List and Population of Jat clans of the Rawalpindi Division According 1901 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Jat clans and their population in the Rawalpindi Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1901 Census of India. Please also read my introduction for the 1911 Census on the Jat clans to give you some background. Almost all the population that professed to be Jat were Muslim, with exception of Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, which was home several Hindu Wariach Jats.

Rawalpindi District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 46,061, of which 43,853 (95%) were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

Tribe Total
Aura 1,660
Badhan 246
Baghial 647
Bains 1,388
Bhagiara 270
Chatha 130
Chhina 653
Dhamial 2,203
Dhamtal 695
Gangal 325
Gill 373
Gondal 958
Hanial 155
Harial 194
Hattial 222
Heer 428
Hindan 489
Jatal 395
Jodhra 5,157
Kalial 1,791
Kanial 954
Kassar 105
Khalis 102
Khatril 1,578
Khor 389
Langrial 120
Lodhra 134
Magial 596
Magrial 486
Mangral 226
Matyal 314
Mial 599
Mundra 150
Phira 164
Phul 135
Salhal 215
Sandhu 99
Sangal 427
Sial 618
Sudhan 1,765
Tama 231
Thathaal 534
Walana 112
Wariach 347

Jhelum District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 73,364, of which 72,763 (99%) were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

Tribe Total
Badhan 248
Bains 962
Bhakral 585
Bhatti 2,053
Bhutta 678
Chadhar 121
Chauhan 224
Dhudhi 352
Gondal 879
Harral 460
Heer 243
Janjua 120
Jhammat 929
Kanial 1,990
Kassar 111
Langah 482
Mahil 320
Minhas 824
Ranjha 236
Sahi 445
Sial 126
Tarar 758
Thaheem 139
Wariach 388

Gujrat District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 198,075, of which 192,000 (97%) were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

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Tribe Total
Bains 478
Bajwa 532
Bhullar 106
Bhutta 373
Chatha 812
Cheema 2,923
Chhina 287
Dhariwal 388
Dhillon 568
Dhotar 1,513
Ghumman 739
Gill 503
Goraya 148
Harral 158
Heer 1,654
Hanjra 2,338
Jakhar 235
Kang 1,183
Langrial 3,702
Mangat 1,031
Marral 168
Pannun 242
Randhawa 298
Sahi 4,498
Sandhu 228
Sarai 661
Sidhu 2,157
Sipra 1,259
Sohal 374
Tarar 14,531
Virk 775
Wariach 37,805

Shahpur District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 63,876, of which 63,649 (99%) were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

Tribe Total
Aulakh 103
Bains 613
Bhachar 166
Bhatti 3,864
Bhutta 1,298
Burana 657
Chadhar 3,303
Chhina 538
Hanjra 528
Harral 1,849
Heer 553
Hurgan 236
Jhawari 1,092
Jora 718
Lak 2,197
Lali 531
Lala 357
Langah 604
Mahil 181
Mangat 226
Marath 548
Nissowana 518
Panjootha 966
Rehan 1,567
Sahi 164
Sidhu 100
Sipra 1,382
Tarar 1,223
Thaheem 288
Tulla 1,403
Virk 318
Wariach 445

Mianwali District

The total Jat population in 1901 was 137,665, all of whom were Muslim. Below is a list of the major clans:

Tribe Total
Aheer 843
Asar 1,377
Atar Khel 181
Atra 652
Aulakh 1,887
Aura 232
Autrah 1,075
Bains 353
Bedha 472
Bhachar 1.422
Bhadwal 1,207
Bhatti 1,880
Bhullar 483
Bhumla 793
Bhutta 778
Birkan 130
Budhwana 366
Chadhar 1,226
Chandhar 235
Chhajra 367
Chhina 1,580
Dab 103
Deo 915
Des 158
Dhandla 286
Dharal 419
Dhariwal 184
Dhillon 949
Dhudhi 335
Dumra 585
Gandhi 1,288
Ghallu 818
Gill 190
Goraya 365
Gorchar 807
Hanbi 336
Hans 498
Harral 347
Heer 603
Janjua 573
Jatal 164
Jakhar 1,229
Jhammat 507
Joiya 670
Kahlon 442
Kalasra 918
Kallu 1,301
Kallu Khel 147
Khandoa 1,278
Khera 176
Kohawer 1,020
Lak 452
Langah 704
Langrial 222
Lohanch 676
Mallana 454
Naul 229
Pala Khel 169
Rawana 215
Saggu 434
Sahgra 321
Sahi 963
Samtia 1,007
Saandh 948
Sandhila 701
Saandi 410
Sarai 150
Sawag 460
Srb 1,144
Sial 2,945
Sohal 435
Soomra 930
Talokar 1,096
Thaheem 352
Turkhel 1,344
Turk 1,499
Waghora 173
Wawana 258

