rajoke 607 Chenab Colony
Mial or Miyal 599 Rawalpindi
Maghial 596 Rawalpindi
Bhakral 585 Jhelum
Pawania 581 Karnal, Hissar and Firuzpur
Lodhra 580 Multan
Pawania 576 Hissar, Karnal and Rohtak
Bedha 572 Mianwali
Masson 563 Bahawalpur
Nissowana 560 Shahpur and Jhang
Ghatwala or Malik 556 Hissar, Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Marath 549 Shahpur
Sanghera 544 Jalandhar and Kapurthala
Basra 540 Gurdaspur and Sialkot
Thathaal 534 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Sialkot
Murali 526 Jhang
Khal 512 Bahawalpur
Bipar 508 Bahawalpur
Dharal 499 Mianwali
Burara 498 Bahawalpur
Kohadar 496 Bahawalpur
Badhan 494 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Sialkot
Magrial 486 Rawalpindi
Chan 479 Muzaffargarh
Bhutt 475 Bahawalpur
Makwal 473 Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur
Sutera 468 Bahawalpur
Sehwag 462 Karnal and Rohtak
Dasa 459 Bahawalpur
Nain 456 Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Jaam 448 Bahawalpur
Sagoo 445 Shahpur (Sargodha)
Rak 435 Multan
Khalne 412 Bahawalpur
Wattu 411 Chenab Colony
Sandi 410 Mianwali
Jhar 402 Dera Ghazi Khan
Deshwal / Deswal 400 Hissar, Gurgaon, Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Khar 389 Muzaffargarh
Jaj 382 Chenab Colony
Noon 377 Multan
Dhal 374 Shahpur
Mohal 373 Montgomery and Bahawalpur
Budhwana 366 Mianwali
Rathi 363 Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Chauhan 361 Lahore and Amritsar
Gahora 352 Bahawalpur
Gaun 349 Multan
Manais 332 Montgomery
Sahgra 331 Multan
Unnar 329 Bahawalpur
Toor 329 Patiala State
Gangal 325 Rawalpindi
Kathia 320 Montgomery
Matyal 314 Rawalpindi
Athangal 308 Multan
Sarah 300 Firuzpur,
Dona 290 Multan
Kont 288 Bahawalpur
Siroha 281 Rohtak
Mahota 277 Multan
Bucha 275 Multan
Bhagiara 270 Rawalpindi
Gawanis 262 Chenab Colony
Wawana 258 Mianwali
Kalasan 252 Jhang
Jhak 246 Bahawalpur
Hurgan 236 Shahpur
Chauhan-Hamshira 233 Bahawalpur
Tama 231 Jhelum
Hundal 230 Amritsar and Chenab Colony
Mangral 226 Rawalpindi
Hattial 222 Rawalpindi
Suddle 221 Multan
Khehi 219 Bahawalpur
Kudhan 216 Jhang
Kassar 216 Jhelum
Rawana 215 Mianwali
Salhal 215 Rawalpindi
Mangon 204 Jhang
Kasra 204 Jhang
Bhindar 194 Gujranwala
Harrial 194 Rawalpindi
Nehon 184 Bahawalpur
Atar Khel 181 Mianwali
Waghora 173 Mianwali
Godara 170 Karnal, Rohtak and Delhi
Phira 170 Rawalpindi
Pala Khel 169 Mianwali
Balani 167 Chenab Colony
Pandah 165 Multan
Des 158 Mianwali
Markhand 155 Bahawalpur
Hannial 155 Rawalpindi
Mundra 150 Rawalpindi
Targar 150 Jhang
Matmal 149 Jhang
Dagur 148 Gurgaon, Rohtak and Delhi
Kalu Khel 147 Mianwali
Lidhar 141 Amritsar and Chenab Colony
Gallat 138 Rohtak
Phal 135 Rawalpindi
Walana 132 Rawalpindi
Sian 131 Chenab Colony
Birkan 130 Mianwali
Chal 123 Multan
Sangah 123 Bahawalpur
Tatla 117 Chenab Colony
Sahrawat 108 Karnal, Rohtak and Gurgaon
Hasnana 104 Jhang
Khalis 102 Rawalpindi
Narwal 101 Karnal
Dalal 97 Hissar, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Delhi
Bandecha 90 Lahore
Chandhran 76 Multan
Kookara 55 Jhang
Ahlawat 48 Rohtak
Baidwan 47 Ambala
Rohal 44 Karnal and Rohtak
Dhankar 42 Delhi and Rohtak
Sheoran 37 Hissar and Karnal
Salakhlan 25 Rohtak
Gulia 17 Rohtak and Delhi
Sethi 14 Ludhiana
Boparai 13 Ludhiana
Aujla Malerkotla 11
Kadian 11 Karnal

 

Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1911 Census of India

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 208,664 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Chauhan 109,533 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe, in central found mainly in Lahore, Amritsar and Jallandhar
Khokhar 93,012 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot, Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Gurdaspur
Sial 91,211 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Joiya 49,486 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Panwar 44,924 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe; a smaller grouo also found in Jhelum
Wattu 34,696 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Bahawalpur to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Naru 29,665 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana – by early 20th Century, several Naru were settled in Faisalabad and Sahiwal in the canal colonies
Ghorewaha 26,203 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Janjua 25,621 a western group in Rawalpindi and Jhelum and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Sulehri / Sulehria 25,512 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Mandahar 24,703 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and Hissar. They are a Ranghar tribe
Manj 20,633 Present East Punjab, Amritsar, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Bariah also pronounced as Varya 17,893 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana
Tomar 16,686 Modern Haryana (especially Rohtak and Panipat), Ambala, and in the Bahawalpur Stater
Mair-Minhas 15,075 Chakwal
Kharal 14,521 Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Jatu 13,825 Modern Haryana (especially Hissar and Gurgaon), Ambala, and Rohtak. They are a Ranghar tribe
Manhas / Minhas 10,382 From Rawalpindi to Hoshiarpur – a Muslim Dogra grouping
Awan 9.555 Two groups of Awan registered themselves as Rajput, those of Sonepat and near Delhi – who were a Ranghar tribe, and smaller group in Gurdaspur and Sialkot. All Awan declared themselves as Awan
Taoni 9,273 Ambala – a Ranghar grouping
Alpial 8,986 Attock – a branch of the Manj Rajput tribe
Chib 8,360 Gujrat, a Muslim Dogra clan
Jodhra 8,085 Attock District
Dhanyal 7,909 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Dhudhi 6,730 Sargodha, Jhang, Faisalabad and Sahiwal
Baghial 6,715 Rawalpindi
Dhamial 5,973 Rawalpindi
Bhakral 5,744 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Bhakral 5,744 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Khichi 4,774 Sargodha, Jhang and Sahiwal
Langrial 3,886 Multan, Sahiwal and Okara – northern branch in Rawalpindi/Jhelum and Gujrat – most northern Langrial declared themselves as Jat
Chadhar 3,825 Jhang District – outside Jhang most Chadhars registered themselves as Jat
Dahya 3,620 Ambala District – a Ranghar clan
Khanzada 3,662 Gurgaon – a branch of the Jadaun clan
Kalial 3,662 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Dahya 3,620 Ambala District – a Ranghar clan
Kathia 2,900 Sahiwal and Okara
Kanial 2,317 Rawalpindi
Mangral 2,309 Rawalpindi
Nagrial 2,220 Rawalpindi
Kalyar 2,177 Sargodha – most Kalyar declared themselves to Jat
Raghubansi 2,135 Ambala – a Ranghar clan
Katil 2,104 Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Gaharwal 2,069 Rawalpindi
Nagyal 2,038 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Qaimkhani 2,020 Hissar – essentially a Rajasthani tribe, a branch of the Chauhan
Rawat 1,971 Malerkotla State
Thathaal 1,618 Rawalpindi
Mekan 1,584 Sargodha – most Mekan declared themselves as Jat
Jhap 1,559 Jhang
Jamra 1,455 Dera Ghazi Khan
Tiwana 1,347 a western group in Kushab and eastern group in Patiala
Matyal 1,347 Rawalpindi
Jatal 1,310 Rawalpindi
Rathore 1,148 Hissar, Firuzpur and Bahawalpur, in areas bordering Bikaner. Rajasthani immigrants
Khuhi 1,148 Multan
Warha 1,288 In Hissar a Ranghar group, also found along the Sutlej in Firuzpur and Bahawalpur State
Dogar 1,300 Sahiwal and Okara – most Dogar registered themselves as Dogars and numbered 68,473
Jalap 1,172 Jhelum – a branch of the Khokhar tribe
Nagrawal 1,143 Rawalpindi
Ramial 1,120 Rawalpindi
Ghangar 1,002 Rawalpindi
Daha 991 Multan, Sahiwal and Okara – a branch of the Panwar
Badpyar 988 Delhi with villages near the Yamuna river – a Ranghar clan
Pundir 985 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar group with villages near the Yamuna river
Atiras 965 Patiala State
Kural 961 Rawalpindi
Phularwan 935 Sahiwal and Okara – a second group in Sialkot
Baghela 923 Sahiwal / Okara
Mukhmdal 852 Gujrat – a Chib sub-clan
Jora 834 Fazilka, Hissar and Sirsa
Attar 821 Sargodha
Mial 817 Rawalpindi
Hon 811 Rawalpindi – a branch of the Panwar tribe
Bargujar 805 Gurgaon – a Ranghar tribe found in Rewari
Mayen 802 Patiala State
Mahaar 792 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Bahawalpur to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa – most Mahaar declared themselves as Jat
Adrah 792 Rawalpindi
Kala 747 Jhang
Sakhri 743 Hissar – a Ranghar clans, sub-division of the Jatu
Taraqar 710 Multan
Bhao 706 From Kharian to Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Rath 706 Sahiwal / Pakpattan
Sarral 698 Rawalpindi
Luddu 680 Hoshiarpur
Gaurwa 644 Gurgaon – Ranghar group
Kethwal 642 Rawalpindi – Murree Tehsil
Doli 639 Sahiwal / Okara
Barial 633 Ludhiana District
Chandel 618 Present East Punjab, Jallandhar, Patiala and Ludhiana
Sohlan 606 Jhelum
Noon 599 Sargodha and Multan – a branch of the Bhatti tribe
Agan 569 Gurdaspur – Muslim Dogra clan/td>
Dhanwal 569 Sahiwal and Okara/td>
Jandran 551 Sahiwal / Okara
Bains 548 Rawalpindi – the majority of the Bains registered themselves as Jats
Ranjha 579 Jhelum / Chakwal
Ratial 549 Rawalpindi
Mughal 544 Rawalpindi
Satraola 544 Hissar – a Ranghar tribe
Bhan 519 Sargodha
Chatha 420 Rawalpindi
Jawal 288 Delhi – a Ranghar clan
Jadaun 165 Gurgaon and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Jaswal 160 Hoshiarpur
Meun 76 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Pathania 71 Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Jaral 58 Kangra
Gondal 31 Rawalpindi – almost all the Gondals declared themselves as Jat, except a few in Rawalpindi

 

List and Population of Muslim Rajput clans of the Rawalpindi Division According to 1901 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Rajput clans and their population in the Rawalpindi Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1901 Census of India. Please also read my introduction for the 1911 Census to give you some background. Almost all the population that professed to be Rajput were Muslim, with exception of Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, which was home several Bhao and Chib Rajput villages, who had remained Hindu. In 1901 Rawalpindi Division comprised the following districts; Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Gujrat, Shahpur, and Mianwali.. In 1902, Attock was seperated from Rawalpindi and seperate figures were produced. However, the 1901 data on Rawalpindi includes the Attock figures/

In terms of choice of calling oneself Rajput or Jat, this as much depended on the status of a tribe within the village they inhabitted. For example, the Kanial in Jhelum District declared themselves to be Jat, while in Rawalpindi as Rajput. However, in Gujrat the boundary between Rajput and Jat was somewhat more rigid, with those calling themselves Rajput were Dogra clans that had accepted Islam such as the Bhao, Chib, Minhas and Narma.

Rawalpindi District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 122,317, of which 121,420 (99%) were Muslims.

Tribe Total
Adrah 909
Alpial 9,395
Badhan 272
Baghial 5,769
Bains 152
Baria 106
Bhakial 404
Bhakral 10.819
Bhao Ragial 153
Bhatti 36,268
Budhal 152
Chatha 500
Chauhan 3,029
Chib 309
Dalal 133
Dhamial 2.967
Dhanial 3,935
Dhudhi 196
Gakhar 690
Gaharwal 194
Gangal 178
Gondal 168
Hafial 197
Hon 1,496
Janjua 3,815
Jasgam 129
Jatal 1,451
Jodha 368
Jodhra 1,802
Johar 407
Kahut 178
Kalial 773
Kangra 222
Kanial 2,435
Kanial Chauhan 470
Kassar 122
Kawar 487
Ketwal 2,251
Khakha 106
Khatril 722
Khel 234
Mair 235
Mangral 331
Marrial 167
Minhas 3,974
Mial 699
Nagial 3,036
Nagral 918
Nagrawal 580
Narma 158
Naru 241
Panwar 125
Ranial 1,345
Sainiwal 408
Salhal 271
Saswal 174
Sasral 1,292
Satral 146
Satti 326
Sial 388
Sudhan 227
Thathaal 4,134
Taranda 162
Tonda 162

Please note most Gakhars declared themselves to be Gakhar and in 1901 numbered 13,665. Similarly most Janjua, Satti and Sudhan declared themselves as such and numbered 8,361,17,094 and 2,291.

Jhelum District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 57,567, of which 57,316 (99%) were Muslims.

Tribe Total
Bhakral 702
Bhatti 10,664
Chauhan 5,140
Chib 254
Gakhar 475
Gondal 2,592
Jalap 949
Janjua 8,881
Kanial 107
Mair-Minhas 15,692
Mandahar 210
Minhas 723
Mekan 729
Panwar 649
Ranjha 869
Sial 477

Please note that some Gondal and Ranjha declared themselves to be Jat, and interestingly in the 1911 Census all the Gondal declared themselves as Jat. While the Mekan tribe declared themselves to be Rajput in 1901 Census and Jat in 1911. What is surprising is the omission of the Sohlan, who are an important tribe found along the Jhelum and Mirpur borders. The Gakhar population in 1901 was 10,572, almost all whom barring the 475 declared themselves simply as Gakhar, and not Rajput.

