Population of Muslim Rajput Clans of British Punjab According to the 1901 Census of India

In this post, I make reference to the 1901 Census of India, which gave a breakdown of the larger Muslim Rajput clans of British Punjab. The whole Province of Punjab had a 24.4 million population in 1901, of which the Muslim Rajputs numbered 1,505,586. In 1901, the Punjab comprised five administrative divisions — Delhi, Jullunder, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi — and a number of princely states. During the course of the Census, those districts that lay across the Indus which formed the Peshawar Division were formed into a new province named the North West Frontier Province. Geographically, the province was a triangular tract of country of which the Indus River and its tributary the Sutlej formed the two sides up to their confluence, the base of the triangle in the north being the Lower Himalayan Range between those two rivers. Moreover, the province as constituted under British rule also included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Kashmir and Tibet. On the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, which was divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna and Tons separated it from the United Provinces.

In present-day India, it included the regions of Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and Himachal Pradesh (but excluding the former princely states which were later combined into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union). While in present-day Pakistan, it included the regions of Punjab, Islamabad Capital Territory and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (until 1901).

My post on the Rajputs of Punjab gives more details as to the origin and distribution of the various Rajputs tribes.

 

Tribe

Population Distribution
Bhatti 249,302 throughout Punjab, but special concentrations in Bhatiana (Firuzpur/Hissar/Sirsa), Bhatiore (Jhang/Chiniot), Gujranwala and Rawalpindi
Chauhan 114,529 Modern Haryana (especially Karnal and Panipat), Ambala, and central Punjab – the Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari Chauhan are a Ranghar tribe
Khokhar 108,239 Jhang, Jhelum, Hoshiarpur, Sialkot and Gurdaspur
Sial 104,658 Jhang, Multan and other parts of South Punjab
Joiya 61,438 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Panwar 55,068 Rohtak, Karnal, Jind and Hissar (the eastern group); Bahawalpur, Multan and Muzaffargarh (the western group) – the eastern group are a Ranghar tribe
Gondal 36,088 The Gondal Bar (Mandi Bahaudin, Gujrat and Sargodha), also in Rawalpindi
Naru 34,152 mainly in what is now India Punjab – Jallandhar and Ludhiana
Ghorewaha 33,295 mainly in what is now India Punjab – Hoshiarpur, Jallandhar and Ludhiana
Sulehria / Sulehri 28,577 Sialkot and Gurdaspur – a Muslim Dogra group
Wattu 25,544 Along the banks of the Sutlej from Multan to Firuzpur extending to Hissar and Sirsa
Janjua 23,619 A western group found in Rawalpindi and Jhelum, and eastern group in Hoshiarpur
Baria, also pronounced Varya 21,991 Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Patiala State
Mandahar 21,764 Mainly Karnal and Panipat – a Ranghar group
Manj 20,736 Amritsar, Firuzpur and Jalandhar
Jatu 18,861 Hissar, Sirsa and Rohtak – a Ranghar
Taoni 18,384 Ambala and Patiala State – a Ranghar tribe
Tomar/ Tonwar 18,365 Hissar, Karnal and Rohtak – a Ranghar tribe
Mair-Minhas 15,697 Chakwal
Minhas/Manhas 13,471 from Rawalpindi in the west to Hoshiarpur in the east – a Muslim Dogra group
Dhudhi 11,764 In Sahiwal, mainly in the new districts of Vehari and Okara
Ranjha 11,764 Gujrat, Jhelum and Mandi Bahaudin
Bhakral 11,577 Rawalpindi and Jhelum/Chakwal
Chib 10.697 Jhelum and Gujrat – Muslim Dogra sub-group
Khichi 9,769 Between Ravi and Sutlej – now Vehari, Pakpattan and Sahiwal
Alpial 9,395 Attock and Rawalpindi
Mekan 8,915 Sargodha and Jhelum
Tiwana 6,326 A western group in Khushab and eastern group in Patiala
Khoja 6,326 Multan and Bahawalpur State
Baghial 5,769 Rawalpindi
Noon 4,866 Sargodha, Multan and southern Punjab
Thathaal 4,134 Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Gujrat
Dhanial 4,037 Murree Tehsil of Rawalpindi
Raghubansi 4,032 Hissar and Sirsa – a Ranghar group
Dahya 3,637 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Kanyal 3,271 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Nagial 3,036 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Dhamial 2,967 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Jhammat 2,550 Sargodha, Multan and South Punjab
Gaurwa 2,521 Gurgaon, Delhi and Rohtak – a Ranghar tribe
Kethwal 2,355 Rawalpindi – Murre Tehsil (now Kotli Sattian)
Katil 2,170 Sialkot and Gurdaspur – A Muslim Dogra sub-group
Jodhra 1,802 Attock and Rawalpindi District
Bargujar 1,502 Gurgaon and Delhi – Ranghar tribe
Hon 1,496 Rawalpindi
Lar 1,494 Multan and South Punjab
Jatal 1,451 Rawalpindi
Pundir 1,427 Ambala and Karnal – a Ranghar tribe
Atiras 1,416 Patiala State
Ranial 1,345 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Sasral 1,292 Rawalpindi
Nissowana 996 Jhang and Sargodha
Jalap 949 Jhelum
Nagral 919 Rawalpindi
Adrah 909 Rawalpindi
Bhon 853 Sargodha
Kalial 773 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Chandel 752 Lahore, Jalandhar and Ludhiana
Narma 748 Rawalpindi and Gujrat
Satti 744 Rawalpindi – Murree
Khatril 722 Rawalpindi
Mial 699 Rawalpindi
Gakhar 690 Rawalpindi and Jhelum
Targar 653 Multan and South Punjab
Rathore 587 Firuzpur and Hissar
Nagralwal 580 Rawalpindi
Jamra 548 Dera Ghazi Khan
Satraola 546 Hissar – a Ranghar group
Chatha 500 Rawalpindi
Kowar 493 Rawalpindi
Luddu/td>