List and Population of Jat clans of the Rawalpindi Division According 1911 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Jat clans and their population of the Rawalpindi Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1911 Census of India. In 1911, the Rawalpindi Division consisted of five districts, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Attock, Jhelum, Mianwali and Gujrat. There has been criticism of the 1911 Census, particularly of Pandit Harkishan Kaul, the census commissioner of Punjab. It started during his lifetime, and continues now with a cabal at Wikepedia supporting the mantra of the incompetent Indian and dismissing all works by Kaul. In my opinion, Pandit Harkishan was exceptional individual and ethnologist, and if we consider the time he was working, his achievements are truly extraordinary. Therefore, I dedicate this blog to him.

Just one more point I wish to make, the appearance of a particular tribe as Jat in the list does not in itself confirm that the tribe is Jat or otherwise. Identity does change with time, and some groups in the list may no longer identify themselves as Jats. This list is however very useful as it gives an historical distribution of Muslim Jat tribes in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a number of years prior to the partition of Punjab.

With regards to Jat tribes, this region is home to numerous small tribes who go by the name Jat.

Jhelum District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 84,361 (99%) out of a total population of 85,459. These were the main Jat clans in Jhelum District, as enumerated in the 1911 Census of India:

Tribe

Jhelum District

Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil

Chakwal Tehsil

Total

Bains

275

34

309

Bhakral

982

2

1,163

2,147

Bangial

64

3

1,802

1,869

Bhans

788

400

1,869

Bhatti

99

191

2,856

3,146

Bhutta

141

28

463

632

Chadhar

304

101

196

601

Dhamial

332

59

3,979

4,730

Dhudhi

142

384

526

Gungal

75

401

573

1,049

Ghogha

238

442

30

710

Gondal

2,574

1,155

2,820

6,549

Gujjral

26

762

788

Hariar

573

6

579

Haral

437

7

56

500

Jandral

14

410

194

618

Jangal

216

1

355

572

Jhammat

31

366

1,074

1,471

Jatal

433

254

23

710

Kalyal

574

7

2,458

3,039

Kanyal

145

2

2,456

2,603

Khanda

24

363

347

734

Khinger

902

3

241

1,146

Khatarmal

12

1

1,171

1,184

Khoti

68

12

566

646

Minhas

64

393

457

Matyal

1,147

1,147

Mekan

741

311

177

1,229

Nagyal

43

5

1,782

1,830

Phaphra

81

275

466

802

Serwal

572

572

Sial

441

252

432

1,230

Tama

155

462

617

Tarar

197

79

469

745

Thathaal

24

1,729

1,206

1,230

Raya

602

766

422

1,790

Readers can make reference to my posts on the individual tribes, such as the Bangial, Bhutta, Dhamial, Kalyal, Kanyal, Gungal, Jhammat, Mekan, Khinger, Khoti, Matyal, Jatal, and Thathaal. Other then the tribes in the list, the Customary Law of Jhelum District included Athal, Bhin, Dhaipai, Ghugh, Hargan (also spelt Hurgan), Jethal, Kurar, Iswal, Lilla and Nathial. In all fairness, the Jat clans of the region are numerous, and their can never be definite list. I already have articles on the Lilla and Jethal, and hope to write on the Ghugh.