Attock District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 25,611, of which 25,590 (99%) were Muslims.Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Alpial 9,180
Bhatti 3,553
Chatha 5,395
Chauhan 502
Janjua 1,153
Jodhra 1,700

Gujrat District

The total Rajput population in the District was 23,711, of which those who were Muslim were 22,328 (94%). Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Bhatti 1,784
Chauhan 79
Chib 9,349
Janjua 1,063
Minhas 723
Narma 748
Panwar 111

The omission of the Bhao, who an important Kharian tribe is a mystery.

Shahpur District (Sargodha District)

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 73,177, of which72,096 (99%) were Muslims.Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Bargujar 176
Bhatti 7,205
Chauhan 1,463
Chib 311
Dhudhi 1,506
Gondal 25,535
Janjua 4,293
Jhammat 2,266
Joiya 3,004
Khichi 833
Mekan 6,577
Minhas 406
Noon 1,213
Panwar 48
Ranjha 8,907
Sial 2,679
Tiwana 2,971
Wattu 266

Mianwali District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 6,136, of which 6,003 (98%) were Muslims.Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Bhatti 590
Chauhan 197
Chib 204
Dharwal 175
Gaurwa 384
Gondal 173
Janjua 598
Joiya 1,174
Kanial 327
Khichi 514
Mekan 134
Naru 407
Panwar 426
Sial 193
Wattu 215

Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this post, I make reference to the 1901 Census of India, which gave a breakdown of the larger Muslim Rajput clans of British Punjab. The whole Province of Punjab had a 24.4 million population in 1901, of which the Muslim Rajputs numbered 1,505,586. In 1901, the Punjab comprised five administrative divisions — Delhi, Jullunder, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi — and a number of princely states. During the course of the Census, those districts that lay across the Indus which formed the Peshawar Division were formed into a new province named the North West Frontier Province. Geographically, the province was a triangular tract of country of which the Indus River and its tributary the Sutlej formed the two sides up to their confluence, the base of the triangle in the north being the Lower Himalayan Range between those two rivers. Moreover, the province as constituted under British rule also included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Kashmir and Tibet. On the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, which was divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna and Tons separated it from the United Provinces.

In present-day India, it included the regions of Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and Himachal Pradesh (but excluding the former princely states which were later combined into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union). While in present-day Pakistan, it included the regions of Punjab, Islamabad Capital Territory and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (until 1901).

My post on the Rajputs of Punjab gives more details as to the origin and distribution of the various Rajputs tribes.

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 249,302 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Chauhan 114,529 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe
Khokhar 108,239 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Sial 104,658 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Joiya 61,438 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Panwar 55,068 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe
Gondal 36,088 The Gondal Bar (Mandi Bahaudin, Gujrat and Sargodha), also in Rawalpindi
Naru 34,152 mainly in what is now India Punjab – Jallandhar and Ludhiana
Ghorewaha 33,295 mainly in what is now India Punjab – Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Ludhiana
Sulehria / Sulehri 28,577 Sialkot and Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Wattu 25,544 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Janjua 23,619 A western group found in Rawalpindi and Jhelum, and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Baria, also pronounced Varya 21,991 Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Patiala State
Mandahar 21,764 Mainly Karnal and Panipat – a Ranghar group
Manj 20,736 Amritsar, Firuzpur and Jalandhar
Jatu 18,861 Hissar, Sirsa and Rohtak – a Ranghar
Taoni 18,384 Ambala and Patiala State – a Ranghar tribe
Tomar/ Tonwar 18,365 Hissar, Karnal and Rohtak – a Ranghar tribe
Mair-Minhas 15,697 Chakwal
Minhas/Manhas 13,471 from Rawalpindi in the west to Hoshiarpur in the east – a Muslim Dogra group
Dhudhi 11,764 In Sahiwal, mainly in the new districts of Vehari and Okara
Ranjha 11,764 Gujrat, Jhelum and Mandi Bahaudin
Bhakral 11,577 Rawalpindi and Jhelum/Chakwal
Chib 10.697 Jhelum and Gujrat – Muslim Dogra sub-group
Khichi 9,769 Between Ravi and Sutlej – now Vehari, Pakpattan and Sahiwal
Alpial 9,395 Attock and Rawalpindi
Mekan 8,915 Sargodha and Jhelum
Tiwana 6,326 A western group in Khushab and eastern group in Patiala
Khoja 6,326 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Baghial 5,769 Rawalpindi
Noon 4,866 Sargodha, Multan and southern Punjab
Thathaal 4,134 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Gujrat
Dhanial 4,037 Murree Tehsil of Rawalpindi
Raghubansi 4,032 Hissar and Sirsa – a Ranghar group
Dahya 3,637 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Kanyal 3,271 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Nagial 3,036 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Dhamial 2,967 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Jhammat 2,550 Sargodha, Multan and South Punjab
Gaurwa 2,521 Gurgaon, Delhi and Rohtak – a Ranghar tribe
Kethwal 2,355 Rawalpindi – Murre Tehsil (now Kotli Sattian)
Katil 2,170 Sialkot and Gurdaspur – A Muslim Dogra sub-group
Jodhra 1,802 Attock and Rawalpindi District
Bargujar 1,502 Gurgaon and Delhi – Ranghar tribe
Hon 1,496 Rawalpindi
Lar 1,494 Multan and South Punjab
Jatal 1,451 Rawalpindi
Pundir 1,427 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Atiras 1,416 Patiala State
Ranial 1,345 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Sasral 1,292 Rawalpindi
Nissowana 996 Jhang and Sargodha
Jalap 949 Jhelum
Nagral 919 Rawalpindi
Adrah 909 Rawalpindi
Bhon 853 Sargodha
Kalial 773 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Chandel 752 Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana
Narma 748 Rawalpindi and Gujrat
Satti 744 Rawalpindi – Murree
Khatril 722 Rawalpindi
Mial 699 Rawalpindi
Gakhar 690 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Targar 653 Multan and South Punjab
Rathore 587 Firuzpur and Hissar
Nagralwal 580 Rawalpindi
Jamra 548 Dera Ghazi Khan
Satraola 546 Hissar – a Ranghar group
Chatha 500 Rawalpindi
Kowar 493 Rawalpindi
Luddu/td>

