Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this post, I make reference to the 1901 Census of India, which gave a breakdown of the larger Muslim Rajput clans of British Punjab. The whole Province of Punjab had a 24.4 million population in 1901, of which the Muslim Rajputs numbered 1,505,586. In 1901, the Punjab comprised five administrative divisions — Delhi, Jullunder, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi — and a number of princely states. During the course of the Census, those districts that lay across the Indus which formed the Peshawar Division were formed into a new province named the North West Frontier Province. Geographically, the province was a triangular tract of country of which the Indus River and its tributary the Sutlej formed the two sides up to their confluence, the base of the triangle in the north being the Lower Himalayan Range between those two rivers. Moreover, the province as constituted under British rule also included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Kashmir and Tibet. On the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, which was divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna and Tons separated it from the United Provinces.

In present-day India, it included the regions of Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and Himachal Pradesh (but excluding the former princely states which were later combined into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union). While in present-day Pakistan, it included the regions of Punjab, Islamabad Capital Territory and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (until 1901).

My post on the Rajputs of Punjab gives more details as to the origin and distribution of the various Rajputs tribes.

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 249,302 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Chauhan 114,529 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe
Khokhar 108,239 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Sial 104,658 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Joiya 61,438 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Panwar 55,068 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe
Gondal 36,088 The Gondal Bar (Mandi Bahaudin, Gujrat and Sargodha), also in Rawalpindi
Naru 34,152 mainly in what is now India Punjab – Jallandhar and Ludhiana
Ghorewaha 33,295 mainly in what is now India Punjab – Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Ludhiana
Sulehria / Sulehri 28,577 Sialkot and Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Wattu 25,544 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Janjua 23,619 A western group found in Rawalpindi and Jhelum, and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Baria, also pronounced Varya 21,991 Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Patiala State
Mandahar 21,764 Mainly Karnal and Panipat – a Ranghar group
Manj 20,736 Amritsar, Firuzpur and Jalandhar
Jatu 18,861 Hissar, Sirsa and Rohtak – a Ranghar
Taoni 18,384 Ambala and Patiala State – a Ranghar tribe
Tomar/ Tonwar 18,365 Hissar, Karnal and Rohtak – a Ranghar tribe
Mair-Minhas 15,697 Chakwal
Minhas/Manhas 13,471 from Rawalpindi in the west to Hoshiarpur in the east – a Muslim Dogra group
Dhudhi 11,764 In Sahiwal, mainly in the new districts of Vehari and Okara
Ranjha 11,764 Gujrat, Jhelum and Mandi Bahaudin
Bhakral 11,577 Rawalpindi and Jhelum/Chakwal
Chib 10.697 Jhelum and Gujrat – Muslim Dogra sub-group
Khichi 9,769 Between Ravi and Sutlej – now Vehari, Pakpattan and Sahiwal
Alpial 9,395 Attock and Rawalpindi
Mekan 8,915 Sargodha and Jhelum
Tiwana 6,326 A western group in Khushab and eastern group in Patiala
Khoja 6,326 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Baghial 5,769 Rawalpindi
Noon 4,866 Sargodha, Multan and southern Punjab
Thathaal 4,134 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Gujrat
Dhanial 4,037 Murree Tehsil of Rawalpindi
Raghubansi 4,032 Hissar and Sirsa – a Ranghar group
Dahya 3,637 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Kanyal 3,271 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Nagial 3,036 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Dhamial 2,967 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Jhammat 2,550 Sargodha, Multan and South Punjab
Gaurwa 2,521 Gurgaon, Delhi and Rohtak – a Ranghar tribe
Kethwal 2,355 Rawalpindi – Murre Tehsil (now Kotli Sattian)
Katil 2,170 Sialkot and Gurdaspur – A Muslim Dogra sub-group
Jodhra 1,802 Attock and Rawalpindi District
Bargujar 1,502 Gurgaon and Delhi – Ranghar tribe
Hon 1,496 Rawalpindi
Lar 1,494 Multan and South Punjab
Jatal 1,451 Rawalpindi
Pundir 1,427 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Atiras 1,416 Patiala State
Ranial 1,345 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Sasral 1,292 Rawalpindi
Nissowana 996 Jhang and Sargodha
Jalap 949 Jhelum
Nagral 919 Rawalpindi
Adrah 909 Rawalpindi
Bhon 853 Sargodha
Kalial 773 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Chandel 752 Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana
Narma 748 Rawalpindi and Gujrat
Satti 744 Rawalpindi – Murree
Khatril 722 Rawalpindi
Mial 699 Rawalpindi
Gakhar 690 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Targar 653 Multan and South Punjab
Rathore 587 Firuzpur and Hissar
Nagralwal 580 Rawalpindi
Jamra 548 Dera Ghazi Khan
Satraola 546 Hissar – a Ranghar group
Chatha 500 Rawalpindi
Kowar 493 Rawalpindi
Luddu/td>