Rawalpindi District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 15,722 (96%) out of a total population of 16,373. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe

Rawalpindi

Tehsil

Gujar Khan Tehsil

Murree Tehsil

Kahuta Tehsil

Total

Aura

380

230

610

Baghial

72

3

21

96

Bangial

727

445

32

1,204

Boria

30

16

46

Chhina

9

4

13

Dhamial

513

635

286

68

1,502

Dhamtal

520

520

Gondal

424

303

89

816

Hindan

262

279

541

Kalyal

9

120

129

Kanyal

149

149

Khatril

49

1,729

219

2,004

Magial

66

3

69

Mial

25

25

Sial

420

420

Sudhan

104

71

175

Thathaal

53

53

Shahpur (Sargodha) District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 174,184 (95%) out of a total population of 182,494. The district now comprises the bulk of Sargodha, all of Khushab with Malakwal now in Mandi Bahauddin District. According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe

Shahpur Tehsil

Bhera Tehsil

Khushab Tehsil

Sargodha Tehsil

Total

Baghoor

4

801

2

807

Bains

10

175

482

45

712

Bajwa

1,591

4

4

80

1,685

Bhatti

1,471

735

264

1,741

4,211

Bhutta

147

338

101

167

753

Burana

32

756

147

Chadhar

893

2,194

211

703

4,001

Cheema

2,070

64

1

573

2,708

Chhina

274

474

245

306

1,299

Dhako

55

406

118

220

799

Dhal

225

258

188

20

691

Dhudhi

181

392

774

58

1,405

Ghumman

776

289

1,065

Gondal

1,459

12,962

5,224

8,978

28,623

Goraya

640

9

652

Hanjra

356

169

1

264

790

Harral

404

1,047

16

643

2,110

Hatiar

6

449

92

192

739

Heer

372

181

553

Jarola

516

33

1

550

Jhawari

1,092

1,092

Johiya

271

562

1,960

51

2,844

Jora

718

718

Kalera

41

228

29

557

855

Kalyar

356

198

133

23

715

Kharal

471

21

141

633

Khat

58

514

10

475

1,055

Khichi

1,219

2,132

609

1,328

5,288

Lak

1,419

746

71

920

3,156

Lali

587

61

11

25

684

Langah

28

162

440

6

638

Marath

548

548

Mekan

1,407

2,751

822

455

5,435

Nissowana

60

445

505

Noon

15

615

61

17

708

Panjootha

107

5

484

596

Parhar

142

389

13

220

807

Ranjha

314

6,008

209

5

7,536

Rehan

142

1,305

13

420

1,880

Sagoo

3

709

3

715

Sandrana

55

255

71

198

577

Sandhu

504

504

Sohal

67

740

3

810

Sujal

615

995

445

539

2,954

Tarar

233

919

1

563

1,716

Tatri

54

396

2

670

1,122

Thaheem

500

56

650

50

1,256

Tulla

213

787

311

1,311

Ves

447

246

1

274

Virk

161

245

100

120

626

Waraich

699

192

119

1,473

3,483

 Mianwali District

According to the 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Tribe

Mianwali Tehsil

Bhakkar Tehsil

Isakhel Tehsil

Total

Aheer

260

124

137

521

Arar

411

267

678

Asar

1,591

640

38

662

Asran

78

584

662

Auler Khel

415

492

1,337

2,244

Aulakh

386

1

387

Aulara

734

526

1,915

Alakh

18

819

837

Bhachar

96

107

203

Bhatti

489

1,517

223

2,229

Bhander

1

588

589

Bhamb

1,020

101

431

1,552

Bhawan

128

375

503

Bhutta

157

75

313

545

Bhichar

1,437

79

1,516

Bhidwal

59

1,236

1,295

Brakha

8

456

115

579

Chadhar

242

1,048

12

1,300

Chahura

566

21

587

Chhajra

19

575

594

Chhina

180

2,716

180

3,076

Dahral

523

163

52

738

Dhal

217

1,250

1,471

Dhudhi

86

1,019

9

1,114

Ghallu

20

1,458

1,478

Ghorhawal

587

4

591

Gorchhi

1,054

1,054

Hansi

4

661

26

691

Heer

519

515

1,034

Jakhar

9

1,415

1,424

Janjua

786

130

70

986

Jhammat

225

237

462

Johiya

72

594

666

Joia

609

1,018

23

1,650

Jora

622

104

13

739

Kalhar

414

120

66

600

Kallu

528

281

773

1,582

Kanera

262

526

75

863

Kanjar

168

1,387

1,555

Kanyal

327

458

785

Khar

163

1,018

1,013

Kharal

237

378

31

646

Kohawer

318

173

5

496

Kundi

1,111

149

78

1,338

Langah

327

458

626

Makkal

517

86

23

662

Mallana

122

494

616

Unu

110

667

777

Pumma

253

570

70

893

Sahi

16

499

515

Samtia

447

77

524

Sangra

85

568

653

Saand

477

24