491 Hoshiarpur
Kanial Chauhan 470 Rawalpindi
Sainiwal 439 Rawalpindi
Rath 410 Sahiwal and Okara
Johar 407 Rawalpindi
Bakhial 404 Rawalpindi
Jodha 368 Rawalpindi
Joota 367 Jhang
Bosan 340 Multan
Chadhar 334 Jhang
Mangral 331 Rawalpindi
Fattiana 318 Sahiwal
Pathial 311 Hoshiarpur
Maral 307 Jhang
Tanwari 273 Multan
Badhan 272 Rawalpindi
Salhal 262 Rawalpindi
Khel 234 Rawalpindi
Sudhan 227 Rawalpindi
Kangra 222 Rawalpindi
Dharwal 202 Mianwali
Hafial 197 Rawalpindi
Gaharwal 194 Rawalpindi
Kahut 178 Jhelum / Chakwal
Gangal 178 Rawalpindi
Saswal 174 Rawalpindi
Marial 167 Rawalpindi
Kathia 166 Sahiwal
Taranda 162 Multan
Tonda 156 Rawalpindi
Bhao Ragial 153 Rawalpindi
Bains 152 Rawalpindi
Budhal 152 Rawalpindi
Dalal 133 Rawalpindi
Satral 146 Rawalpindi
Jasgam 129 Rawalpindi
Matra 121 Multan
Kassar 113 Jhelum / Chakwal
Katoch 112 Kangra
Khakha 106 Rawalpindi
Jaswal 89 Hoshiarpur
Bagri 82 Firuzpur
Pathania 69 Gurdaspur
Ladhar 47 Rawalpindi
Jaral 47 Kangra
Kilchi 46 Rawalpindi
Thakkar 36 Gurdaspur
Guleria 11 Gurdaspur

 

Rajputs of Punjab

In this post, I will give a brief overview of the Rajput community in Punjab. The term Raja putra means the son of a Raja or king in Sanskrit. In Punjab, the Rajputs can be loosely divided into five territorial groupings.  According to the 1911 census in British India, the total Rajput population in the Punjab was 1,635,578, of which 1,222,024 (74.5%) were Muslim, 388,744 (24%) were Hindu and (24,810) (1.5%) were Sikh.  Each Rajput tribe claims to belong one of three lineages, and I shall start off by giving a brief description of each of these.

Lineages

The Suryavanshi lineage, claiming descent from Surya. The Sun Dynasty is oldest among Kshatriyas. The first person of this dynasty was “Vivaswan,” who by the meaning of his name is considered to be “Surya.” Ikshvaku was the first important king of this dynasty. Other important kings were Kakutsth Harishchandra, Sagar, Dileepa, Bhagiratha, Raghu Dashratha and Rama. The poet Kalidasa wrote the great epic Raghuvamsa about the dynasty of Raghu including the great king born in the Sun Dynasty.

The Chandravanshi lineage, claiming descent from Som which literally means “Moon.” This Lunar Dynasty is also old but younger than the Sun Dynasty. Som was the first king of this dynasty. Other important kings were Pururawa, Nahush, Yayati, Dushyant, Bharata, Kuru, Shantanu and Yudhishthir. Yadu was the eldest son of Yayati and Yadavs claim descent from Yadu. Krishna was also born in this dynasty of Yadu. Harivamsa gives details of this dynasty.

The Agnivanshi lineage claims descent from four persons who were born from fire or by the influence of Ved Mantras.” According to Puranic legend, as found in Bhavishya Purana, a yagna was held at Mount Abu, at the time of emperor Ashoka’s sons. From the influence of Mantras of the four Vedas, four Kshatriyas were born. They were: 1. Pramar (Paramara), 2.Chaphani (Chauhan); 3.Chu (Chalukya); 4.Pariharak (Pratihara). But since fire cannot produce warriors, it should be understood that these four persons were either reconverted into Hinduism or revitalized to fight against invaders. They could not be of foreign origin because India was fighting against Indo-Greek kings at that time. Pusyamitra Sunga and his son Agnimitra were Brahmins. They are known for reviving Hinduism. This theory of origin has produced much controversy; however, only four clans out of many Rajput clans are considered to be Agnivanshi. Some scholars also count Nagavanshi and Rishivanshi. The Yaduvanshi lineage, claiming descent from the Hindu god Krishna, are in fact a major sect of the Chandravanshi.

The aforementioned three patrilineages (vanshas) sub-divide into 36 main clans (kulas), which in turn divide into numerous branches (shakhas), to create the intricate clan system of the Rajputs. The principle of patrilineage is staunchly adhered to in determining one’s place in the system and a strong consciousness of clan and lineage is an essential part of the Rajput character. As the 1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica states, this tradition of common ancestry permits an indigent Rajput yeoman to consider himself as well-born as any powerful landholder of his clan, and superior to any high official of the professional classes. Authoritative listings of the 36 Rajput clans are to be found in the Kumārpāla Charita of Jayasimha and the Prithvirāj Rāso of Chandbardai.

 

Divisions Among the Rajputs of Punjab

The first grouping inhabited the territory that extended from the Yamuna valley to the Ghaghar, roughly what is the modern state of Haryana. Almost three quarters of them had converted to Islam, and these were referred to as Ranghar. They belonged mainly to the Chauhan and Tomar sub-divisions, which gave Delhi its most famous Rajput dynasties.

Next came the Rajputs of the south-west of Punjab, roughly the Seraiki speaking region comprising the modern Bahwalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan and Multan divisions. These tribes were hardly distinguished from the Jat clans in their neighbourhood, and for the most part belonged to the Bhatti of Jaisalmer and Bikaner, and their Panwar predecessors. The Rajput clans of the south-west had converted to Islam in their entirety. The third group comprised the Rajput clans of the Salt Range, and the Pothohar Plateau, who were split into numerous clans, either descended from the Yaduvanshi dynasty of Kashmir, the famous Raja Salvahan of Sialkot, or the numerous Panwar tribes occupying the hills along the Jhelum River. Like the Rajputs of the south-west, these tribes had almost entirely converted to Islam. The only exception were some members of the Chib and Bhao tribes, found in Kharian, many of whom had remained Hindu, and maintained close relations with the Dogras of Jammu.

 

The fourth group comprised the Rajputs of the the Punjab Hills, the modern territory of Himachal Pradesh, Gurdaspur District and Hoshiarpur District. These tribes are perhaps the most ancient of the Rajput tribes of Punjab, the Katoch being the most famous, and were almost entirely Hindu, with only some clans of the lower Shivalik hills, such as the Sulehria and Katil, converting to Islam. The principalities of the Punjab Himalayas, were some of the oldest states in India.

 

The final grouping were the Rajputs of central Punjab, roughly the area of the Sandal Bar, Manjha, Malwa and Doaba. The Bhattis, Kharals and Sials predominated in the Sandal Bar, the Bhatti predominated in the Bhattiana region, the modern districts of Firozpur and Sirsa, and the Ghorewaha, Manj and Naru were found in the Sikh tract, who had held their own against the dominant Jatt Sikh of the region.. In Amritsar and Lahore , the Rajputs were mainly Bhatti And Khokhar, with a sprinkling of Panwar and Chauhan. The Rajput clans were predominantly Muslim in this region, except along the borders with Rajasthan, where there were communities of Hindu Rajputs, such as the Shaikhawat and Rathore. I shall now look into detail at of the five groupings.

