List and Population of Muslim Rajput clans of the Rawalpindi Division According to 1901 Census of India

Below is a list of Muslim Rajput clans and their population in the Rawalpindi Division of Punjab, drawn up for 1901 Census of India. Please also read my introduction for the 1911 Census to give you some background. Almost all the population that professed to be Rajput were Muslim, with exception of Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, which was home several Bhao and Chib Rajput villages, who had remained Hindu. In 1901 Rawalpindi Division comprised the following districts; Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Gujrat, Shahpur, and Mianwali.. In 1902, Attock was seperated from Rawalpindi and seperate figures were produced. However, the 1901 data on Rawalpindi includes the Attock figures/

In terms of choice of calling oneself Rajput or Jat, this as much depended on the status of a tribe within the village they inhabitted. For example, the Kanial in Jhelum District declared themselves to be Jat, while in Rawalpindi as Rajput. However, in Gujrat the boundary between Rajput and Jat was somewhat more rigid, with those calling themselves Rajput were Dogra clans that had accepted Islam such as the Bhao, Chib, Minhas and Narma.

Rawalpindi District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 122,317, of which 121,420 (99%) were Muslims.

Tribe Total
Adrah 909
Alpial 9,395
Badhan 272
Baghial 5,769
Bains 152
Baria 106
Bhakial 404
Bhakral 10.819
Bhao Ragial 153
Bhatti 36,268
Budhal 152
Chatha 500
Chauhan 3,029
Chib 309
Dalal 133
Dhamial 2.967
Dhanial 3,935
Dhudhi 196
Gakhar 690
Gaharwal 194
Gangal 178
Gondal 168
Hafial 197
Hon 1,496
Janjua 3,815
Jasgam 129
Jatal 1,451
Jodha 368
Jodhra 1,802
Johar 407
Kahut 178
Kalial 773
Kangra 222
Kanial 2,435
Kanial Chauhan 470
Kassar 122
Kawar 487
Ketwal 2,251
Khakha 106
Khatril 722
Khel 234
Mair 235
Mangral 331
Marrial 167
Minhas 3,974
Mial 699
Nagial 3,036
Nagral 918
Nagrawal 580
Narma 158
Naru 241
Panwar 125
Ranial 1,345
Sainiwal 408
Salhal 271
Saswal 174
Sasral 1,292
Satral 146
Satti 326
Sial 388
Sudhan 227
Thathaal 4,134
Taranda 162
Tonda 162

Please note most Gakhars declared themselves to be Gakhar and in 1901 numbered 13,665. Similarly most Janjua, Satti and Sudhan declared themselves as such and numbered 8,361,17,094 and 2,291.

Jhelum District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 57,567, of which 57,316 (99%) were Muslims.

Tribe Total
Bhakral 702
Bhatti 10,664
Chauhan 5,140
Chib 254
Gakhar 475
Gondal 2,592
Jalap 949
Janjua 8,881
Kanial 107
Mair-Minhas 15,692
Mandahar 210
Minhas 723
Mekan 729
Panwar 649
Ranjha 869
Sial 477

Please note that some Gondal and Ranjha declared themselves to be Jat, and interestingly in the 1911 Census all the Gondal declared themselves as Jat. While the Mekan tribe declared themselves to be Rajput in 1901 Census and Jat in 1911. What is surprising is the omission of the Sohlan, who are an important tribe found along the Jhelum and Mirpur borders. The Gakhar population in 1901 was 10,572, almost all whom barring the 475 declared themselves simply as Gakhar, and not Rajput.

Attock District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 25,611, of which 25,590 (99%) were Muslims.Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Alpial 9,180
Bhatti 3,553
Chatha 5,395
Chauhan 502
Janjua 1,153
Jodhra 1,700

Gujrat District

The total Rajput population in the District was 23,711, of which those who were Muslim were 22,328 (94%). Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Bhatti 1,784
Chauhan 79
Chib 9,349
Janjua 1,063
Minhas 723
Narma 748
Panwar 111

The omission of the Bhao, who an important Kharian tribe is a mystery.

Shahpur District (Sargodha District)

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 73,177, of which72,096 (99%) were Muslims.Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Bargujar 176
Bhatti 7,205
Chauhan 1,463
Chib 311
Dhudhi 1,506
Gondal 25,535
Janjua 4,293
Jhammat 2,266
Joiya 3,004
Khichi 833
Mekan 6,577
Minhas 406
Noon 1,213
Panwar 48
Ranjha 8,907
Sial 2,679
Tiwana 2,971
Wattu 266

Mianwali District

The total Rajput population in 1901 was 6,136, of which 6,003 (98%) were Muslims.Below is a list of the larger clans recordeed for the 1901 Census.