53

544

Sandi

89

892

981

Sandhila

41

41

Sial

257

1,905

25

2,187

Soomra

36

575

611

Talokar

1,267

7

1,274

Targar

199

129

2,683

3,011

Turk

1

1

Turkhel

236

19

255

Waince or Bains

594

133

727

Gujrat District

The total Muslim Jat population of the district, according to the 1931 Census of India, was 240,800 (98%) out of a total population of 245,997. Below is a list of clans that tabulated by the 1911 census as Jat clans. In addition to these, the Gujrat District Gazetteer gave a list that included the Bajwa, Baluta, Baryar, Chach, Chadhar Chatha, Dhillon, , Dudhra, Ganjial, Gher, Goraya, , Harcchal, Jag, Jhammat, Jhihal, Jindar, Kahlon, Kallar, Katial, Koratana, Lak, Langre, Lang, Langrial, Lidhar, Lilla, Mallana, Phaphra, Ranjha, Sahi, Sahotra, Sidhu and Tihal. The biggest omission from the list below are the Ranjhas, who are one the largest Jat clan in Phalia, which is now part of Mandi Bahauddin District. As the Ranjha area was transferred from the then Shahpur District, they were missed out by the Census enumerators.

 

Tribe

Gujrat Tehsil

Kharian Tehsil

Phalia Tehsil

Total

Bagril

586

586

Bangial

1,677

2

1,679

Chadhar

167

197

612

976

Chauhan

82

592

52

726

Cheema

1,711

3

688

2,572

Dhillon

617

45

30

692

Dhotar

53

7

1,295

1,355

Ghuman

663

113

70

846

Gondal

3,190

994

19,171

23,355

Hanjra

1,874

613

264

2,751

Heer

295

977

179

1,451

Kang

1,002

10

1,032

Langrial

12

3,724

3,736

Mangat

85

46

944

1,075

Sahi

892

1,581

1,501

3,736

Sandhu

2,844

476

122

3,442

Sarai

145

433

53

631

Sial

382

882

247

1,511

Sipra

308

181

595

1,084

Tarar

910

160

13,295

14,365

Totlle

12

4,180

4,192

Thathal/ Thothal

64

1,922

8

1,930

Virk

540

32

458

1,030

Wadhan / Badhan

32

630

662

Waince / Bains

353

103

140

596

Waraich

32,899

1,184

7,474

41,557

Tribes of the Thal Desert: Bandial, Bhachar, and Ghanjera

I am interested in the history of Pakistan, and in particular its people. Trawling through the net, I find that there is little or no information on the history of this great nation. By history, I don’t mean descriptions of major events or incidents, but rather the history of its local traditions and customs. This is my first attempt at blog writing, so please bear that in mind when reading the rest of this article.

I thought that I should start off by looking at a region in western Punjab, known as the Thal, and in particular some of the tribes that inhabit it. The Thal is a large desert situated between the Jhelum and Sindh rivers just south of the Pothohar Plateau. Its total length from north to south is a 190 miles, and its widest is 70 miles (110 km) and narrowest is 20 miles. The Thal is all that remains of the semi-arid uplands that existed between rivers of western Punjab prior to the 19th Century constructions of canals by the British colonial authorities that led to the creation of what is now a largely irrigated region. This process also involved settlement of peasant colonists from what is now Indian Punjab.

This region is home to a number of tribes that can be loosely grouped under the name Jat. In the Thal, the term refers to any tribal grouping that practiced pastoral nomadism. Each tribe historically occupied distinct areas where they enjoyed prerogatives to grazing, and often claimed descent from a common ancestor. Among the larger tribes of the region that come under the rubric Jat include the Aheer, Aulakh, Baghoor, Bhachar, Chhina, Gahi, Ghallu, Jhammat, Johiya, Kanyal, Khokhar, Majoka, Mammak, Naich, Parhar, Panwar, Rahdari, Saigra, Sandhila, Sial, Talokar, Tiwana, Uttra and Wahla. In addition, this desert region is also home to some Baloch tribes such as the Kulachi, Lashari, and Waghra Magsi. I shall in this blog look at four such tribes, the Bandial, Bhachar, and Ghanjera individually. I would also ask the reader to look at my article on the Tiwana, which gives some further background on the history of the Thal.

