List and Population of Jat clans of the Rawalpindi Division According 1911 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Jat clans and their population of the Rawalpindi Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1911 Census of India. In 1911, the Rawalpindi Division consisted of five districts, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Attock, Jhelum, Mianwali and Gujrat. There has been criticism of the 1911 Census, particularly of Pandit Harkishan Kaul, the census commissioner of Punjab. It started during his lifetime, and continues now with a cabal at Wikepedia supporting the mantra of the incompetent Indian and dismissing all works by Kaul. In my opinion, Pandit Harkishan was exceptional individual and ethnologist, and if we consider the time he was working, his achievements are truly extraordinary. Therefore, I dedicate this blog to him.

Just one more point I wish to make, the appearance of a particular tribe as Jat in the list does not in itself confirm that the tribe is Jat or otherwise. Identity does change with time, and some groups in the list may no longer identify themselves as Jats. This list is however very useful as it gives an historical distribution of Muslim Jat tribes in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a number of years prior to the partition of Punjab.

With regards to Jat tribes, this region is home to numerous small tribes who go by the name Jat.

Jhelum District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 84,361 (99%) out of a total population of 85,459. These were the main Jat clans in Jhelum District, as enumerated in the 1911 Census of India:

Tribe

Jhelum District

Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil

Chakwal Tehsil

Total

Bains

275

34

309

Bhakral

982

2

1,163

2,147

Bangial

64

3

1,802

1,869

Bhans

788

400

1,869

Bhatti

99

191

2,856

3,146

Bhutta

141

28

463

632

Chadhar

304

101

196

601

Dhamial

332

59

3,979

4,730

Dhudhi

142

384

526

Gungal

75

401

573

1,049

Ghogha

238

442

30

710

Gondal

2,574

1,155

2,820

6,549

Gujjral

26

762

788

Hariar

573

6

579

Haral

437

7

56

500

Jandral

14

410

194

618

Jangal

216

1

355

572

Jhammat

31

366

1,074

1,471

Jatal

433

254

23

710

Kalyal

574

7

2,458

3,039

Kanyal

145

2

2,456

2,603

Khanda

24

363

347

734

Khinger

902

3

241

1,146

Khatarmal

12

1

1,171

1,184

Khoti

68

12

566

646

Minhas

64

393

457

Matyal

1,147

1,147

Mekan

741

311

177

1,229

Nagyal

43

5

1,782

1,830

Phaphra

81

275

466

802

Serwal

572

572

Sial

441

252

432

1,230

Tama

155

462

617

Tarar

197

79

469

745

Thathaal

24

1,729

1,206

1,230

Raya

602

766

422

1,790

Readers can make reference to my posts on the individual tribes, such as the Bangial, Bhutta, Dhamial, Kalyal, Kanyal, Gungal, Jhammat, Mekan, Khinger, Khoti, Matyal, Jatal, and Thathaal. Other then the tribes in the list, the Customary Law of Jhelum District included Athal, Bhin, Dhaipai, Ghugh, Hargan (also spelt Hurgan), Jethal, Kurar, Iswal, Lilla and Nathial. In all fairness, the Jat clans of the region are numerous, and their can never be definite list. I already have articles on the Lilla and Jethal, and hope to write on the Ghugh.

Rawalpindi District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 15,722 (96%) out of a total population of 16,373. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe

Rawalpindi

Tehsil

Gujar Khan Tehsil

Murree Tehsil

Kahuta Tehsil

Total

Aura

380

230

610

Baghial

72

3

21

96

Bangial

727

445

32

1,204

Boria

30

16

46

Chhina

9

4

13

Dhamial

513

635

286

68

1,502

Dhamtal

520

520

Gondal

424

303

89

816

Hindan

262

279

541

Kalyal

9

120

129

Kanyal

149

149

Khatril

49

1,729

219

2,004

Magial

66

3

69

Mial

25

25

Sial

420

420

Sudhan

104

71

175

Thathaal

53

53

Shahpur (Sargodha) District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 174,184 (95%) out of a total population of 182,494. The district now comprises the bulk of Sargodha, all of Khushab with Malakwal now in Mandi Bahauddin District. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe

Shahpur Tehsil

Bhera Tehsil

Khushab Tehsil

Sargodha Tehsil

Total

Baghoor

4

801

2

807

Bains

10

175

482

45

712

Bajwa

1,591

4

4

80

1,685

Bhatti

1,471

735

264

1,741

4,211

Bhutta

147

338

101

167

753

Burana

32

756

147

Chadhar

893

2,194

211

703

4,001

Cheema

2,070

64

1

573

2,708

Chhina

274

474

245

306

1,299

Dhako

55

406

118

220

799

Dhal

225

258

188

20

691

Dhudhi

181

392

774

58

1,405

Ghumman

776

289

1,065

Gondal

1,459

12,962

5,224

8,978

28,623

Goraya

640

9

652

Hanjra

356

169

1

264

790

Harral

404

1,047

16

643

2,110

Hatiar

6

449

92

192

739

Heer

372

181

553

Jarola

516

33

1

550

Jhawari

1,092

1,092

Johiya

271

562

1,960

51

2,844

Jora

718

718

Kalera

41

228

29

557

855

Kalyar

356

198

133

23

715

Kharal

471

21

141

633

Khat

58

514

10

475

1,055

Khichi

1,219

2,132

609

1,328

5,288

Lak

1,419

746

71

920

3,156

Lali

587

61

11

25

684

Langah

28

162

440

6

638

Marath

548

548

Mekan

1,407

2,751

822

455

5,435

Nissowana

60

445

505

Noon

15

615

61

17

708

Panjootha

107

5

484

596

Parhar

142

389

13

220

807

Ranjha

314

6,008

209

5

7,536

Rehan

142

1,305

13

420

1,880

Sagoo

3

709

3

715

Sandrana

55

255

71

198

577

Sandhu

504

504

Sohal

67

740

3

810

Sujal

615

995

445

539

2,954

Tarar

233

919

1

563

1,716

Tatri

54

396

2

670

1,122

Thaheem

500

56

650

50

1,256

Tulla

213

787

311

1,311

Ves

447

246

1

274

Virk

161

245

100

120

626

Waraich

699

192

119

1,473

3,483

 Mianwali District

According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe

Mianwali Tehsil

Bhakkar Tehsil

Isakhel Tehsil

Total

Aheer

260

124

137

521

Arar

411

267

678

Asar

1,591

640

38

662

Asran

78

584

662

Auler Khel

415

492

1,337

2,244

Aulakh

386

1

387

Aulara

734

526

1,915

Alakh

18

819

837

Bhachar

96

107

203

Bhatti

489

1,517

223

2,229

Bhander

1

588

589

Bhamb

1,020

101

431

1,552

Bhawan

128

375

503

Bhutta

157

75

313

545

Bhichar

1,437

79

1,516

Bhidwal

59

1,236

1,295

Brakha

8

456

115

579

Chadhar

242

1,048

12

1,300

Chahura

566

21

587

Chhajra

19

575

594

Chhina

180

2,716

180

3,076

Dahral

523

163

52

738

Dhal

217

1,250

1,471

Dhudhi

86

1,019

9

1,114

Ghallu

20

1,458

1,478

Ghorhawal

587

4

591

Gorchhi

1,054

1,054

Hansi

4

661

26

691

Heer

519

515

1,034

Jakhar

9

1,415

1,424

Janjua

786

130

70

986

Jhammat

225

237

462

Johiya

72

594

666

Joia

609

1,018

23

1,650

Jora

622

104

13

739

Kalhar

414

120

66

600

Kallu

528

281

773

1,582

Kanera

262

526

75

863

Kanjar

168

1,387

1,555

Kanyal

327

458

785

Khar

163

1,018

1,013

Kharal

237

378

31

646

Kohawer

318

173

5

496

Kundi

1,111

149

78

1,338

Langah

327

458

626

Makkal

517

86

23

662

Mallana

122

494

616

Unu

110

667

777

Pumma

253

570

70

893

Sahi

16

499

515

Samtia

447

77

524

Sangra

85

568

653

Saand

477

24

53

544