Rajputs of South Western Punjab
The term Rajput is very rarely used on its own by the tribes that are indigenous to south west Punjab. In the Bahawalpur Division, the distinction between tribes of Jat status and Rajput status is blurred. Tribes such as the Soomra, Samma, Daher, Kharal, Marral and Ghallu are sometimes refereed to as Jat, and sometimes as Rajput. The exceptions being the Johiya and Wattu, who in popular estimation are always considered Rajput. Along the left bank of the Indus, from Rahim Yar Khan District to Mianwali District, the term is rarely used by the tribes, with the notable exception of the Tiwana and Noon of the Thal Desert, and the Bhachar of Wan Bachran, in Mianwali. It is only when one reaches the Salt Range, that term Rajput comes into common usage. In the lands across the Indus, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Rajput disappears completely, and their place is taken by the Baluch and Pashtun. In the Dera Ghazi Khan District, the only indigenous tribe that calls itself Rajput, are the Jamra, who use the title Jam, indicating Sindhi ancestry. Across the Indus, in Muzafargarh, the Khera Sial, Dhanotar and Panwar are the only tribes that claim Rajput tribes. In Bahawalpur District, the Samma and Soomra are the principal Rajput tribes.

 

The Rajput make a reappearance in the valleys of the Jhelum and Chenab, where the Chadhar and Sial are both tribes of impeccable Agnivanshi pedigree. In the Sandal Bar, the Waseer, Kharal, Wahiniwal and Wattu are all major Rajput tribes, the first two claiming to be Agnivanshi, while the latter two claim to be Chandravanshi, claiming a common origin with the Bhatti. The upper part of the Sandal Bar, and the Bhattiore area of Chiniot District was a stronghold of the Bhatti tribe. Further along the Jhelum River valley, the Khokhar and Bhatti founds in great numbers.

Along the valley of the Sutlej River, the Wattu, Johiya, Baghela, Lodhra and Kathia are the predominant tribes. In and around the city of Multan, the Khokhar and Bhatti clans such as the Mitru, Kanju, Bosan and Noon predominate.

 

Rajputs of the Pothohar Plateau

The Pothohar Plateau and Salt Range is home to a large number of Rajput clans. The Rajputs are the largest ethnic group in the region, and are often referred to as the Rajah. The principal tribes are the Bhatti, Panwar, Minhas and Janjua. Many of these larger clans have splintered into numerous septs.

In terms of distribution, the Bhatti, and their sub-divisions are the most widespread. Important clans of the Bhatti descent, include Jodhras of Attock District, the Hattar of Chakwal and Jhelum districts, the Gungal of Rawalpindi and Jhelum districts, the Nagrial and Nagrwal of Rawalpindi District and the Mamyal of Rawalpindi District. In terms of historical prominence, the Janjua were the historical overlords of the region, until overwhelmed by the Ghakkars. Important Janjua subdivisions include the Dulal, Gaharwal, Jatal, Dhamial and Ranial. The Minhas are an important clan in the eastern half of the Pothohar Plateau, with their sub-divisions, the Mair of Chakwal, the Kanyal and Nagyal of the Rawalpindi and Jhelum districts.
The Panwar are after Bhatti, are the most numerous clan in this region. The Panwar themselves are found in the Pabbi Hills. Important Panwar clans include the Bangial, Dhudhi, Narma, Sohlan, Hon, Baghial and Bhakral. The Bhakral are, after the Janjua are perhaps the most important Rajput clan in Rawalpindi District. The Katoch, a clan found generally in Jammu and Himachal Pradesh, has two sub-divisions, the Chib of the Jhelum Pabbi and the Ratial of Rawalpindi District.
In additions to these clans, there are also a number of other clans, such as the Alpial, a clan of Manj Rajputs, found in Rawalpindi and Attock districts, the Jalap and Khokhar of Pind Dadan Khan, and Chauhan found through out the Pothohar Plateau.
Other Rajput clans in the region include the Mathyal,Sulehria, Langrial, Khingar, Sehngral, Ghik, Malal, Bhutial, Jamsral, Sainswal, Bijnial, Ramial, Hayal, Janjil, Tharjial, Khumbal, Bharial, Hafyal, Salhal,Mangeal, Johad, Adhial, Kurar, Jhottial, Mair-Minhas, Tuh, Chanial, Bhatti-Mehra, Bhatti-Kanjial, Bhatti-Jangal, Bhatti-Badhuer, and Bhatti-Shaikh.

Rajput of Central Punjab
The Rajput of central Punjab historically occupied a region extending from Faisalabad in the west to Patiala in the east. According to the traditions of the various tribes, they are connected with the Rajputs of Rajasthan. Their no historical records giving the account of the migration of the various Rajput tribes into the region. But tradition points the Ghorewaha to be the earliest inhabitants of the region. The Ghorewaha are said to be Kachwaha Rajputs, who emigrated from Rajasthan, during the period of Mohammed Ghori. Their original territory was the Beas Sutlej Doab. Other important tribes of this region are the Manj, Naru, Taoni, and Varya. In the districts of Amritsar and Lahore, the predominant tribes were the Bhatti and Khokhar, while in Sialkot District, the Rajputs of central Punjab met those of the hills. The Bhattis and Khokhars predominated in the plains, while the Sulehria, Minhas and Bhao were found in the hilly part of the district. In the south, the Bhattiana region, covering the modern Firuzpur and Sirsa districts, was home to the Bhatti, and related tribes such as the Dogar, Johiya, Mahaar, Naipal, and Wattu.

Jhammat, Kalyar, Mekan and Tulla tribes

In this post, I shall look at four tribes, whose home is the Chaj Doab, the land between the Chenab and Jhelum rivers, who are all of Jat status. They are all Bar nomads, practising pastoralism, until the arrival of the British in the 19th Century. My post on the Chadhar looks into some detail on the customs and traditions of the Bar nomads. In terms of origin, the Jhammat , and Mekan are Panwar Rajputs, with traditions of migration from Malwa in central India, while the Kalyar have traditions of roots in Rajasthan. Finally, the Tulla are essentialy a clan of the Gondals, but are now practically independent of the parent tribe.

 

Jhammat

I shall start off with the Jhammat, who are found throughout on the edges of Thal, with large concentrations in Bhakkar, Sargodha and Khushab districts. They are in essence Jhammat a tribe of the Bar, living a nomadic existence. Scattered settlements of the Jhammat are now found in an area extending from Jhelum District in the north to Bahawalpur District. Like their neighbours the Mekan, the Jhammat are by origin Panwar Rajputs, with their ancestor Jhammat having left Malwa in what is now Madhya Pradesh in India sometimes in the early 12th Century, arriving in the Punjab, and like their neighbours the Mekan, having converted to Islam at hands of the famous Sufi Baba Farid.

There settlements are now found mainly along the valley of the Jhelum River, with the bulk of the Jhammats found in Chakwal, Jhelum, Sargodha, Khushab and Bhakker districts.

 Villages

Bhakkar District

1) Cheena,

2) Jhammat 

3) Nabuwala

4) Wadhaywala

5) Waheer

Chakwal District

1) Alawal 

2) Sidher

Jhelum District

1) Chak Jalo

2) Chak Mujahid

3) Dewanpur

4) Khai Kotli,

5) Nakodar,

6) Sahow Chak,

7) Peraghaib

8) Pinnanwal

Sargodha District

1) Bunga Jhammat,

2) Bunga Jhammatawala

4)Jhammat Ranjhewala,

5) Jhammat

6) Shaikhwal

7) Verowal

8) Mangowal Kalan

Other Districts

Other Jhammat villages include Jhammat in Attock District, Jhammat Teli in Rawalpindi District, Jhammatabad and Jhammat Nauabad in Gujrat District,  Chak 232 JB in Jhang District and Jhatwan in Sheikhupura.