Hopefully, time permitting; I shall expand this by looking at some of the others mentioned in the list. Below is a list of tribes that were categorised as Jat by 1911 Census of India for what was then the Khushab Tehsil, which occupied a significant area of the Thal desert.

Tribe Population
Aheer 656
Bhatti 264
Bhutta 101
Burana 147
Bains 482
Chadhar 211
Chhina 245
Dhako 118
Dhudhi 774
Dhal 188
Gondal 5,224
Haral 16
Hatiar 92
Jarola 33
Johiya 1,960
Jora 718
Kalera 29
Kalyar 133
Kharal 141
Khichi 609
Lak 71
Lali 11
Langah 440
Mekan 822
Noon 61
Parhar 13
Rehan 13
Ranjha 209
Sandrana 71
Sipra 72
Sujal 445
Talokar 5
Thaheem 650
Virk 100
Waraich 119

While in Bhakkar Tehsil of the then Mianwali District, the following were labelled as Jats by 1911 Census of India:

Tribe Population
Aheer 124
Assar 640
Asran 584
Aulakh 819
Auler Khel 492
Aulara 526
Bhander 588
Bhatti 1,517
Bhawan 375
Bhamb 101
Bhidwal 1,236
Bhutta 75
Brakha 456
Chadhar 1,048
Chahura 21
Chhajra 575
Chhina 2,716
Dahral 163
Dhal 1,250
Dhudhi 1,019
Ghallu 1,458
Ghorhawal 587
Hansi 661
Jakhar 1,415
Janjua 130
Jhammat 237
Johiya 1,612
Jora 104
Kallu 281
Kanera 526
Kalhar 120
Kharal 378
Kanyal 458
Khar 850
Khohawer 173
Kundi 149
Makkal 86
Mallana
Unu 667
Pumma 570
Sahi 499
Samtia 77
Saand 24
Sandi 892
Sangra 568
Sial 1,905
Soomra 575
Targar 129
Turkhel 19
Waince 133

Most of these tribes are no longer pastoral, having all settled down to a sedentary agricultural based lifestyle. Furthermore, as the Thal was the site of large scale settlement of refugees from eastern Punjab by the Pakistan government, cases of compact territory are rare, and restricted to those areas of the Thal which have not seen canal colonisation, for example Rahdari still occupy a compact territory near the village of the same name. Despite differences, the tribes share a common language, Thalochi, and other customs and traditions. They also all share a common traditions of migration, with an ancestor leaving territory in India and migrating to the Thal, and converting to Islam at the hands of the Sufi saint during the course of this migration. In addition, almost all the tribes claim to belonging to larger tribal grouping, such as the Panwar of central India, or claims to be sub-groups of larger categories such as Khokhar or Bhatti. For exambly, the Baghoor and Bhachar both are clans of the Khokhar tribe, while the Tiwana claim to Panwar ancestry.  Wilson, author of the Shahpur (present day Sargodha and Khushab districts) Gazetteer wrote the following:

Almost every tribe is again subdivided into clans called muhi or smaller groups of agnates, distinctly recognised as descended through males only from a somewhat remote common ancestor, and usually bearing a common name

 

The tribes that I am looking at this post all claim to be clans of the Khokhar tribe. Wilson writing about Khokhars observed the following:

On both side of the Jhelum from about Bhera down to the Jhang border and on into Jhang itself, there are many villages owned by clans calling themselves Khokhar, or as a secondary tribal name in addition to their local clan name.

 

The Khokhars tribes looked at in this post occupy the norther portions of the Thal and the river valleys of Jhelum. They are fairly compact, the Bandial founder further east around the village of Bandial in Khushab, the Ghanjera further to the west, between the Bandial and Bhachar, and the Bhachar based in Mianwali.