491 Hoshiarpur
Kanial Chauhan 470 Rawalpindi
Sainiwal 439 Rawalpindi
Rath 410 Sahiwal and Okara
Johar 407 Rawalpindi
Bakhial 404 Rawalpindi
Jodha 368 Rawalpindi
Joota 367 Jhang
Bosan 340 Multan
Chadhar 334 Jhang
Mangral 331 Rawalpindi
Fattiana 318 Sahiwal
Pathial 311 Hoshiarpur
Maral 307 Jhang
Tanwari 273 Multan
Badhan 272 Rawalpindi
Salhal 262 Rawalpindi
Khel 234 Rawalpindi
Sudhan 227 Rawalpindi
Kangra 222 Rawalpindi
Dharwal 202 Mianwali
Hafial 197 Rawalpindi
Gaharwal 194 Rawalpindi
Kahut 178 Jhelum / Chakwal
Gangal 178 Rawalpindi
Saswal 174 Rawalpindi
Marial 167 Rawalpindi
Kathia 166 Sahiwal
Taranda 162 Multan
Tonda 156 Rawalpindi
Bhao Ragial 153 Rawalpindi
Bains 152 Rawalpindi
Budhal 152 Rawalpindi
Dalal 133 Rawalpindi
Satral 146 Rawalpindi
Jasgam 129 Rawalpindi
Matra 121 Multan
Kassar 113 Jhelum / Chakwal
Katoch 112 Kangra
Khakha 106 Rawalpindi
Jaswal 89 Hoshiarpur
Bagri 82 Firuzpur
Pathania 69 Gurdaspur
Ladhar 47 Rawalpindi
Jaral 47 Kangra
Kilchi 46 Rawalpindi
Thakkar 36 Gurdaspur
Guleria 11 Gurdaspur

 

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Bangial, Bhakral, and Hon tribes