Sandi

89

892

981

Sandhila

41

41

Sial

257

1,905

25

2,187

Soomra

36

575

611

Talokar

1,267

7

1,274

Targar

199

129

2,683

3,011

Turk

1

1

Turkhel

236

19

255

Waince or Bains

594

133

727

Gujrat District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 240,800 (98%) out of a total population of 245,997. Below is a list of clans that tabulated by the 1911 census as Jat clans. In addition to these, the Gujrat District Gazetteer gave a list that included the Bajwa, Baluta, Baryar, Chach, Chadhar Chatha, Dhillon, , Dudhra, Ganjial, Gher, Goraya, , Harcchal, Jag, Jhammat, Jhihal, Jindar, Kahlon, Kallar, Katial, Koratana, Lak, Langre, Lang, Langrial, Lidhar, Lilla, Mallana, Phaphra, Ranjha, Sahi, Sahotra, Sidhu and Tihal. The biggest omission from the list below are the Ranjhas, who are one the largest Jat clan in Phalia, which is now part of Mandi Bahauddin District. As the Ranjha area was transferred from the then Shahpur District, they were missed out by the Census enumerators.

 

Tribe

Gujrat Tehsil

Kharian Tehsil

Phalia Tehsil

Total

Bagril

586

586

Bangial

1,677

2

1,679

Chadhar

167

197

612

976

Chauhan

82

592

52

726

Cheema

1,711

3

688

2,572

Dhillon

617

45

30

692

Dhotar

53

7

1,295

1,355

Ghuman

663

113

70

846

Gondal

3,190

994

19,171

23,355

Hanjra

1,874

613

264

2,751

Heer

295

977

179

1,451

Kang

1,002

10

1,032

Langrial

12

3,724

3,736

Mangat

85

46

944

1,075

Sahi

892

1,581

1,501

3,736

Sandhu

2,844

476

122

3,442

Sarai

145

433

53

631

Sial

382

882

247

1,511

Sipra

308

181

595

1,084

Tarar

910

160

13,295

14,365

Totlle

12

4,180

4,192

Thathal/ Thothal

64

1,922

8

1,930

Virk

540

32

458

1,030

Wadhan / Badhan

32

630

662

Waince / Bains

353

103

140

596

Waraich

32,899

1,184

7,474

41,557

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Tribes of the Thal Desert: Aheer, Bhachar, and Talokar

I am interested in the history of Pakistan, and in particular its people. Trawling through the net, I find that there is little or no information on the history of this great nation. By history, I don’t mean descriptions of major events or incidents, but rather the history of its local traditions and customs. This is my first attempt at blog writing, so please bear that in mind when reading the rest of this article.

I thought that I should start off by looking at a region in western Punjab, known as the Thal, and in particular some of the tribes that inhabit it. The Thal is a large desert situated between the Jhelum and Sindh rivers just south of the Pothohar Plateau. Its total length from north to south is a 190 miles, and its widest is 70 miles (110 km) and narrowest is 20 miles. The Thal is all that remains of the semi-arid uplands that existed between rivers of western Punjab prior to the 19th Century constructions of canals by the British colonial authorities that led to the creation of what is now a largely irrigated region. This process also involved settlement of peasant colonists from what is now Indian Punjab.