Bandial

The Bandial are Khokhars, and their name ending with the suffix ial suggest a possible origin in the Pothohar region. So who exactly are the Bandial. According to their traditions, their ancestor was a Allah Banda Khan, who arrived from Jaura (near the banks of the Jhelum), about four centuries ago, expelled the Awans, and established his rule over the region where the Salt Range meets the Thal desert. His descendants are the Bandial, literally the sons of Banda, and established the town of Bandial. Like most minor chieftanship, their independence was ended by the Ranjeet Singh, the Sikh ruler in the early 19th Century.

 

Bhachar

Leaving the Aheer, another interesting tribe found mainly in the periphery of the Thal are the Bhachars, who are found mainly in the town of Wan Bhachran, and villages nearby such as Dera Atta Mohammadwala at the northern edge of the Thal desert. The Bhachars are a clan of the historic and large Khokhar tribe. They state that their original home was in the Gujrat District, from where they migrated, first to Buggi Bhooki near Girot in Khushab District, and later to their present site, which was chosen on account of the “wan” or large well said to be built by the Emperor Sher Shah Suri. These wells were placed at intervals of about a day’s march apart on the road from Gujrat to Bannu in what is now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The name “Bhachar” seems to have been a form of endearment applied to them by some forgotten Pir, from the word bhachra meaning a calf.  According to the 19th Century gazetteer of Bannu District, the Bhachars are really a branch of the Bandial tribe, also Khokhars.  The lands surrounding Wan Bhachran were acquired by a Bandial chief named Malik Surkhru Khan, who established a fort from where he ruled the adjoining region till the rise of the Sikhs in the 19th Century. The Maliks of Wan Bachran are descended from him. Whether they are branch of the Bandial are not, what is clear that they are closely connected with the Khokhar clans of the Sindh Sagar Doab, such as the Bandial, Ghanjera and Ganjial

 

Like the neighbouring Pathan tribes such as the Niazis, the Bhachars are subdivided into clans that go by the name khels. Among larger Bhachar clans are the Dadukhel, Mohammad khel, Arori khel, Wadoo khel, Tahir khel, Pehlwan khel, Bego khel, Basharat khel, Jany khel, Kory khel, Mamo khel, Ali khel, Mian Ahmad khel, Mian sher khel, Shaho khel, Sui and Dharoi.

 

Interestingly, there is still village called Bhachar near the town of Mandi Bahauddin, although the population of the village is largely Gondal, with no Bhachar families. However, the Wara Chamian near Malakwal in Mandi Bahauddin districts is still home some Bhachar families. In neighbouring Khushab District, there are several Bhachar families in the village of Mohibpur along the banks of the Jhelum. The presence of these Bhachar settlement does suggest that there was some sort of migration from the east, and valley of Jhelum where the districts of Jhelum and Khushab meet is also home to several other Khokhar clans such as the Bandial, Gunjial and Jalap. Other then Mohibpur, Bhachar are also found in the villages of Dera Atta Muhammadwala, Jhajha, Mehro and Shahwala Shumali near the Khushab Mianwali border, not far from Wan Bhachran. Outside this core area, Bhachar are also found in Talokar village. From what I know, there is no link left between the Mandi Bahauddin Bhachars and those of Wan Bachran.

 

Ghanjera

Moving on to the Ghanjera, who are said to be the earliest settlers in the region located between Wan Bachran and Bandial. Like the Bhachars and Bandial, the Ghanjera are Khokhars. Also like the Bhachar and Bandial, they are said to have arrived from the Chaj (Chenab Jhelum) Doab, in their case from the town of Shahpur in Sargodha District. Incidently, there is a large Ghanjera village near Shahpur called Tankiwala. They originally settled in Wan Bhachran, but when the town was occupied by the Bhachars, and the Ghanjera re-located to the village of Pakka Ghanjera. They are now found in nine villages, such Shikhali, Muzzafarpur, Pakka Ghanjera and Watto, which surround the town of Wan Bhachran. In neighbouring Khushab District, there most important village is Thathi Ghanjera.  The tribe has also produced the famous Sufi saint Khawaj Noor Muhammad Ghanjera.

 

Perhaps Ghanjera are really known for the legend of Aali Ghanjera, which is perhaps to the Thal what the legend of Heer Ranjha is to Bar. Aali was a cowherd from the village of Vijhara, along the banks of the Jhelum. Salman Rashid’s blog  gives a really good account of the legend. It also harks back to the time when the population was entirely pastoral in Thal Desert.