Tribe Total
Bhatti 590
Chauhan 197
Chib 204
Dharwal 175
Gaurwa 384
Gondal 173
Janjua 598
Joiya 1,174
Kanial 327
Khichi 514
Mekan 134
Naru 407
Panwar 426
Sial 193
Wattu 215

Tribes of the Thal: Kalyar, Noon, Traggar and Uttra tribes

 

The valley of Jhelum River, which is divided between Sargodha and Khushab districts, is home to a number of comparatively small clans, some of which classify themselves as Bhatti. In this post I shall look at four such clans, namely the Kalyar, Noon, Traggar and Uttra. The three Bhatti clans are found deeper in the Thal desert, with Traggar round the village of Khatwan, and the Uttra in Uttra near Noorpur Thal, while the Noon are found mainly in Sargodha. Kalyar country is mainly in the Neeli Bar, but like the Noon are found as far south as Multan. While the Traggar and Noon, they have much larger distribution, with large numbers found in Multan District. The tribes all speak the Thalochi dialect of Punjabi, which reflecting a pastoral past, has a rich vocabulary associated with animal husbandery. The Noon and Traggar of the Multan region generally speak Seraiki.

Kalyar

We now come to the Kalyar, a tribe generally seen as of Jat status. Just as a point of clarification, my understanding is that Kalyar have no connection whatsoever with the Kalyals, who have been referred in my earlier post. According to their traditions, the tribe claims descent from a Bhatti Rajput nobleman, a Rana Rajwadhan. The Rana lived in Ghazni, and then moved to Delhi in India. After sometime, he moved to Bhatner. In the 13th Century, the Rana moved to Chanb Kalyar, in what is now the Lodhran District, in Sindh, Pakistan. The ruler of the area was a Raja Bhutta. The Raja wanted to marry the daughter of Rajwadhan, who refused. As a result a battle took place, and the Raja was slain. The tract was then divided by Rajwadhan, and his five sons, Kalyar, Uttera, Kanju, Noon and Hattar.

Kalyar initially settled in Chamb Kalyar in Lodhran District. His descendants then migrated to the Kirana Bar, and became graziers. The Bar was opened up for settlement in the 19th Century, and many Kalyar now reside in colony Chaks (villages built by the British Imperial authorities) in what is now Sargodha District. For example the villages of Chak 104 A, 123 , 128, 147/148 (Lakhoana)151 , 174 NB all in Sillanwali Tehsil of Sargodha District are examples of such settlements.

As mentioned, the Kalyar are still found mainly in the Kirana Bar region of Sargodha District. Important villages in the Kirana Bar include Chokera (also known as Chak 79), Tangowali, Saidooaana, Samooranwali (in Tehsil Sargodha) and Mouza Kalyar. In Shahpur Tehsil, their villages include Feroze Makki, Salehabad, Kot Gul, and Mir Ahmed Sher Garh. Other important Kalyar settlements include Kalyar, Chak 205, Chak. 206, Chak 207 in Jhang District, Mouzza Dera near the town of Rodu Sultan, Jhok Kalyar in Faisalabad District and Bhatikay near the town of Wazirabad. The town Chamb Kalyar remains the centre of the tribe. Almost Kalyar migrated northwards towards the Kirana Bar, there also a few villages in Bahawalpur District such as Channi Got.

 

 

Noon

The Noon are a tribe of Jat and Rajput status, found in mainly in Shujabad Tehsil of Multan District. According to their traditions, they are descended Noon, a Bhatti Rajput, who said to have left Delhi. According to other traditions, Kalyar was a son of Rana Raj Wadhan, who had four other sons, (1) Utterā, (2) Nun, (3) Kanjun, (4) Hatar. The tradition is that the ancestors of Raj Wadhan lived in ancient times near Ghajni (which is said to have existed near Rawalpindi), from where they migrated to Delhi, which after a time they left for Bhatner (now known as Hanumangarh). In the 7th century of the Hijra Raj Wadhan together with his tribe left Bhatner and settled near Chhanb Kulyar (now in the Lodhran District), which in those days lay on the southern bank of the Sutlej and formed part of the dominions of Rai Bhutta, the ruler of a city, the greater part of which was destroyed by the Sutlej flowing over it; but parts of its ruins are still to be seen on the right bank of the Ghāra (in Lodhran District). Rana, Raj Wadhan had a beautiful daughter whom Rai Bhutta, desired to marry. The request was refused by Kalyar, the eldest son of Raj Wadhan ; and the result was that a sanguinary battle took place in which Rai Bhutta, was slain. The tract of the country thus conquered by the Kalyars became known as Chhanb Kalyar, which name it still retains. At this time Sher Shah Sayyid Jalal was living in Uch, where Rana Raj Wadhan and his sons went to see him and embraced Islam. Raj Wadhan remained at Uch, Uttera, occupied the ‘ Viah ‘ (Bias), Nun began to live on the Ravi, (and that tribe is now dominant in Shujabad tahsil), Kanjun at the Donari Mari (?), and Kalyar made Chhanb Kulyar his residence. Hatar was deprived of his share of the inheritance. Although, as my post on the Hattars show, they are now a substantial tribe in Sargodha District.