This region is home to a number of tribes that can be loosely grouped under the name Jat. In the Thal, the term refers to any tribal grouping that practiced pastoral nomadism. Each tribe historically occupied distinct areas where they enjoyed prerogatives to grazing, and often claimed descent from a common ancestor. Among the larger tribes of the region that come under the rubric Jat include the Aheer, Aulakh, Baghoor, Bhachar, Chhina, Gahi, Ghallu, Jhammat, Johiya, Kanyal, Khokhar, Majoka, Mammak, Naich, Parhar, Panwar, Rahdari, Saigra, Sandhila, Sial, Talokar, Tiwana, Uttra and Wahla. In addition, this desert region is also home to some Baloch tribes such as the Kulachi, Lashari, and Waghra Magsi. I shall in this blog look at five such tribes, the Aheer, Bhachar, and Talokar individually. I would also ask the reader to look at my article on the Tiwana, which gives some further background on the history of the Thal.

Hopefully, time permitting; I shall expand this by looking at some of the others mentioned in the list. Below is a list of tribes that were categorised as Jat by 1911 Census of India for what was then the Khushab Tehsil, which occupied a significant area of the Thal desert.

Tribe Population
Aheer 656
Bhatti 264
Bhutta 101
Burana 147
Bains 482
Chadhar 211
Chhina 245
Dhako 118
Dhudhi 774
Dhal 188
Gondal 5,224
Haral 16
Hatiar 92
Jarola 33
Johiya 1,960
Jora 718
Kalera 29
Kalyar 133
Kharal 141
Khichi 609
Lak 71
Lali 11
Langah 440
Mekan 822
Noon 61
Parhar 13
Rehan 13
Ranjha 209
Sandrana 71
Sipra 72
Sujal 445
Talokar 5
Thaheem 650
Virk 100
Waraich 119

While in Bhakkar Tehsil of the then Mianwali District, the following were labelled as Jats by 1911 Census of India:

Tribe Population
Aheer 124
Assar 640
Asran 584
Aulakh 819
Auler Khel 492
Aulara 526
Bhander 588
Bhatti 1,517
Bhawan 375
Bhamb 101
Bhidwal 1,236
Bhutta 75
Brakha 456
Chadhar 1,048
Chahura 21
Chhajra 575
Chhina 2,716
Dahral 163
Dhal 1,250
Dhudhi 1,019
Ghallu 1,458
Ghorhawal 587
Hansi 661
Jakhar 1,415
Janjua 130
Jhammat 237
Johiya 1,612
Jora 104
Kallu 281
Kanera 526
Kalhar 120
Kharal 378
Kanyal 458
Khar 850
Khohawer 173
Kundi 149
Makkal 86
Mallana
Unu 667
Pumma 570
Sahi 499
Samtia 77
Saand 24
Sandi 892
Sangra 568
Sial 1,905
Soomra 575
Targar 129
Turkhel 19
Waince 133

Most of these tribes are no longer pastoral, having all settled down to a sedentary agricultural based lifestyle. Furthermore, as the Thal was the site of large scale settlement of refugees from eastern Punjab by the Pakistan government, cases of compact territory are rare, and restricted to those areas of the Thal which have not seen canal colonisation, for example Rahdari still occupy a compact territory near the village of the same name. Despite differences, the tribes share a common language, Thalochi, and other customs and traditions. They also all share a common traditions of migration, with an ancestor leaving territory in India and migrating to the Thal, and converting to Islam at the hands of the Sufi saint during the course of this migration. In addition, almost all the tribes claim to belonging to larger tribal grouping, such as the Panwar of central India, or claims to be sub-groups of larger categories such as Khokhar or Bhatti. For exambly, the Baghoor and Bhachar both are clans of the Khokhar tribe, while the Tiwana claim to Panwar ancestry. I shall however start with a tribe that makes no such claim, the Aheer, who are one of the larger tribes of the Thal, with their villages scattered from Khushab all way down to Noorpur Thal.

Aheer

The Aheer, are found throughout the western districts of the Punjab, In the Thal region, they are found mainly in Khushab District, concentrated in the headquarters in Khushab. The Khushab Aheer, are often in the news in Pakistan, due mainly to their active participatiojn in politics, having produced Malik Nasim Aheer, a former interior Minister under General Zia. This article will not concentrate on that family, but will be a general description of the tribe. Urdu sources, which often dismissed by those who either have no knowledge of the language, or pretend they don’t, will be the main basis of this summary. My main source shall be Aqvam-i Panjab by SultÌan Shahbaz Anjum.

