Tribes of the Thal: The Muslim Aheer/Ahir of Punjab

In this post, I return the tribes that inhabit the Thal desert region, located in western Punjab, and look at the Aheer or sometimes written as Ahir. The Thal is a vast arid region which is located between the Jhelum and Sindh rivers near the Pothohar Plateau, with a total length from north to south 190 miles, and a maximum breadth of 70 miles (110 km) and minimum breadth 20 miles. The desert covers the districts of Bhakkar, Khushab, Mianwali, Layyah, Muzaffargarh as well as Jhang, from the left bank of the river Jhelum. It is the last remaining desert region in the Doabs of the Punjab, the others now have been arable through a vast networks of canals. As an arid region, the tribes that inhabit it are largely pastoral. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the Bhachars, which gives some background on the ethnology of the Thal region.

 

 

The Aheer, are found throughout the western districts of the Punjab, In the Thal region, they are found mainly in Khushab District, concentrated in the headquarters in Khushab. The Khushab Aheer, are often in the news in Pakistan, due mainly to their active participatiojn in politics, having produced Malik Nasim Aheer, a former interior Minister under General Zia. This article will not concentrate on that family, but will be a general description of the tribe. Urdu sources, which often dismissed by those who either have no knowledge of the language, or pretend they don’t, will be the main basis of this summary. My main source shall be Aqvam-i Panjab by SultÌan Shahbaz Anjum.

 

So who are the Aheer, and the answer is not that simple, in fact with regards to tribal origins, it never is. The name Ahir, which is actually pronounced as Aheer, is used for a large caste cluster found throughout North India, many of whom prefer to call themselves Yadavs. An obvious conclusion would be therefore to conclude the Aheer of the Thal, and others parts of western Punjab, are one and the same as the Ahir. According to the author of the Tehreek Aqwam e Punjab, the Aheers claim descent from Qutab Shah, the ancestor of the Awan and Khokhar tribes, and deny any connection with the Ahir of North India. Denzil Ibbetson, the colonial ethnographer, in his account of the 1881 Census of Punjab, argued that Aheer and Heer was one in the same tribe. There is a single exception, the famous Malik family of Khushab connects itself with the Roas of Rewari. Those who spoke dialects of Lahanda, such as Seraiki or Thalochi tended to refer to themselves as Aheer, while those found in central Punjab refered to themselves as Heer. The Heer, a large Jat clan found throughout central Punjab, stretching from Gujrat to Patiala, together with the Bhullar and Maan clans, claim to be the nucleus of the Jat ethnic group, all other tribes were said to be latter incorporated into the Jat. There is a further division as the Heer can be either Muslim or Sikh, while the Aheer are always Muslim. The 1917 District Gazetteer of Shahpur District, which then occupied most of the Thal, simply refers to the Aheer as ordinary Musalman tribe like their neighbours.

 

I will briefly here go over the origin myths of the Ahir in Punjab. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the Ahir population in British Punjab were found chiefly in the south-east namely in the districts of Dehli, Gurgaon, and Rohtak and the PEPSU States bordering upon these districts. I would ask the reader to look at my post on the distribution of the Ahirs in Punjab at the turn of the 20th Century. These Ahirs were entirely Hindu, and included among them were the family of the Roas of Rewari, which I will come to latter in this article. However, separated from these were communities of Aheer found in the Sindh Sagar Doad, the land between the Indus and the Jhelum-Chenab, who were entirely Muslim. Both groups of Ahir were pastoral caste, with their name said to be derived from the Abhira, an ancient community mentioned in the Mahabharat. In Punjab, most of the Hindu Ahir belong to the Yadubans sub-divisions, which claims to be descended from Krishna.