Kalyar

We now come to the Kalyar, a tribe generally seen as of Jat status. Just as a point of clarification, my understanding is that Kalyar have no connection whatsoever with the Kalyals, who have been referred in my earlier post. According to their traditions, the tribe claims descent from a Bhatti Rajput nobleman, a Rana Rajwadhan. The Rana lived in Ghazni, and then moved to Delhi in India. After sometime, he moved to Bhatner. In the 13th Century, the Rana moved to Chanb Kalyar, in what is now the Lodhran District, in Sindh, Pakistan. The ruler of the area was a Raja Bhutta. The Raja wanted to marry the daughter of Rajwadhan, who refused. As a result a battle took place, and the Raja was slain. The tract was then divided by Rajwadhan, and his five sons, Kalyar, Uttera, Kanju, Noon and Hattar.

Kalyar initially settled in Chamb Kalyar in Lodhran District. His descendants then migrated to the Kirana Bar, and became graziers. The Bar was opened up for settlement in the 19th Century, and many Kalyar now reside in colony Chaks (villages built by the British Imperial authorities) in what is now Sargodha District. For example the villages of Chak 104 A, 123 , 128, 147/148 (Lakhoana)151 , 174 NB all in Sillanwali Tehsil of Sargodha District are examples of such settlements.

As mentioned, the Kalyar are still found mainly in the Kirana Bar region of Sargodha District. Important villages in the Kirana Bar include Chokera (also known as Chak 79), Tangowali, Saidooaana, Samooranwali (in Tehsil Sargodha) and Mouza Kalyar. In Shahpur Tehsil, their villages include Feroze Makki, Salehabad, Kot Gul, and Mir Ahmed Sher Garh. Other important Kalyar settlements include Kalyar, Chak 205, Chak. 206, Chak 207 in Jhang District, Mouzza Dera near the town of Rodu Sultan, Jhok Kalyar in Faisalabad District and Bhatikay near the town of Wazirabad. The town Chamb Kalyar remains the centre of the tribe. Almost Kalyar migrated northwards towards the Kirana Bar, there also a few villages in Bahawalpur District such as Channi Got.

 

Mekan

Our next tribe, the Meken, sometimes also spelt Maikan or even Meikan, are a tribe of Jat status. They claim descent from the Panwar (Parmar) Rajputs, and spring from the same ancestor as the Dhudhi tribe. The tribe claims to have settled in the Thal, after the end of Arab rule in Sindh, when the Hindu king of Kanauj, a Parmar Rajput took possession of the Thal region, and settled his kinsmen, the Mekan. They then established a state based in the town of Mankera, now in Bhakkar District, which covered much of the Thal, and lasted for five hundred years, until the state was destroyed by invading Baloch. According to one of their traditions, the Mankera state was founded by a Raja Singh, who belonged to the royal house of Kannauj, and said to have accepted Islam during the time of the Sultan of Delhi, Ghias-ud-din Balban, courtesy of Baba Farid Ganj Shakr. Towards the end of the fifteenth century, the Baloch from Makran flocked into the country in and around Mankera, and subsequently ruled this state for the next three hundred years. The Mekans that settled in the Kirana Bar, and became pastoralist, like the other tribes of the Bar. They, occupied a copact territory in the Kirana Bar, lying to the west of Gondal territory, although a smaller number are also in Jhelum and Gujrat districts. There present territory now forms part of Sargodha, Khushab,and Mianwali districts, although as already mentioned, there are smaller broken settlements in Jhelum, Gujrat, and Mandi Bahauddin districts. In Pothohar, in Jhelum / Chakwal region, the Mekan form an important tribal community.

The Mekans form the majority of the population in Kot Bhai.Khan union council of Sargodha. Their villages in Sargodha District include Behak Maken, said to have been first village founded by the Mekans when they moved to the Bar , Abu Wala, Chakrala, Deowal, Gondal (Shahpur Tehsil), Mochiwal, Okhli Mohla, Sultanpur Meknawala, Jalpana, Dera Karam Ali Wala, Chak No 88 N.B,Chak No 142 N.B, Nihang Chak 71 NB Chak 74 NB, Chak 10 N.B,  Chabba Purana, Faiz Sultan Colony in Shahpur Tehsil, Kot Bhai Khan, Kot Pehlwan, Aqal Shah, Kot Kamboh, Wadhi, Kot Shada, Gul Muhammad Wala and Verowal in Bhera Tehsil and Sher Muhamadwala in Bhalwal Tehsil. Accross the Jhelum, Mekan are also found in Mohibpur village in Khushab District.

Outside this core areas, in Jhelum District, there most important villages are Chautala (Jhelum Tehsil) , Chak Mujahid (Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil) and Tobah (Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil), while in Chakwal District, important Mekan villages include Mangwal, Vero, Lakhwal, Thanil Kamal, Dingi Zer, Dhoke Dhabri (almost evenly divided between Gondal and Mekan), Chak Bhoun, Dhoke Maykan near Thoa Bahdur and Ghugh (which largely a Ghugh Jat villages, but home to several Mekan families). The Mekan Jats in terms of population form the most important Jat clan in Chakwal.

While in Gujrat District, they are found in village Mekan in Kharian Tehsil, and in neighbouring Mandi Bahaudin District, there main villages are Lassouri Kalan, Lassouri Khurd, Mekan and Thatti Bawa.

Tulla

The last tribe I will look at in this post are the Tulla, who are much more localized then the tribes discussed. They are a classic Chaj Doaba Jat, raising cattle, and leading a nomadic lifestyles until the arrival of the British.

According to their traditions, they are, in fact, a sept of the Gondal Jat tribe. They say, their ancestor being childless vowed that if he had a son he would give his weight in gold and silver to the poor. His son was so weighed and was give the nickname Tula, from the Punjabi word tolna, which, means to weigh. However, the Tulla are now independent of the Gondals, being considered a distinct tribe.
Their villages are found mainly in the Shahpur Tehsil of Sargodha District, such as Jahanabad, Mahmud Tulla and Jalpana. Other important Tulla villages is Miana Kooh in Mandi Bahaudin district.

Dhamial, Gaharwal, Jatal and Ranial tribes

 

 

In this posting, I return to the theme of the lesser known tribes of the Pothohar region of Pakistan, and I shall look at the Dhamial, Gaharwal, Jatal, and Ranial tribes. All of these tribes are in fact branches of the well known Janjua tribe. Let me start off with a brief note of the Janjua Rajputs. According to their traditions, the Janjua claim descent from the Pandava dynasty through Arjun, the cousin of Krishna. Although there is no definitive source to confirm the ancestry of the ancient King Porus of Punjab, the Janjua Rajputs claim that their ancestor, Rai Por is the Porus who fought Alexander in Punjab in 326BC, although this might be conjecture. The Janjua tribal history begins with Raja Ajmal Dev Janjua, who embraced Islam in the 12th century due to his love for Sufi art, poetry and teachings. Rai/Raja Mal followed the Islamic tradition of change of name after conversion and was then known as Raja Mal Khan. Mal Khan is said to have four sons, Bhir, Jodh, Kala and Khakha. From the last descend the Khakha of Kashmir, whose branch the Tezyal I have already looked at in an earlier post. From Jodh descends the Dhamial, from Bhir the Ranial, from Kala, the Gaharwal, and their branch the Jatal. In Chakwal and Jhelum, many Jatal and Dhamial now consider themselves to be Jats.