491 Hoshiarpur
Kanial Chauhan 470 Rawalpindi
Sainiwal 439 Rawalpindi
Rath 410 Sahiwal and Okara
Johar 407 Rawalpindi
Bakhial 404 Rawalpindi
Jodha 368 Rawalpindi
Joota 367 Jhang
Bosan 340 Multan
Chadhar 334 Jhang
Mangral 331 Rawalpindi
Fattiana 318 Sahiwal
Pathial 311 Hoshiarpur
Maral 307 Jhang
Tanwari 273 Multan
Badhan 272 Rawalpindi
Salhal 262 Rawalpindi
Khel 234 Rawalpindi
Sudhan 227 Rawalpindi
Kangra 222 Rawalpindi
Dharwal 202 Mianwali
Hafial 197 Rawalpindi
Gaharwal 194 Rawalpindi
Kahut 178 Jhelum / Chakwal
Gangal 178 Rawalpindi
Saswal 174 Rawalpindi
Marial 167 Rawalpindi
Kathia 166 Sahiwal
Taranda 162 Multan
Tonda 156 Rawalpindi
Bhao Ragial 153 Rawalpindi
Bains 152 Rawalpindi
Budhal 152 Rawalpindi
Dalal 133 Rawalpindi
Satral 146 Rawalpindi
Jasgam 129 Rawalpindi
Matra 121 Multan
Kassar 113 Jhelum / Chakwal
Katoch 112 Kangra
Khakha 106 Rawalpindi
Jaswal 89 Hoshiarpur
Bagri 82 Firuzpur
Pathania 69 Gurdaspur
Ladhar 47 Rawalpindi
Jaral 47 Kangra
Kilchi 46 Rawalpindi
Thakkar 36 Gurdaspur
Guleria 11 Gurdaspur

 

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Bhakar, Ghugh, Hal, Khamb, Khatarmal, and Khandoya tribes

In this post I will specifically be looking at tribes that are found in the neighbourhood of the Jhelum river, just south of the city of Jhelum, and north of Sargodha. I include tribes that have a presence in Chakwal District, as the district’s eastern portion is a continuation of the Bar. My earlier posts of the Chadhar and Langrial look into some detail on the identity of the Bar tribes. In this post I shall look at the Bhakar, Ghugh, Hal, Khamb, Khatarmal,  and Khandoya. All the tribes I am going to look at designate themselves as Jats, except the Khandoya.

Bhakar

I shall start of by looking at the Bhakar, sometimes also spelt Bhukar, who are a clan of Jats found mainly in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. However, in Indian Punjab and Rajasthan, there are several settlements of Bhakar Jats. The P.D. Khan Bhakar have traditions of migration from India, and are likely to be same clan. According to their traditions, their ancestor, Bhakar was a Nagvanshi Rajput, who left India, and migrated to the Pind Dadan Khan plains, where he converted Islam, and married into the local Jat community. They are now considered as Jats, and intermarry with tribes of Jat status such as Khothi and Gondal. There main settlements are Baghanwala, Dharyala Jalip and Khotian Jalap, where they are found intermixed with Gondal Jalap and Lilla Jats, and Sherpur. In neighbouring Sargodha District, the town of Bakhar Bar near Shahpur was an centre of an independent chieftainship, until it was conquered by the Sikhs. While neighbouring Khushab District, they are found in the villages of Thathi Ghanjera and Jalalpur Syedan.

 

Ghugh

The Ghugh are a small Jat clan, with a number of origin myths. According to one such tradition, ancestor Ghugh, belonged to the Gondal tribe, who left the Gondal Bar (now Bhalwal and Malakwal tehsils), crossed the Jhelum and settled in the Pind Dadan plains. There earliest settlement was Bagga, on the banks of the Jhelum River. However, among the Ghugh of Ghugh village in Chakwal, there are tradition that Ghugh was not a Gondal, but Bhatti. The question then is who are the Ghugh. The answer is never simple, but Pind Dadan Khan region which has a larger Ghugh population, and the Gondals also have traditions that the Ghugh are Gondal, it is likely that they are a Gondal clan. I must also add the Ghugh of Sahiwal claim to be of Chadhar descent.