 

The Aheer of Khushab

 

The landowning Ahirs of Khushab and Sahiwal in present day Sargodha district claim descent from the Raos of Rewari, a Ahir principality in present day Haryana. Until the arrival of the British in the mid 19th Century, the Aheer were practical rulers of the region around the town of Khushab. However, as the power of the Tiwanas rose, the Aheer were reduced to simple zamindars. Thisfamily connects themselves with the Rewari state, based in present day Haryana. The state of Rewari was established by an Ahir  chieftain, Rao Nandram, during the reign of Farrukhsiyar, the Mughal emperor of Delhi. The emperor pleased with military support he received from Nandram, gave him a jagir of 360 villages around Rewari and legitimized Nandram‟s supremacy over the region by conferring upon him the title of chaudhari. He belonged to the Yaduvamsi sub-caste of the Ahirs and to the Abhiriya clan. According to Khushab traditions, they decend from a nephew of Nandram. The jagir was expandedby Rao Gujarmal who got mansab of  5,000 zat and sanad from the emperor Muhammad Shah. Rao Gujarmal built many forts and issued his own coin, but later the kingdom came under the control of Marathas for a brief spell  The last Rao, Tula Ram played an important role in the 1857 mutiny against the British. He proclaimed independence and assumed the title of Raja, and supported the rebels at Delhi and on 16 November 1857 he fought a losing battle against the British at Narvane. After his defeat, he went to Iran and Afghanistan to raise an Army, but died in Kabul on 2 September 1863. The British confiscated the estate of Rao Tula Ram and this marked the end of Ahir Kingdom.

 

So I started off this article by asking the question, who are the Aheer, and the only fact that be confirmed is that they were once a large pastoral tribe, occupying the northern portion of the Thal, whose chiefs or Maliks in the 19th Century confirmed ownership of their lands, which helped to transform them into large landowners in what became Khushab.

 

 

Villages in Thal

In Khushab District, there villages include Aheerpur, Rakh Baghoor, Aheer Jagir, Rahdari and Girote near Khushab city. Staying within the Thal, but outside Khushab, important Aheer villages include Aheeranwala, Aba Khel, Ahheranwala, Jandanwala and Wandhi Aheeranwali near Pai-Khel, all in Mianwali District, while across the Jhelum, in Sargodha District, there are several Aheer villages near the town of Sahiwal, such as Ahir Fateh Shah and Ahir Surkhru, and Lakseem near Kot Momin.  In Mandi Bahauddin District, Chak Nizam near the town of Malakwal is an important village. Finally in Bhakkar District, they are found in Aheeranwala and Wadhaywala.

Outside the Thal,

 

The Aheer are found in Rawalpindi, Lodhran, Khanewal, Sahiwal and Faisalabad districts In the canal colonies of central Punjab, Aheers from the Thal, like many others have settled in chaks, or settlements, with important ones being Chak 142J.B (Khai Aheeran), Chak 235JB (Haiboana), Langrana and Mouza Lodhran in Chiniot District, Chak 452 JB (Aheeranwala) in Jhang District, Chak 7 (Aheeranwala) in Mandi Bahauddin District, Chak 77/12-L in Sahiwal District. In southern Punjab, the Aheer are found in scattered settlements in Khanewal District in villages near the towns of Kabirwala and Qadirpur Raan, and in Lodhran District, their most important villages being Basti Aheer and Jhok Aheer.

Isolated from other Aheer settlements are the villages of Ahir and Bher Ahir in the Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi. These Aheer claim Rajput status, and have customs similar to other groups Rajput groups.

 

Distribution of Muslim Ahir in Punjab by District According to 1911 Census of India

 

District Population
Shahpur (Sargodha & Khushab districts) 1,017
Mianwali 843
Chenab Colony (Faisalabad) 345
Multan 234
Jhang 167
Other districts 195
Total Population 2,801

 

Ahir / Aheer (Yadav) Population of Punjab according to the 1901 Census

This is another of my series of posts looking at the distributions of castes gazetted as agricultural by the Land Alienation of Punjab. This time I am looking at Ahir, who increasingly self-identify as Yadav. The Ahir were found largely in what is now the state of Haryana, and were almost entirely Hindu. Muslim Ahirs were only found in the western most districts of Punjab, in Jhelum valley from Khushab to the city of Multan. I would ask the reader to at my post on the Muslim Aheer to get some background on the community.