However, the Noon of Sargodha District generally connect themselves with Tiwana tribe of Khushab, and claims Panwar ancestry.

 

Traggar

The Traggar, sometimes spelt Targar are a tribe of Jat status, found mainly in South Punjab, with a sizeable presence in the Thal. According to their tribal traditions, the Traggar are by origin Bhatti Rajputs, who get their name from the town of Traggar in Bikaner District of Rajasthan. They left Bikaner some five centuries ago, and settled in Jhang. On their settlement in Punjab, the tribe converted to Islam. The Traggars were forced to leave Jhang when the fell out with the Sial, who were the local rulers. A branch moved west and settled in Bhakkar District. Another group moved south, and settled along the banks of the Chenab River, in what is now Muzaffargarh and Multan districts. A further migration took place in the 18th Century, when some members of the tribe moved into Sindh, where quite a few are found. The Traggars speak Seraiki, in both Sindh and Punjab. There customs are similar to neighbouring tribes such as the Bosan and Thaheem, and they are mainly landowners and cultivators.

In terms of villages, a large number are found in Dera Atta Muhamadwala in Mianwali District and Khatwan in Bhakkar District.

Uttra

Uttra, sometimes spelt Utra, are a Jat clan, found mainly in villages near the towns of Quidabad and Noorpur Thal. They are sometimes confused with the Uttera, but the two tribes are distinct. Little is known about the origin of the tribe, other then the fact they are said to be the earliest inhabitants of the portion of the Thal near the town of Kallur Kot, and the word uttra means a northerner. However, some traditions do make them out to be a clan of the Bhatti tribe. There are also few Uttra villages in Bhakkar, Khushab and Mianwali districts. Important Uttra villages in Mianwali include Rustamwala, Uttra kalan and Uttra khurd. While in Bhakkar, Basti Dhudianwala and Chak 43/ML (near Kallurkot) are important villages. In Dera Ghazi Khan District they are found in the villages of Haji Kamand and Jhok Uttra. And finally in Khushab District, they are found in Utra and Mitha Kooh. Like other Thal tribes, they were formerly pastoral, but are now entirely settled

Bhakar, Ghugh, Hal, Khamb, Khatarmal, and Khandoya tribes

In this post I will specifically be looking at tribes that are found in the neighbourhood of the Jhelum river, just south of the city of Jhelum, and north of Sargodha. I include tribes that have a presence in Chakwal District, as the district’s eastern portion is a continuation of the Bar. My earlier posts of the Chadhar and Langrial look into some detail on the identity of the Bar tribes. In this post I shall look at the Bhakar, Ghugh, Hal, Khamb, Khatarmal,  and Khandoya. All the tribes I am going to look at designate themselves as Jats, except the Khandoya.

Bhakar

I shall start of by looking at the Bhakar, sometimes also spelt Bhukar, who are a clan of Jats found mainly in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. However, in Indian Punjab and Rajasthan, there are several settlements of Bhakar Jats. The P.D. Khan Bhakar have traditions of migration from India, and are likely to be same clan. According to their traditions, their ancestor, Bhakar was a Nagvanshi Rajput, who left India, and migrated to the Pind Dadan Khan plains, where he converted Islam, and married into the local Jat community. They are now considered as Jats, and intermarry with tribes of Jat status such as Khothi and Gondal. There main settlements are Baghanwala, Dharyala Jalip and Khotian Jalap, where they are found intermixed with Gondal Jalap and Lilla Jats, and Sherpur. In neighbouring Sargodha District, the town of Bakhar Bar near Shahpur was an centre of an independent chieftainship, until it was conquered by the Sikhs. While neighbouring Khushab District, they are found in the villages of Thathi Ghanjera and Jalalpur Syedan.

 

Ghugh

The Ghugh are a small Jat clan, with a number of origin myths. According to one such tradition, ancestor Ghugh, belonged to the Gondal tribe, who left the Gondal Bar (now Bhalwal and Malakwal tehsils), crossed the Jhelum and settled in the Pind Dadan plains. There earliest settlement was Bagga, on the banks of the Jhelum River. However, among the Ghugh of Ghugh village in Chakwal, there are tradition that Ghugh was not a Gondal, but Bhatti. The question then is who are the Ghugh. The answer is never simple, but Pind Dadan Khan region which has a larger Ghugh population, and the Gondals also have traditions that the Ghugh are Gondal, it is likely that they are a Gondal clan. I must also add the Ghugh of Sahiwal claim to be of Chadhar descent.