They are now found in Jutana and Lilla as well as Bugga villages in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. In neighbouring Chakwal District, the Ghugh villages include Dhok Dabri and Ghugh. Other Ghugh villages are also found in Sargodha, Chariot, Khanewal, and Mandi Bahauddian districts.

Hal

The Hal, a small Jat clan confined to two separate villages, that of Lilla Bhera, in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil and Mohal in Dina Tehsil. According to the traditions of the Lilla Bhera Hals, the Hal were once the dominant Jat clan in Jhelum river valley, effectively ruling what is now Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. In the 16th Century, the Lilla, a clan of Qureshi Arabs, invaded their lands, and exterminated the tribe, save a single pregnant woman. She then gave birth to a son, from whom all the present tribe claims descent. However, there is a completely different origin myth held by the Hal of Mohal, these Hal claim that they are a clan of the Awan tribe, descended from Qutub Shah, the general that is said to have accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni. The Hal were thus Awans, initially settling in Fatehjang, a town in what is now Attock District, and about four hundreds years ago they left Fatehjang, and settled initially at Burla village near Pandori, and finally in Mohal, a village entirely inhabited by the tribe. Although both sets of Hal acknowledge each other’s existence, the exact connection between the two remains unclear, with no cases of intermarriage. Interesting

Khandoya

The Khandoya, sometimes spelt Khandoa and occasionally pronounced Khandowa, are extremely localized tribe, their name comes from the Punjabi word khand, meaning something sweet. According to their traditions, they are a clan of Chauhan Rajputs, who after wondering in from what is now Haryana settled in area near Chakwal in an area that had sweet water, which they called Khandoya or sweet water place. Other then Khandoya village, Khandoya are also found in the villages of Bhalla, Dhok Virk, Mari, and Trimni. From Khandoya, the Khandoya spread to the Pind Dadan Khan plains, where the majority are still found. In Pind Dadan Khan tehsil of Jhelum, their villages include Addowal, Dharyala Jalap, Jhuggian Syedan, Karyala Jalap, Kot Umar, Nawanloke and Pinnanwal. Further south in Khushab District, there are several Khandoya families in Katimar village. The Khandoya perceive  themselves to be Rajputs, and do not intermarry with neighbouring Jat tribes such as the Gondal, Jethal and Lilla.

Khamb

The Khamb are extremely interesting tribe, having said to have migrated from from Kathiawar, in what is now the modern state of Gujerat in India. According to their traditions, the Khamb are a tribe of mixed Turkish and Mongol extraction, who were settled in their present abode, by a Hashmat Khan, a chief of the Thathal tribe, who are also natives of the Pothohar region. This Hashmat Khan was appointed as a garrison commander of Khambhat in Kathiawar, by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. When Hashmat returned to the Pothohar region, he was accompanied by members of the garrison at Khambat which included members of the Kamboh tribe, troopers of Mongol origin of the Barlas tribe and Afghans from Badakshan. He ordered that a village be built and named it Khanpur, and the Khamb tribe was granted lands in and around the new town. Therefore, the Khamb, are at least partly Turkic extraction and are now considered a clan of the Barlas Mughals. According to other traditions, the Khamb are a clan of the Ranjha tribe who are a sub-caste of the great Bhatti tribe and as such are Jats.

 

The Khamb are now found mainly in compact territory covering Sargodha, Jhelum and Gujrat districts, roughly following the course of the Jhelum River from Bhalwal to Jhelum city. There are also a few isolated villages in Khushab, Rawalpindi, Chakwal districts and near the town of Shahpur in Sargodha district. In Jhelum District, Khamb villages include Khambi and Chak Jalilpur, Khamb in Rawalpindi District, Khamb Kalan in the Phalia Tehsil of Mandi Bahauddin District. Khamb Nau and Khamb Kohna in the Bhalwal Tehsil of Sargodha District. Interestingly, the town of Khanpur Khamb, their original settlement in northern Punjab no longer has any Khambs as they were later evicted by Marrian Jats migrating from Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District.

Khatarmal

The Khatarmal, or sometimes spelt Khotarmal, are tribe of Jat status, found almost entirely in Chakwal District, although there are scattered settlements in Pind Dadan Khan. According to their tribal traditions, there ancestor Khatarmal was a Gakhar nobleman, who after arriving in Chakwal, contracted marriage with a Jat, and his descendants became Jats. Interestingly, unlike the Sakhial mentioned in my earlier posts , the Khatarmal do not find a place in any of the Gakhar genealogies. This does not mean that they are not Gakhars, it is simply shows that they now have no connection with Gakhar tribe.