 

District / State

Hindu

Muslim

Sikh

Total

 Gurgaon

78,329

 

  78,329

 Patiala

39,187

 

80

39,448

 Nabha

20,142

 

20,142

 Rohtak

17,064  

 

17,064

 Delhi

13,969

 

 

13,969

 Hissar

9,857

 

9,857

 Jind

7,246

 

 

7,246

 

 Dujana

4,712

 

 

 

4,712

 

 

 

Pataudi 3,839     3,839
Karnal 1,697
 14  64 1,775
Ambala 1,323
 13 1,336
Firuzpur 1,236
14 1,250
Shahpur 71
1,017 1,088
Lahore 820
46 846
Mianwali   843 843
Rawalpindi 577
 15   592
Multan 261
234 495
Chenab Colony 40
345
13 398
Amritsar 342
  25
367
Sialkot 259 32   291
Loharu 248 248
Gujrat 198
Faridkot 181
181
Jalandhar  170  170
Ludhiana  168  168
Jhang    167  167

Other Districts

 

 

 

 

Total

 202,385

 2,816

 227

 205,428

Harral, Marral, Wagha and Waseer tribes

In this post, I shall look at tribes that have their historic home in South Punjab. All are or were speakers of Seraiki, although the Wagha and Waseer, surrounded as they are by Punjabi settlers, now speak Punjabi. All also have traditions of migration from India, with the Harral claiming Panwar, Marral claiming a Chauhan origin, and Wagha and Waseer also claiming to be Panwar. I would ask the reader to make reference to my earlier postings on the Chadhars to get a background on the Bar nomads.

Harral

The Harals, or sometimes spelt Harral, are fairly substantial tribe, found in a block of settlements along the Chenab in Chiniot and Sargodha districts. They were at one point entirely pastoral, with groups nomadizing the Kirana and Sandal Bar. Like all Bar nomads, they were settled forcefully by the British colonial authorities in the late 19th Century.

There have a number of traditions as to their origin. According to one such tradition, the Haral are descended from Rai Bhupa, a Panwar Rajput, who incidently also appears in the origin myths of the Kharals, who were the neighbours of the Harrals in the Sandal Bar. Rai Bhupa is said to have left Jaisalmeer in Rajasthan with his kinsmen, and arrived in Uch Sharif, and accepted Islam at hands Makhdum Jahanian. There original settlement was in Kamalia near Multan, from where they spread with the flocks to the valley of the Chenab. Another tradition makes them a clan of Ahirs, who left Rewari near Gurgaon, a stronghold of the Ahir tribe, and settled in the Sandal Bar. This would connect them with their neighbours, the Gilotars, who also have traditions of being an Ahir clan. Finally, in Sahiwal, there are also traditions that the Haral are a branch of the Bhutta Jats.

In 1931 census, conducted during British rule, the male population was recorded as 5,000, and they were found in the Sahiwal District, Jhang and the now defunct Shahpur districts.They are now considered as Jat, and intermarry with the Kharal, Lak and other Jats of the Bar.

In 1857, the Harral played a key role in the rebellion against British rule in the Punjab, for which they were punished severely. There land was seized from them, and opened to settlement of other tribes. Most now no longer speak the Jhangochi dialect of Punjabi, and have shifted to standard Punjabi. As far as I know, the Harral are entirely Muslim, I can found no record of Hindu or Sikh Harrals.

In the core Harral region, which now forms part of Jhang and Faisalabad district, there villages in the former include Bhaderiwala, Chund and Masuwala, Muradwala and Sarwala, while in the latter their villages include Muloani Harallan, Lakarwala, Mudoana Harallan and Khanuana Harallan. In Bhalwal Tehsil of Sargodha District, their villages include Chabba Purana, Chak 6 ML , Chowal and Moazamabad, in Kot Momin Tehsil they are found in Naseepur Khurd.In Bhakkar District, they are found in Chak 69 TDA Behal. Further north in Khushab District, they are found in Rahdari. While in neighbouring Mandi Bahauddin district, their villages include Bherowal, Kadher Gharbi, Lakhia and Mailu Kohna.

 

Harral of Chakwal and Jhelum

Outside their core aread, Harrals are also found in Bhakkar, Chakwal and Jhelum districts. These Harrals are left to have left Sahiwal about two hundred years ago and now reside in the villages of Bajwala, Jaitipur, Jalalpur Sharif, Kotal Kund, Khalaspur, Nakka Kalan and Nakka Khurd and Wagh, all in Jhelum District. While in neighbouring Chakwal District, they are found in Bhulay Ballay, Dhab Kalan, Dhok Hayat, Kaal near Panjdhera, Ladwa and Ratwal villages.