So who are the Aheer, and the answer is not that simple, in fact with regards to tribal origins, it never is. The name Ahir, which is actually pronounced as Aheer, is used for a large caste cluster found throughout North India, many of whom prefer to call themselves Yadavs. An obvious conclusion would be therefore to conclude the Aheer of the Thal, and others parts of western Punjab, are one and the same as the Ahir. The Tehreek Aqwam e Punjab is silent on this issue, however most Aheers claim descent from Qutab Shah, the ancestor of the Awan and Khokhar tribes, and deny any conection with the Ahir of North India. Denzil Ibbetson, the colonial ethnographer, in his account of the 1881 Census of Punjab, argued that Aheer and Heer was one in the same tribe. Those who spoke dialects of Lahanda, such as Seraiki or Thalochi tended to refer to themselves as Aheer, while those found in central Punjab refered to themselves as Heer. The Heer, a large Jat clan found throughout central Punjab, stretching from Gujrat to Patiala, together with the Bhullar and Maan clans, claim to be the nucleus of the Jat ethnic group, all other tribes were said to be latter incorporated into the Jat. There is a further division as the Heer can be either Muslim or Sikh, while the Aheer are always Muslim. The 1917 District Gazetteer of Shahpur District, which then occupied most of the Thal, simply refers to the Aheer as “an ordinary Musalman peasants, like their neighbours”. So I started off this paragraph by asking the question, who are the Aheer, and the only fact that be confirmed is that they were once a large pastoral tribe, occupying the northern portion of the Thal, whose chiefs or Maliks in the 19th Century confirmed ownership of their lands, which helped to transform them into large landowners in what became Khushab.

Villages in Thal

In Khushab District, there villages include Aheerpur, Rakh Baghoor, Aheer Jagir, Rahdari and Girote near Khushab city. Staying within the Thal, but outside Khushab, important Aheer villages include Aheeranwala, Aba Khel, Ahheranwala, Jandanwala and Wandhi Aheeranwali near Pai-Khel, all in Mianwali District, while across the Jhelum, in Sargodha District, there are several Aheer villages near the town of Sahiwal, such as Ahir Fateh Shah and Ahir Surkhru, and Lakseem near Kot Momin.  In Mandi Bahauddin District, Chak Nizam near the town of Malakwal is an important village. Finally in Bhakkar District, they are found in Aheeranwala and Wadhaywala.

Outside the Thal,

 

The Aheer are found in Rawalpindi, Lodhran, Khanewal, Sahiwal and Faisalabad districts In the canal colonies of central Punjab, Aheers from the Thal, like many others have settled in chaks, or settlements, with important ones being Chak 142J.B (Khai Aheeran), Chak 235JB (Haiboana), Langrana and Mouza Lodhran in Chiniot District, Chak 452 JB (Aheeranwala) in Jhang District, Chak 7 (Aheeranwala) in Mandi Bahauddin District, Chak 77/12-L in Sahiwal District. In southern Punjab, the Aheer are found in scattered settlements in Khanewal District in villages near the towns of Kabirwala and Qadirpur Raan, and in Lodhran District, their most important villages being Basti Aheer and Jhok Aheer.

Isolated from other Aheer settlements are the villages of Ahir and Bher Ahir in the Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi. These Aheer claim Rajput status, and have customs similar to other groups Rajput groups.