 

Dhamial

Dhamial (also written as Dhamyal) Like the other tribes looked, some sections of the Dhamial claim Jat status, while other stress the fact that they are Rajput. The Dhamial are chiefly found in the Rawalpindi District but also in Gujrat District, Jhelum District and Attock District of the Punjab and Mirpur District of Azad Kashmir. In Azad Kashmir, the Dhamial are the second largest Rajput-Jat tribe in the state. With regards to their origins, the Dhamial have a number of traditions as to there origin. Most however agree that they are descended from a Raja Dhami Khan, hence the name Dhami al, or sons of Dhami. They also point to the town of Dhamiak in Jhelum District as to where the tribe originated from. According to one of the traditions, Raja Dhami Khan came from Ghazni in Afghanistan, built a fort in Dhamiak, the ruins of which are still in existence, and defeted the Gakhar rulers of the region to establish control. The fort is still known in the local vernacular as dhami kot (fort of dhami in Punjabi), and the town of Dhamiak is simply said to be a corruption of the word dhami kot. Most traditions however claim that Dhami Khan was a Janjua Rajput, and they are infact a clan of the Janjua tribe. In the early thirteenth century, the Janjua chieftain, Raja Mal Khan rose to prominence. He increased his dominion over Hazara (later renamed Amb) through his son Raja Tanoli, Jhelum through his son Raja Jodh, parts of Kashmir through Raja Khakha, Rajghar (later renamed Malot) in Chakwal through his eldest Raja Bhir and what is today forms the area of Kahuta tehsil through Raja Kala Khan. Tarikh-e-Alfi of the Ghorids makes a mention of the rise to power of Raja Mal. According to Lepel H. Griffin, in Chiefs and Families of note in the Punjab (Lahore, 1910, ii, p254)

””On the death of their father, they determined to divide the country called, from Raja Mal, the Maloki Dhan between them. Jodh took the Salt Range near about the Makrach, and captured the town of Makshala from a colony of Brahmins (Mohyals)…He changed its name to Makhiala and built a fort there and two tanks for rain water….. Wir Khan (also spelt Bhir), took the possession of Khura (also spelt Khewra) near modern Pind Dadan Khan.””

The descendants of Raja Jodh continued to rule this region through various interruptions until the time of the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh. Raja Bhir meanwhile took over the Malot (Rajghar) state from his father. It was in this tradition that Raja Bhir’s later descendant, Raja Malu Khan, allying his cousin Raja Mubarak Khan who was the descendant of Raja Jodh Khan, gained control of the region of Dhamial and Ranial.  Latter in the post I shall look at the Ranial branch.

 

Villages in Jhelum and Chakwal

Presently, the Dhamial, both Jat and Rajput are found in Rawalpindi, Chakwal, Jhelum and Mirpur districts. Dhamial villages in Jhelum District include Kotla Faqir, Mamuri Dhamial, Mohra Lal, Hathia Dhamial, Dheri Dhamial and Rakha Dhamial. The town of Dhamiak remains the centre of the tribe in the district. In neighbouring Chakwal District, important Dhamial villages include Dohrian, Dhoke Bangwalian, Dhok Qutab Din, Dhok Alfo near Mangwal, Ghanwal, Chak Jharray, Chak Kharak,  Sohawa, and Kot Raja 

 

Villages in Rawalpindi District

Looking at each individual tehsil of Rawalpindi District starting with Gujar Khan Tehsil:

1) Aheer

2) Chak Dolat

3) Chak Rajgan

4) Chechi Bahadur

5) Dhamial

6) Dhok Baba Waris

7) Dhok Kund

8) Dolmi Dhamial

9) Gasroor

10) Jajja

11) Jhamath

12) Miani Borgi

13) Mohra Hafyal

14) Mohra Salyal,

15) Mohra Dhamial

16) Mohra Jundi

17) Natta Mohra

17) Ratala,

Rawalpindi Tehsil:

1) Bajnial

2) Dhamial

3) Khail Dhamyal

4) Safair

5) Sher Dhamial,

Kallar Syedan Tehsil,

1) Bhai Mehr Ali

2) Dhamali,

3) Dhok Attari, near Bhalakhar

4) Dhok Pakka Khoo,

5) Dhok Baba Mehru near Khanpur,

6) Mawa Dhamyal

7) Mohra Phadyal

8) Pari Nakkah near Bhalakhar,

9) Phagwari Gala

10) Sahib Dhamial

and in Kahuta Tehsil: Aliot.

Moving to Azad Kashmir, they are found in the villages of Kandoor, Samlota, Chakswari, Daggar, Dehri Dhamial and Nakkah Dhamial.

Gaharwal

We now look at the Gaharwal or sometimes pronounced Kaharwal, who are a Rajput clan. According to the 1931 Census of India, they numbered approximately 1,600.

The Gaharwal claim descent from Pir Kala, a son of Raja Mal Dev Janjua, who married Kaho Rani when he came to the Kahuta hills, and named the ilaqua Kahru after her. Hence the descendants are called Kahrwal. The Dulal is a sub-division of the tribe. This branch should not be confused with the Dolal Qureshis of Gujar Khan Tehsil. To sum up, the Gaharwal, like the Dhamyal and Jatal, referred in my earlier post, are a branch of the Janjua Rajputs.

The Kahrwal Janjua’s are found in the Kahuta and Kallar Saidan Tehsils of the Rawalpindi District. Important Gaharwal villages include Matore, Bagla, Darkali, Mamyaam, Guff Sanghal ,Mehra Sanghal , Pind-Bansoo and Blong. In Kallar Syedan they are found in Sehi Rajgan.

 

Jatal


The Jatal are a tribe of both Jat and Rajput status, who claim descent from Jatto Khan, a Janjua Rajput, who belonged the Gaharwal branch. So they are in fact sub-group of the Gaharwal. They are extremely localized, found in only in the districts of Rawalpindi and Jhelum. Like other Rajputs tribes of the region, they have a long and distinguished history of military service. Important Jatal villages include Aheer, Lakho, Mohraian,  Jatal Sukhroo and Repa in Gujar Khan Tehsil, Jatal and Jatal Durab in Rawalpindi Tehsil and Nandna Jatal and Tirkhi in Kallar Syedan Tehsil . While in Jhelum District, they are found mainly in Jhelum and Dina tehsils. In the Islamabad Capital Territory, Jatal are foind in Gagri village.