 

 

Marral / Maral

 

The Marral or Maral are large found mainly in south Punjab. They are considered to be of Jat status. According to their traditions, the tribe claims descent from a Marral. This Marral was a Chauhan Rajput who migrated from Delhi and settled in Sindh. He had three sons, but all his descendants are called Marrals. The etymology of the name according to some traditions is that a certain Chauhan was told by his astrologers that a boy would be born in a Chauhan family who would destroy his kingdom, so he ordered that all the children born to Chuahan families should be killed, but Maral’s mother concealed him in a drum, and so he was named Maral ( from the Sindhi marhna to muffle). In Jhang, the Marrals were at one time a substantial power, but there power was extinguished by the Chadhars. According some other traditions, they are a group of Chauhans that migrated from Panipat, in what is now Haryana in India to the banks of the Jhelum. But both traditions seem to suggest that there first place of settlement was Jhang, where after their overthrow, led to groups migrating to further south to Multan and Mizaffargarh.

 

As I refer at the start of this post, the Marral are found in south Punjab, mainly in Rajanpur, Rahim Yar Khan, Multan, Muzaffargarh and Jhang districts.Their villages in Rajanpur District include Jindo Marral and Phagan Marral. In Chiniot District, Marralwala, and Multan District, Khanpur Marral, Inyatpur Marral and Qasba Maral.

In Sindh, they are found in Kashmore and Ghotki districts. Rais Ahmed Bux Maral, Gaji Maral, Haji Alim Maral and Nihal Maral are important Marral villages in Sindh.

 

Wagha

The Wagha are also of Jat status. According to their traditions, they are of Panwar Rajput descent. They used to graze their cattle in the central Sandal Bar, under the Kharals. Unable to deal with the tributes to the Kharal, they moved into what is now Nankana Sahib District,and clashed with the Bhatti and Virk of the area. With the assistance of the Kharal of Chak Jhumra, they ejected the Bhattis, and became the main tribe of the northern portion of the Sandal Bar. Like other pastoral Jat tribes of the Bar, they lost most to the grazing land to the canal colony scheme begun by the British coloinial authorities.

 

They are now a settled agriculture clan found in Nankana Sahib District.

Waseer

 

Like the Wagha, the Waseer also claim to be of Panwar origin. The Waseer were a nomadic tribe found in the Sandal Bar region of Punjab, and according to their traditions, are of Panwar Rajput ancestry. They claim descent from Wasir, who was converted to Islam at the hands of the Sufi saint Hazrat Shah Chawali Mashaikh. The Wasir are said to be have immigrated to the Sandal Bar in the 18th Century, and pushed out the Bhattis and Sipras. Essentially pastoralist, they occupied territory that now forms part of Faisalabad city.

 

They are now found mainly in Faisalabad, Sahiwal, Okara, Multan and Vehari districts.

Waseer Villages:

Faisalabad District

Arkana Waseeraan,

Ameen Ke Waseer,

Chak 374 G.B

Chamyana Waseeran

Gujranwala District

Hardo Saharan

Gondalwala,

Nankana Sahib District

Waseer Pur

Pakka Dalla Waseeran, ,

Malianwali Waseeraan, Chak No 537 G.B

Kheppan Wala,

Kalliber,

Sheikhupura District

Chak No 538 G.B,

Jatri Waseer,

Okara District

Moza Qila Dewa Singh,

Moza Mancherian,

Moza Dharma Wala,

Moza Bhai Rao Khan

Moza Chorasta Mian Khan,

Moza Pasail,

Havaili Lakha,

Mouza Waseero Wala,

Toba Tek Singh District

Chak 442 JB Waryamwala

Chak Number: 715 G.B

Vehari District

Basti Chaker Waseer,

Basti Wali Khan Waseer,

Chak Number 96

Moza Mari Waseeran,

Karampur Waseeran,

Malpur Waseeran.

Sharaf Waseeran,