Distribution of Muslim Ahir in Punjab by District According to 1911 Census of India

 

District Population
Shahpur (Sargodha & Khushab districts) 1,017
Mianwali 843
Chenab Colony (Faisalabad) 345
Multan 234
Jhang 167
Other districts 195
Total Population 2,801

 

Bhachar

Leaving the Aheer, another interesting tribe found mainly in the periphery of the Thal are the Bhachars, who are found mainly in the town of Wan Bhachran, and villages nearby such as Dera Atta Mohammadwala at the northern edge of the Thal desert. The Bhachars are a clan of the historic and large Khokhar tribe. They state that their original home was in the Gujrat District, from where they migrated, first to Buggi Bhooki near Girot in Khushab District, and later to their present site, which was chosen on account of the “wan” or large well said to be built by the Emperor Sher Shah Suri. These wells were placed at intervals of about a day’s march apart on the road from Gujrat to Bannu in what is now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The name “Bhachar” seems to have been a form of endearment applied to them by some forgotten Pir, from the word bhachra meaning a calf.  According to the 19th Century gazetteer of Bannu District, the Bhachars are really a branch of the Bandial tribe, also Khokhars.  The lands surrounding Wan Bhachran were acquired by a Bandial chief named Malik Surkhru Khan, who established a fort from where he ruled the adjoining region till the rise of the Sikhs in the 19th Century. The Maliks of Wan Bachran are descended from him. Whether they are branch of the Bandial are not, what is clear that they are closely connected with the Khokhar clans of the Sindh Sagar Doab, such as the Bandial, Ghanjera and Ganjial

 

Like the neighbouring Pathan tribes such as the Niazis, the Bhachars are subdivided into clans that go by the name khels. Among larger Bhachar clans are the Dadukhel, Mohammad khel, Arori khel, Wadoo khel, Tahir khel, Pehlwan khel, Bego khel, Basharat khel, Jany khel, Kory khel, Mamo khel, Ali khel, Mian Ahmad khel, Mian sher khel, Shaho khel, Sui and Dharoi.

 

Interestingly, there is still village called Bhachar near the town of Mandi Bahauddin, although the population of the village is largely Gondal, with no Bhachar families. However, the Wara Chamian near Malakwal in Mandi Bahauddin districts is still home some Bhachar families. In neighbouring Khushab District, there are several Bhachar families in the village of Mohibpur along the banks of the Jhelum. The presence of these Bhachar settlement does suggest that there was some sort of migration from the east, and valley of Jhelum where the districts of Jhelum and Khushab meet is also home to several other Khokhar clans such as the Bandial, Gunjial and Jalap. Other then Mohibpur, Bhachar are also found in the villages of Dera Atta Muhammadwala, Jhajha, Mehro and Shahwala Shumali near the Khushab Mianwali border, not far from Wan Bhachran. Outside this core area, Bhachar are also found in Talokar village. From what I know, there is no link left between the Mandi Bahauddin Bhachars and those of Wan Bachran.

 

Talokar

The Talokar are another large an important Jat tribe of the Thal. Like the Jhammats, the Talokar claim to by descent Panwar Rajputs. According to their traditions, they are the related to Sial and Tiwana tribes. Supposedly all three tribes descend from three brothers, Tila, Sila and Taloka. Once again, like the Jhammat, the Talokar traditions state that they accepted Islam at the hands of the famous Sufi Baba Farid Shukar Gunj. The Talokars came from East Punjab in India, and first settled near Bhera in Sargodha District. Their first settlements were the villages were Kalara and Kurrar Talokar. From there, they spread to the east side of the Indus River, founding the villages of Bakharra (Kacha), Ding and Khola (Thal), in Mianwali District. Like the Niazi Pashtuns, who are their neighbours in Mianwali, the Talokar are subdivided in clans, referred to as khels. Important Talokar khels in Mianwali include the Lato Khel,Shahbaz Khel,Baqir Khel,Yaroo Khel, and Rangay Khel

Important Talokar villages include Talokar, Talokar Shumali, Talokar Jannubi and Chak Talokaranwala and a good many other villages near the town of Noor Pur Thal in Khushab District. A small number of Talokar are also found in Bandial village near the border with Mianwali District. In Mianwali itself, there villages include Ding Khola Talokar (New Ding Sharif, Saeed Abad (Sharqi and Gharbi), Lal Khelan wala, Zaman Kelan wala, Hashim Naggar, Tahir Abad, Shahbaz Khelanwala and Khanqah Sirrajia.