This is my second posting on the lesser known tribes of the Potohar region of Pakistan. I shall look at the Bangial, Bhakral, and Hon. All of these tribes claim ancestry from the Panwar tribe, however with regards to the Bhakral, or sometimes pronounced Pakhral there various other theories as to their origin. Let me start off with a brief note of the Panwar, or sometimes pronounced as Parmar or Puar . The Panwar were dynasty that in early medieval India ruled over the Malwa region in central India. Like the Chauhans, the Panwar are from the fire born or Agnivansh branch of the Rajputs. Quite a number of tribes in Pothohar and neighbouring Chibhal region claim descent from the Panwars, all having some tradition of migration from central India, followed by conversion to Islam at the hands of a particular Sufi saint. Many of these tribes also have traditions of initially settling in the region known as Chibhal. The key figure that appears in the origin story of Chibhali Panwar is Raja Jagdev Panwar, who has an almost semi-mythical. According to tribal myths of, he became the ruler of Malwa after death of his Udayaditya, but he handed over the throne to his brother owing to family-dispute and settled at Jarg, somewhere in present day Okara District. He is said to have slain a demon who used to eat a human-being daily in a fort near Dipalpur, also in Okara. The local king Raja Kankhar bestowed upon him half his kingdom and gave his daughter in marriage. He is said to have struck off his own head on the demand of a witch-wife of the court-bard of Raja Jai Chand of Lambargaon but this was miraculously restored. Jagdev then migrated to the Chibhal territory, where he founded Akhnoor State, ruled by Panwar Dynasty of his descendants for over six centuries. Many of the local Dogra clans claim descent from the Raja such as the Ambarai.

Akhnoor lies in the heart of Chibhal located on the banks of the Chenab River. The territory of Chibhal lies between Tawi River and Jhelum rivers, with the Pir Panjal Mountains forming its northern boundary and gets its name from the Chib tribe (to whom I intend to return in latter blogs). Presently, Chibhal is divided by the line of control, with Mirpur and Bhimber districts within Pakistani Kashmir, and districts of Rajauri, Reasi, and parts of Jammu (including Akhnur) west of the Tawi in Indian Kashmir. The three tribes in this blog all have traditions of leaving the region and settling in plains territory of northern Punjab in Gujarkhan, Jhelum, Chakwal and Kharian. However, the Bhakral (sometimes pronounced as Pakhral) still have a presence in the Chibhal, with villages in Mirpur, Kotli and Rajouri, in the foothills of the Pir Panjaal.

Bangial

 

So who are the Bangial, sometimes written as Bangyal, and we have go back to my first post on the Pothohar tribes. The word al means son of in number of dialects that fall within Lahnda. According to the Bangials themselves, they are descended from a Rajah Bangash Khan, a Panwar Rajput, who arrived in the Pothohar region from central India, hence the name Bangash al, shortened to Bangyal. This Bangash Khan is also seen as ancestor by the closely related Baghial tribe. Like many of their neighbours such as the Kalyal, some groups of Bangial consider themselves as Jats, while other see themselves as Rajputs. In Gujranwala, Gujrat and Jhelum districts of Punjab, and Mirpur District of Azad Kashmir, the Bangial strongly identify themselves as Jat, and intermarry with tribes of Jat status, such as the Warriach and Tarar. But as we move towards Dina and neighbouring Gujar Khan tehsils, almost all the Bangial claim Rajput ancestry, so briefly we can summarize, that the Jhelum River divides these two groups. Looking at major Bangial villages in Rawalpindi District by tehsil:

Gujarkhan Tehsil

1) Changa Bangial (now actually a fair sized town)

2) Chehari Bangial

3) Dhok Bangial

4) Dhok Chaudrian

5) Khalabat 

6) Pharwal Bangial

7) Sandal Bangial

8) Sangni

9) Wasla Bangial

 

Rawalpindi Tehsil:

