1911 Census of the of the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan

This was the breakdown by caste, religion and community of the population of the North West Frontier Province, now known as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, by the 1911 Census of India. At that time Pashtuns accounted for 70% (845,189) population, with the Hindko speaking Awan forming the second largest community (276,511 or about 23%).

Among the Pashtun dominated areas lived a number of minorities referred to as hamsiya such as the Dhobi, Mirasi, Qassab, Kumhar, Julaha, Teli, Nai, Shah Khel e.t.c, speaking both Pashtu and Hindko languages. The hamsiya lived and still live in villages inhabited by Pashtuns, but were not allowed to own property. Each hamsiya group was affiliated to a particular tribe, in which territory they lived. The hamsaya were paid in kind for the services they rendered.

 

Other groups that lived and still live among the Pashtuns include the Awan, who are also found in the Peshawar Valley, Kohat and Bannu, the Maliar or Baghban, concentrated mainly in the Peshawer valley, the Paracha also found in Peshawer and Kohat, and the Gujjar. The Paracha had much in common with the Hindu Khatri, a group I will discuss latter in this post, in that they were largely traders, with extensive presence in Afghanistan. The Gujjar of the Frontier were essentially nomadic, although there were several settled Gujar communities in Mardan and near Peshawar city.

 

In Hazara, tribes of Pashtoon origin such as the Dilizak, Tareen and Mashwani formed about a quarter of the population. The rest of the population belonged to Hindko speaking tribes such as the Awan, Gakhar, Sarara, Karral, Turk and Dhund, as well as Gojri speaking Gujjars. The Gujjar were and still are also found in Malakand and the Peshawer valley, where they were largly nomadic. Some Hindko speaking communities such as the Mishwani of Hazara and Swati were bilingual, also speaking Pashto and both have also been separately noted in this census. In the south of the province in the districts of Dera Ismail Khan and Bannu there are Seraiki speaking tribes such as the Jat, Khokhar, Arain and Mallaah, as well as the Baloch of the province who also speak Seraiki. The Muslim Rajputs were local and found mainly in the Abbotabad and Haripur areas of Hazara, while the Hindu and Sikh Rajputs were mainly soldiers stationed in the province. Similarly, the Hindu and Sikh Jats were also entirely soldiers stationed for a short time in the province. While Muslim Jats were found mainly in Bannu and Dera Ismail District, with thos of Bannu being slowly assimilated into Pashtoon society.

 

 

The census is also of interests as is show the divisions within the Hindu and Sikh groups in the North West Frontier, who in 1911 amounted to about 11% of the population. The indigenous Hindu and Sikh population consisted of the Aroras, Bhatias, Brahmins, Khatris and Sunar as well as the Chuhras, who were considered untouchable. The city of Peshawer was home to a Khatri community involved in long distance trade with Central Asia, which had first settled in the city during the period of the Mughals. These trading networks extended as far north as Siberia, and as far west as Baghdad. Other Hindu castes included the Dhobis, Jhinwars, Mochis and Nais, who were found mainly in Peshawer and the southern Hazara towns like Haripur and Abbotabad, and spoke Hindko at least as a second language. They were descended from settlers that have arrived from North India at the time of the conquest of the province by the British in 1848, with a substantial presence in the cantonment area of Peshawar. Among those groups long settled were the Brahmins, who were divided between the Muhials of Hazara, who were mainly landowners and other Brahmins were either priests or traders. They were also linguistically divided between those of Hazara and Peshawar, who spoke Hindko, and those of Dera Ismail Khan who were Seraiki speaking, although both terms are modern, and in 1911 most Hindus would have referred to their language as Punjabi. The Aroras were concentrated in the southern district of Bannu, Kohat and Dera Ismail Khan, and spoke Seriki, while the Khatris were Hindko speaking found mainly in Peshawer and Hazara. While the Sunar and Bhatia were also largely Seraiki speaking, and the Chuhra of the south spoke Seraiki and those in Peshawer and Hazara spoke Hindko.

 

Religion

Caste or Tribe

Sub-Caste

Population

Muslims    

1,054,171

  Arain  

3,343

  Awan  

276,511

  Baghban  

20,471

  Baluch  

26,513

  Bhatiara  

4,130

  Chamar  

4,333

  Chuhra  

879

  Darzi  

2,265

  Dhobi  

13,902

 

Dhund

 

30,464

  Faqir  

1,466

  Gakhar  

6,806

  Gujjar  

113,498

  Jat  

78,070

  Jhinwar  

1,350

  Julaha  

37,384

  Karral  

22,106

  Kashmiri  

28,631

  Khoja  

2,974

  Khokhar  

1,179

  Kumhar  

22,576

  Lohar  

28,560

 

Macchi

 

4,031

  Maliar  

19,950

  Mallah  

4,802

  Mirasi  

11,790

  Mishwani  

4,888

  Mochi  

22,983

  Mughal  

14,865

  Mussalli (including Kutana)  

13,254

  Nai  

24,566

  Paracha  

12,330

  Pathan  

845,189

    Afridi

25,161

    Bangash

25,877

   

Bannuchi

34,605

    Bhittani

10,480

   

Daudzai

10,736

    Dilazak

3,665

    Durrani

10,736

    Gadun

27,546

    Ghilzai

30,611

    Gigiani

12,757

    Khalil

17,046

    Khattak

148,552

    Khugiani

1,351

    Mangal

159

    Marwat

68,018

    Mohammadzai

30,230

    Mohmand

69,506

    Mullagori

608

    Niazi

6,406

    Orakzai

12,629

    Shinwari

1,489

    Shirani

812

    Tareen

2,849

    Tarklanri

1,311

    Turi

705

    Ustarana

2,218

    Utmankhel

7,264

    Wazir

31,326

    Yousafzai

130,026

    Zadran

965

   

Zaimusht

1,024

   

Other Pathans

103,509

  Qassab  

8,721

  Qureshi  

20,939

  Rajput  

10,042

  Rangrez  

3,929

  Sarara  

8,507

  Sayyid  

75,115

 

Shaikh

 

17,892

 

Sunar

 

8,447

  Swati  

38.329

  Tanoli  

63,985

  Tarkhan  

42,367

  Teli  

6,932

  Turk  

4,499

 

Minor and Unspecified

 

32,942

Hindus    

121,284

  Arora  

55,713

  Bhatia  

3,786

 

Bhatiara

 

61

  Brahman  

9,740

  Chamar  

348

  Chuhra  

4,884

 

Darzi

 

6

  Dhobi  

970

 

Faqir

 

58

  Gujjar  

345

  Gurkha  

6,343

  Jhinwar  

797

 

Julaha

 

6

  Khatri  

30,033

  Kumhar  

83

  Lohar  

29

  Mallah  

3

  Mochi  

226

  Nai  

178

  Rajput  

4,051

  Sunar  

991

  Tarkhan  

37

 

Minor and Unspecified

 

2,596

Sikh    

28,251

  Arora  

13,502

  Bhatia  

300

  Chamar  

140

  Chuhra  

300

 

Darzi

 

7

 

Faqir

 

84

  Gujjar  

28

  Jat  

6,683

  Jhinwar  

180

  Khatri  

5,687

  Kumhar  

5

  Nai  

33

  Rajput  

270

  Rangrez  

4

  Sunar  

276

  Tarkhan  

214

 

Minor and Unspecified

 

538

Parsi    

49

Christian    

857

Jewish    

14

Jain    

4

Total Population

   

1,204,630

 

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