They are now found in Jutana and Lilla as well as Bugga villages in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. In neighbouring Chakwal District, the Ghugh villages include Dhok Dabri and Ghugh. Other Ghugh villages are also found in Sargodha, Chariot, Khanewal, and Mandi Bahauddian districts.

Hal

The Hal, a small Jat clan confined to two separate villages, that of Lilla Bhera, in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil and Mohal in Dina Tehsil. According to the traditions of the Lilla Bhera Hals, the Hal were once the dominant Jat clan in Jhelum river valley, effectively ruling what is now Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. In the 16th Century, the Lilla, a clan of Qureshi Arabs, invaded their lands, and exterminated the tribe, save a single pregnant woman. She then gave birth to a son, from whom all the present tribe claims descent. However, there is a completely different origin myth held by the Hal of Mohal, these Hal claim that they are a clan of the Awan tribe, descended from Qutub Shah, the general that is said to have accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni. The Hal were thus Awans, initially settling in Fatehjang, a town in what is now Attock District, and about four hundreds years ago they left Fatehjang, and settled initially at Burla village near Pandori, and finally in Mohal, a village entirely inhabited by the tribe. Although both sets of Hal acknowledge each other’s existence, the exact connection between the two remains unclear, with no cases of intermarriage. Interesting

Khandoya

The Khandoya, sometimes spelt Khandoa and occasionally pronounced Khandowa, are extremely localized tribe, their name comes from the Punjabi word khand, meaning something sweet. According to their traditions, they are a clan of Chauhan Rajputs, who after wondering in from what is now Haryana settled in area near Chakwal in an area that had sweet water, which they called Khandoya or sweet water place. Other then Khandoya village, Khandoya are also found in the villages of Bhalla, Dhok Virk, Mari, and Trimni. From Khandoya, the Khandoya spread to the Pind Dadan Khan plains, where the majority are still found. In Pind Dadan Khan tehsil of Jhelum, their villages include Addowal, Dharyala Jalap, Jhuggian Syedan, Karyala Jalap, Kot Umar, Nawanloke and Pinnanwal. Further south in Khushab District, there are several Khandoya families in Katimar village. The Khandoya perceive  themselves to be Rajputs, and do not intermarry with neighbouring Jat tribes such as the Gondal, Jethal and Lilla.

Khamb

The Khamb are extremely interesting tribe, having said to have migrated from from Kathiawar, in what is now the modern state of Gujerat in India. According to their traditions, the Khamb are a tribe of mixed Turkish and Mongol extraction, who were settled in their present abode, by a Hashmat Khan, a chief of the Thathal tribe, who are also natives of the Pothohar region. This Hashmat Khan was appointed as a garrison commander of Khambhat in Kathiawar, by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. When Hashmat returned to the Pothohar region, he was accompanied by members of the garrison at Khambat which included members of the Kamboh tribe, troopers of Mongol origin of the Barlas tribe and Afghans from Badakshan. He ordered that a village be built and named it Khanpur, and the Khamb tribe was granted lands in and around the new town. Therefore, the Khamb, are at least partly Turkic extraction and are now considered a clan of the Barlas Mughals. According to other traditions, the Khamb are a clan of the Ranjha tribe who are a sub-caste of the great Bhatti tribe and as such are Jats.

 

The Khamb are now found mainly in compact territory covering Sargodha, Jhelum and Gujrat districts, roughly following the course of the Jhelum River from Bhalwal to Jhelum city. There are also a few isolated villages in Khushab, Rawalpindi, Chakwal districts and near the town of Shahpur in Sargodha district. In Jhelum District, Khamb villages include Khambi and Chak Jalilpur, Khamb in Rawalpindi District, Khamb Kalan in the Phalia Tehsil of Mandi Bahauddin District. Khamb Nau and Khamb Kohna in the Bhalwal Tehsil of Sargodha District. Interestingly, the town of Khanpur Khamb, their original settlement in northern Punjab no longer has any Khambs as they were later evicted by Marrian Jats migrating from Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District.

Khatarmal

The Khatarmal, or sometimes spelt Khotarmal, are tribe of Jat status, found almost entirely in Chakwal District, although there are scattered settlements in Pind Dadan Khan. According to their tribal traditions, there ancestor Khatarmal was a Gakhar nobleman, who after arriving in Chakwal, contracted marriage with a Jat, and his descendants became Jats. Interestingly, unlike the Sakhial mentioned in my earlier posts , the Khatarmal do not find a place in any of the Gakhar genealogies. This does not mean that they are not Gakhars, it is simply shows that they now have no connection with Gakhar tribe.