Ranial

I shall finally look at the Ranial branch of the Janjuas. Like the other branches, the Ranial trace their descent from Raja Mal Khan, the traditional ancestor of the Janjua tribe. As I have already discussed in my account of the Dhamial, the Ranial branch of the Janjua descend from Raja Bhir, who was the erstwhile ruler of Malot (Rajghar) state in Chakwal, and from him descended, Raja Malu Khan, who was the direct ancestor of the Ranials. Raja Malu Khan was allied with Mubarak Khan, the Dhamial. According to the Tehreek-e-Janjua (Sahiwal Press, v1, p224), these two Rajas employed a sudden military onslaught to conquer the areas of Ranial and Dhamial. Through the repute of their military success, they were able to win the neighbouring gentry over to their own side and established good relations with them. Raja Malu took the area of Hayal Ranial whilst Raja Mubarak took the Dhamial plain. Interestingly, Raja Malu’s offspring were known as the Rajas of Ranial and Raja Mubarak’s offspring likewise, were known as the Rajas of Dhamial. This later culminated in the recognition of these two branches as simply Ranial Rajas and Dhamial Rajas. Being neighbours, they taxed their subjects separately, but followed common policies on other matters such as the supply of soldiers to the Mughal emperors, cultivation and trade.

Family tree

The Ranial Rajputs are linked ancestrally to the Janjuas through Raja Malu Khan, who was a descendant of Raja Bhir as illustrated below:

                   Raja Mal Khan, the Janjua king
                                  |
                   Raja Bhir, the elder son of Raja Mal Khan
                                  |
                   Raja Acharpal (later converted to Islam and was renamed Raja Ahmed Khan)
                                  |
                            Raja Sunpal
                                  |
                            Raja Islam-ud-din
                                  |
                            Raja Noor-ud-din
                                  |
                            Raja Daulat Khan
                                  |
                            Raja Hans Khan
                                  |
                            Raja Malu Khan (during Jehangir’s reign [1605-28])

Some of Raja Malu Khan’s descendants settled in Nambal in Kallar Syedan Tehsil of Rawalpindi, immigrating from Malot, in Chakwal District(the ancestral kingdom of Raja Bhir who inherited it from his father, Raja Mal Khan). Raja Malu Khan was one of five brothers. The other brothers were: Raja Sadu Khan: whose descendants are settled in the area of Sehel Tehsil and Pindi Gheb,  Raja Nadyam Khan: whose descendants are in Harajpur Pind and Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, Raja Babul (who was the Minister of Maral Garh): whose descendants are settled in the Murali district in Chakwal and Raja Jangu Khan: whose descendants are settled in Dana, Khanpur and Dadan Chey.

Aura, Hayal, Miyal, Ratial and Tama tribes

This is my fifth post on the lesser known tribes of the Pothohar region. Of the five tribes discussed, two claim to be Rajput, although the Ratial have sections that claim to be Jats (especially in Dina), while the Tama have no traditions of Rajputs ancestry, while the Hayal of Rawalpindi consider themselves to be Chaghtai Mughals, while those in Mirpur are Jats. Finally the Aura are unique in that they make no claim to Rajput ancestry. My post on the Rajput and Jat clans of the Rawalpindi Division enumerated for the 1911 Census of India, gives an idea as to the distribution of these tribes.

Aura

The Aura are a Jat tribe, found mainly in Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi District.Very little is known about them, although they have consistently registered themselves as Jats in all the Census carried out by the British in the early 20th Centuiry. Important Aura villages include Balakhar in Rawalpindi District and Abdullahpur in Jhelum District.

Outside the core area, a colony of Aura is found inChak 21 S.B, which is large settlement of the Aura in Sargodha District. These Aura are immigrants from Gujar Khan Tehsil who were settled in the Sargodha region in the 19th century.

Hayal

The Hayal are little known tribe, found entirely in Kallar Syedan Tehsil, who claim Chaughtai Mughal ancestry. They are found in the villages of Burra Haya, Hayal Pindoral and Mohra Hayal. In Mirpur District, Hayyal, who classify themselves as Jats, are found in the villages of Kangra and Chappar.

Miyal

Miyal, or sometimes written as Mial, are tribe found mainly in Rawalpindi and Chakwal districts. They are descendants of Mian, which in there case may not refer to a single common ancestor, but is a term which is often used to describe any holyman or Sufi saint. These is also shown by the fact that different Mial groups have different origin myths. Some Mial groups say that they are Qureshi Arabs, while others claim to be Mughals.There main villages include Malluwala in Pindigheb Teshsil and Mial in the Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock District, the village of Mial in Rawalpindi District, and the villages of Budhial, Mureed, Mial and Warwal in Chakwal District. In addition, Mial settlements are also found in the Gujar Khan Tehsil, such as Sapiali Khinger.

Ratial

The Ratial are Rajput tribe, found mainly in Rawalpindi District. There customs are similar to neighbouring tribes such as the Bangial and Kanyal. Like other tribes in the region, they have several traditions as to their origin.  According to one such tradition, the tribe are descended from Khattar Khan, the ancestor of the Khattar tribe. Khattar Khan had six sons, Jand Khan,Isa Khan, Sarwar Khan, Firoz Khan, Sehra Khan and Pehru Khan. About three generations after his death, the tribe lost Nilab but they took possession of the open country between Rawalpindi and the Indus which became known by the name of Khattar. The descendents of Jand Khan took possession of the district called after them Jandal between Khushhalghar and Nara. From Feroz Khan the Drek family has descended. His great- grandson was Ratnah from whom have descended the clan known as Ratial. The Khattar tribe, like the Awans claim descent from Qutub Shah, which would make the Ratial Alvi Arabs. However, another tradition makes Ratnah out to be a Manhas Rajput, who left Kangra in the 15th Century and settled in Potohar region, and converted to Islam. His descendents are known the Ratial.

The Ratial were for sometime overlords of a large part of the present Rawalpindi District known as Ratala, centred around the village of Ratala in Gujar Khan Tehsil. They were displaced from Ratala by a Janjua chief named Raja Abdullah Khan in the 18th Century, who had himself been displaced by the upheaval of the Sikh conquest of Garjaak and Darapur, and as a result took his remaining army and conquered the region of Ratyal from a Ratial chief who was loyal to the Sikh empire. He defeated the Ratial Chief and renamed the region Ratala. With this, the Ratial ceased to play any important political role in the region. However, the Ratial are still make up the bulk of the population of the Ratala refgion.

Their principle villages are Ratial (near Dina) and Darapur in Jhelum District, and Ratial, Bher Ratial, Jairo Ratial and Puraney Ratial, in the Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi District. There are also number of Ratial villages in Attock District.

Tama

Finally, we look at the Tama, sometimes written as Tamma, a tribe found mainly in Chakwal and in Dina region of Jhelum. Like almost all the Jat clans of the Jhelum-Chakwal region, the Tama claim a Middle Eastern origin. Their ancestor was a Dulma Khan, nicknamed Tama, who migrated from Iran during the 16th Century, fleeing the forced conversion of Iranian Sunnis to the Shiite faith by Shah Ibrahim Safavi, who had just established a Shite Safavid state in Iran. Dulma Khan settled initially at Pandori near Dina, where he founded Dhok Tama, and where his descendent contracted marriage with Jat tribes, thereby becoming Jat. The largest Tamma Jat settlement is Tamma Ajaib, near the town of Dina.