1) Bajnial

2) Bura Bangial

3) Darihala Bangial

4) Kala Bangial

5) Marri Bangial

6) Pind Dara

Kahuta Tehsil

1) Maira Khurd

2) Suhot Bangial

Kallar Syedan Tehsil

1) Choa Khalsa

2) Dhok Bangial

3) Nala Musalmanan,

4) Pehr Hali,

5) Sahib Dhamial

6) Sahote Bangyal

Outside Rawalpindi

In the neighbouring Islamabad Capital territory, they have two villages, namely Jhanga Bangial and Bora Bangial. Outside this core area, Bangial are found in Mirpur District in Azad Kashmir, several villages near the town of Sohawa in Jhelum District, the village of Nambal near Kallar Kahar, Gora Bangial in Attock District, and Bangial in Gujrat District. A small cluster of Bangial villages, such Bangialabad are found near the town of Darya Khan in Bhakkar District.

Bhakral

The next tribe I am going to look at are the Bhakral, sometimes pronounced as Pakhral and even Pakhreel. Geographically, they are found in Gujarkhan, Chakwal, Jhelum and Gujrat districts of Punjab, and Jammu and Kashmir, they were found in historic Mirpur District of the state, particularly near the town of Naushera, which is the only area of historic Mirpur that is in Indian administered Kashmir. Like many other Chibhali and Pothohari tribes, they can be both of Rajput and Jat status. According to the 1931 Census of India, the last that counted caste, there total population 6,600, which made the largest of the tribes classified as Jat or Rajput. Like the other tribes already referred too, many Bhakral claim to be Panwar Rajputs. However, there are also a number of other traditions as to their origin.

I will explore each of the origin myths of the tribe. They all involve an ancestor by the name of Bhakari, and the Bhakrals are the aal or family of Bhakari. Dispute is to the origin of this Bhakari. Among the Gujarkhan and Chakwal Bhakrals, almost all of whom consider themselves as Rajputs, Bhakari there ancestor was a descendent of Jagdev Panwar of Akhnoor. He is said to have converted to Islam, and left Akhnoor for Nowshera, now located in Rajouri Distrit. Here they founded two villages, Bunnah and Compla Mohra. Groups of Bhakral, accompanied by the Budhal left the Chibhal region and crossed the Jhelum river and settled in what is now Chakwal District. There original settlement was Sabah Mohra, from where they spread to Gujarkhan, Jhelum and Gujrat. Sabah Mohra family were traditionally considered chiefs of the tribe, but with the arrival of the Sikhs in the late 18th Century, the family lost its influence. The Bakhral are clearly of Chibhali origin, having left that hilly region between the Tawi and Jhelum, sometime in the 15th Century, accompanied by the Budhal (looked at in latter post).

However, some groups of Bhakral have a tradition that they are a sub clan of the Minhas, which also suggests Jammu / Chibhali background. Like Jagdev Panwar, Jambu Lochan ancestor of the Jamwal/Minhas also appears in the origin story of many of the tribes. . This tradition refers to a Bhakral migration from Jammu, after the treaty of Amritsar in 1846, which handed over the Chibhal territory to the Dogra ruler Gulab Singh Jamwal. It is said that they were in fact four brothers who moved from the Chibhal to the Pothohar and Hazara territory, and from whom descends the entire tribe. However, there is no recorded evidence of recent migration from Chibhal region to Pothohar, thereby it is more likely that any migration took place sometime ago. In Gujrat, the Bhakral who are of Jat status have a completely different origin myth. According to the Gujrat story, there ancestor was a Ghalla, who had three sons, Bhakari, their ancestor, Natha (ancestor of the Nathial) and Kunjah (ancestor of the Kunjial). Ghalla belonged to the Janjua tribe. In light of these multiple origin myth, the best that can be said is that Bhakral began as a group in foothills of the Pir Panjaal. Groups migrated at different periods, settling in various regions of north western Punjab.

Bhakral in Punjab

In terms of distribution, the Bhakral are found mainly in Jhelum, Chakwal, Gujar Khan and Mirpur regions. In Rawalpindi District, Bhakral villages are found in every tehsil, barring the mountainous tehsils of Murree and Kotli Sattian. In Rawalpindi Tehsil include Aujariala, Chak Bhakral, Dhala, Karkan Sohawa, Kartal Bhakral, Ghari Kalan, Larri Malana, Loona, Mohri Rajgan, Sihala, Thatha, Sohawa, Sagri Khurd, Kirpa and Meda Halim, in Kahuta Tehsil, their villages include Chak Begwal, Jocha Mamdot, and Nathot and in Kallar Syedan Tehsil they are found in Bhakral and Tirkhi. Coming to Gujar Khan, important Bhakral villages include Bhatta (in the hamlet of Dhok Bhakral), Dera Muslim, Dhoke Rajgan, Dhoong, Hoshang, Jairo Ratial, Kahali Bhakral, Kamtrilla, Mohra Bhakral near Darkali Mamori, Mandhar, Mastala, Partali Kalan and Partali Khurd While in Chakwal, the village of Sabah Mohra is said to be the first settlement of the Bhakrals in Pothohar, and remains an important centre of the tribe. Other villages include Chomar, Chontrian, Dhok Mehdi, Dheri Rajgan, Dhoda, Ghazial, Khokhar Rajgan, Jandala Pakhral, Mauza Pagh, Nachindi, Ratta Mohra, Panjdhera and Potha. Many of the Bhakral in Chakwal classify themselves as Jats. In addition, their are also number of Bhakral settlements including and around the village of Bhakral, such as Darkali Sher in Kallar Kahar Tehsil. In Jhelum District, they are found Langar Pakhral, Munde Bhakral and Pail Bannay Khan. In the Islamabad Capital Territory, they are found in the villages of Kartal Bhakral, Sihala, Panwal Bhakar, Dhoke Baba Hust, Kirpa Tamare and Banigala. In Gujrat District, the Bhakral are found in the village of Amra Kalan (tehsil Kharian).

Outside Punjab

Outside Punjab, there are smattering of Bhakral found in Hazara and Azad Kashmir. As the area around Naushera, once part of Mirpur District was the site of the worst fighting in the Indo-Pakistan war of 1948, most of the Musllm population moved to Azad Kashmir. The villages of Bunnah and Compla Mohra were abandoned. In Mirpur District, the Bhakral are still found in the villages of Chandral, Mohar and Sorakhi. In neighbouring Kotli District, they are in the village of Suiyan Sharif near the town of Sehnsa in Kotli

In Hazara, the villages of Chumb Rajput, Chattar and Channam found in District of Abbottabad.

Hon

I shall finally look at the Hon or Hun or sometimes also pronounced as Hoon. Like the first three tribes looked at, the Hon claim to be Panwar Rajputs, claiming descent from a Raja Judgeo. There migration is said to have occurred in the latter Middle Ages, and they intermarry with other tribes that claim Panwar ancestry. However, the name Hoon sounds unmistakable like the way Hun is pronounced in Indian languages, and it possible the Hon may be descended from the Huns, who invaded and settled in the Pothohar region in the 5th Century.

The Hon are closely connected through marriage with other Panwar tribes of the Rawalpindi District, such as the Baghial and Bhakral. They are found in Rawalpindi, Attock and Jhelum districts of the Punjab. In addition, a few are also found in the old Hazara Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Important Hoon villages are Hoon Dhamial, in Rawat Union Council, Islamabad Capital Territory, Katheel Hoon and Shahpur in Kahuta Tehsil, of Rawalpindi District, and Hoon Bhattian in Kotli Sattian Tehsil of Rawalpindi District. In Jhelum District, Hon Kalyal and Hon are important villages. The village of Hon in Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock District is also an important centre of the tribe, in that district.